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Second Edit 

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CENTRAL IT. 

a Panorama 

SOUTHERN I'x" 




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CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages. Eng- 
lish, French, German, Italian. A m ar ks- 
THE TRAVELLER'S MANUAL OF CONVERSATION, in 

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CENTRAL ITALY 



AND 



ROME. 



MONEY-TABLE. 
(Comp. p. ix.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 



Italian. 


American. English 




German. 


Austrian. 


Lire. 


Cent. 


Doll. 


Cts. 


L. 


8. 


D. 


Mk. 


Pfg- 


Fl. 


Kr. 




5 




1 






l k 




k 





2 





25 





5 








2i |: 


— 


20 


— 


10 





50 





10 





— 


5 


— 


40 


— 


20 





75 





15 








7i(4 





60 


— 


30 


i 








20 








9 3 4 





80 


— 


40 


2 








40 





1 


7'4 


1 


60 


— 


80 


3 








60 





2 


5 


2 


40 


1 


20 


4 


_ 


— 


80 


— 


3 


2>| 2 


3 


20 


1 


60 


5 


— 


1 


— 


— 


4 




4 


— 


2 


— 


6 





1 


20 





4 


93|4 


4 


80 


2 


40 


7 





1 


40 





5 


7i 2 


5 


60 


2 


80 


8 


— 


1 


60 





6 


5 


6 


40 


3 


20 


9 





1 


80 





7 


2'|-, 


7 


20 


3 


60 


10 


„ 


2 








8 




8 


— 


4 


— 


11 


_ 


2 


20 


— 


8 


9»|, 


8 


80 


4 


40 


12 





2 


40 





9 


7'|, 


9 


60 


4 


80 


13 





2 


60 





10 


5 


10 


40 


5 


20 


14 


— 


2 


80 


— 


11 


2'| 2 


11 


20 


5 


60 


15 





3 








12 


— 


12 


— 


6 


— 


16 





3 


20 





12 


93| 4 


12 


80 


6 


40 


17 





3 


40 


— 


13 


■n* 


13 


60 


6 


80 


18 





3 


60 





14 


5 


14 


40 


7 


20 


19 





3 


80 





15 


21 1 2 


15 


20 


7 


60 


20 





4 





— 


16 


— 


16 


— 


8 


— 


25 


— 


5 





1 


— 


— 


20 


— 


10 


— 


100 


— 


20 


— 


4 


— 


— 


80 




40 





The Franc or Lira contains 100 Centimes (Centesimi). The 5-centime 
piece is called a Soldo. Accounts are sometimes kept in soldi, and the 
traveller should therefore accustom himself to this mode of reckoning : 
dieci soldi = 50 c, dodici soldi = 60 c, etc. 

Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French metre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 /»ths, of an English 
mile (8 kil. = 5 31.). The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 
44 yds.; the Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 



■±3" 



■42°h] 




ID 5 O 



Engli slv mile s ' 69,us ■ 1° > 

Abbreviazioni : A.-Mpe,Alpi, C.-Capo, Cf-Casale, Cas.-Casiiw. dCasieJlo, G-.-6olfo,I~I<tola , 
Z.-Layo, 2L -Monte, IP. -Moi iti ,M&!" -Mmttai/na. JF-' l -2£miera, Pf-Pania , PSfo-Paggio, 
PV-Passo, P* -Ponte, P* 1 Punta, P z .°-Pizzo, R.-Savino, SrSan.Scada, Staz.-Stazione, 
XT' -Torre. _ „ Tramvia 



Longit 1 ^ Orieiriale 12°ia Greenwich 



Geograph..Aost.voiLWafener iBebes,Ieipzig>. 



ITALY. 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



BY 



K. BAEDEKER. 



SECOND PART: 

CENTRAL ITALY AND ROME. 



With 10 Maps, 35 Plans, a Panorama of Rome, and a View of the 
Forum Romanum. 



Eleventh Revised Edition. 



LEIPS1C : KARL BAEDEKER, PUBLISHER. 

LONDON: DULAU AND CO., 37 SOHO SQUARE, W. 

1893. 

All rights reserved. 



'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this he thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
"Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



PEE FACE 



1. he objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with some information regarding the progress of 
civilisation and art among the people he is about to visit, 
to render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating coun- 
tries in the world. The practical information in the Introduc- 
tion will also, it is hoped, be the means of saving the trav- 
eller many a trial of temper, as well as both time and money. 

The eleventh edition of Central Italy and Rome, like its pre- 
decessors, has been carefully revised and brought down to 
date. The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may favour him, if the 
result of their own observation. The information already re- 
ceived from numerous correspondents, which he gratefully 
acknowledges, has in many cases proved most serviceable. 
Hotel-bills, with annotations showing the traveller's opinion as 
to his treatment and accommodation, are particularly useful. 

The Maps and Plans , on which special' care has been 
bestowed , will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The large Plan of Rome (scale 1:11,400), in the 
Appendix, is divided into three sections with a view to ob- 
viate the necessity of unfolding a large sheet of paper at 
eveiy consultation , and its use will be further facilitated 
by reference to the small clue-plan (scale 1 : 33.0001. 



vi PRKFACK. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii)- 

Hotels (comp. p. xvi). Careful attention has been given 
to the selection of the hotels. The asterisks indicate those 
which the Editor has reason to believe from his own ex- 
perience, as well as from information specially obtained from 
reliable sources or supplied by numerous travellers, offer 
satisfactory accommodation and entertainment at reasonable 
charges. At the same time the Editor does not doubt that 
comfortable quarters are to be obtained at houses both of 
the first and second class that he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The asterisks are thus not intended to be 
exclusive in their significance ; they are to be taken as simple 
indications that the hotels so marked are, on the whole, good 
of their kind. The constant changes in the ownership and 
management of hotels, the varying tastes and requirements 
of travellers, even the different seasons at which tours are 
made, render an unconditional verdict quite impossible. Al- 
though changes frequently take place, and prices generally 
have an upward tendency, the average charges stated in the 
Handbook will enable the traveller to form a fair estimate of 
his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. 



Abbreviations. 

R. = Room,B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, dej. = dejeuner, luncheon, 

pens. = pension, board and lodging, A. = Attendance, L. = Light. r. 

= right, 1. = left; applied to the banks of a river with reference to the 
traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., E.,W., the points of the com- 
pass and adjectives derived from them. — M. = English miles ; ft. = Eng- 
lish feet. 

Asterisks are employed as marks of commendation. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction. p age 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money ix 

II. Language ... x 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... x 

IV. Season and Plan of Tour xi 

V. Intercourse with Italians. Gratuities. Valets de Place xi 

VI. Public Safety. Begging xii 

VII. Conveyances xiii 

VIII. Hotels. Private Apartments xvi 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, Osterie xvii 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc xx 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxi 

XII. Climate. Health. . . xxii 

XIII. Bibliography of Rome xxiv 

XIV. Historyof Rome. Listof RomanEmperorsandPopes xxv 
XV. Ancient Art xli 

XVI. Mediaeval and Modern Roman Art lv 

I. S. Tuscany. TJmbria. The Marches. 

Route 

1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome by the Maremme ... 2 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Colle 8 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 12 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi via. Empoli ... 14 

5. Siena 21 

6. From Florence to Perugia via Arezzo and Terontola (Rome) 38 

7. Perugia 48 

8. From Arezzo to Fossato 57 

9. From Florence to Rome via Terontola and Chiusi . . 61 

10. From Attigliano to Viterbo 71 

11. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome) 77 

12. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 90 
From Pesaro to Urbino 99 

13. Ancona and its Environs 105 

14. From Ancona to Foligno ( Rome) Ill 

II. Rome. 

Preliminary Information 115 

Topography 130 

I. Hills to the North and East 132 

II. Rome on the Tiber (Left Bank) 160 

III. The Southern Quarters (Ancient Rome) .... 197 

IV. Quarters of the City on the Right Bank .... 264 



viii CONTENTS. 

III. Environs of Rome. 

Route Page 

1. Immediate Environs of the City. The Catacombs . . • 325 

2. The Alban Mountains 361 

3. The Sabine Mountains 370 

4. The Volscian Mountains 384 

5. Etruscan Towns 389 

6. The Sea-Coast of Latiurn 393 

List of the Artists mentioned in the Handbook .... 400 

Index 406 

Omnibus and Tramway Routes and Cab Tariff in Rome, and List of Streets 
in the Plan of Rome, in the Appendix at the end of the volume. 

Maps. 

1. Map of Central Italy (1:1,350,000), facing title-page. 

2. The Roman Campagna (1:400,000), p. 325. 

3. Environs of Rome (1:60,000), p- 327. 

4. The Alban Mountains (1 : 100,000), p. 362. 

5. Environs of Tivoli (1:12.500), p. 375. 

6. The Sabine Moontains (1 : 100,000) : Plate I. : Tivoli and Valley 
of the Teverone, p. 376. 

7. The Sabine Mountains: Plate II.: Roviano, Subiaco, Capranica, 
p. 378. 

8. The Sabine Mountains: Plate III.: Tivoli, Paleslrina, Olevano, 
p. 380. 

9. The Volscian Mountains (1 : 150,000), p. 384. 

10. Railway Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000), at the end of the Handbook. 

Flans. 

1. Ancona, p. 105. — 2. Anzio-Nettuno, p. 393. — 3. Arezzo, p. 39. — 

— 4. Assisi, p. 78. — 5. Cortona, p. 39. — 6. Forli, p. 94. — 7. Orvieto, 
p. 64. — 8. Ostia, p. 395. — 9. Ierugia, p. 48. — 10. Rimini, p. 95. — 11. 
Siena, p. 20. — 12.Terni and its Environs, p. 79. — 13. Volterra, p. 9. 

— 14. Istituto delle Belle Arti, at Siena, 34. — 15. Large Plan of Rome, 
and — 16. Clue Plan of Rome, both at the end of the book. — 17. Museo 
KiROHEitiANO, p. 168. — 18. Galleria Doria, p. 171. — 19. Ancient Rome, 
p. 197. — 20. Palace of the Conservatori, p. 206. — 21. Capitoline Mu- 
seum, p. 207. — 22. Forum Romanum, p. 214. — 23. Fora of the Emperors, 
p. 228. — 24. Palaces of the Emperors on the Palatine, p. 233. — 25. Ther- 
ms of Caracalla, p. 246. — 26. Section, and — 27. Ground-plan of S. Cle- 
ments , p. 255- — 28. S. Giovanni in Laterano, and Lateran Museum, 
p. 256. — 29. S. Pietro in Vaticano and the Vatican Palace (survey- 
plan), p. 266. — 30. Ground-plan of S. Pietro in Vaticano in its present 
state, p. 268. — 31. S. Pietro in Vaticano (Bramante's ground-plan), p. 269. 

— 32. Vatican Palace, S. Wing (Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Loggie and 
Stanze), p. 294. — 33. Vatican Palace, N. Wing (Museum of Antiquities), 
p. 295. — 34. Casino Borghese, p. 328. — 35. Hadrian's Villa, p. 374. 

Arms of the Popes, from 1417 to the present day, p. xl. 

View of the Forum Romanum in its former and present condition, p. 214. 

Panorama of Home (from S. Pietro in Montorio), p. 320. 



INTRODUCTION. 



'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
•E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 

BraoN. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits , but , as already stated in the first 
part of this Handbook , it need not exceed that incurred in the 
more frequented parts of the continent. The average expenditure of 
a single traveller may be estimated at 20-25 francs per day, or at 10- 
15 francs when a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons 
acquainted with the language and habits of the country may easily 
restrict their expenses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as 
members of a party also effect a considerable saving. When ladies 
are of the party the expenses are generally greater. 

Honey. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25c. = Is. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). The gold and sil- 
ver coins of France, Switzerland, Greece, and Belgium circulate 
freely. In consequence of the present financial condition of the 
country gold has almost disappeared from ordinary circulation. Gold 
pieces of 10 or 20 francs should be converted into paper at a money- 
changer's; for the premium on gold (2-3°/o) is not allowed for at ho- 
tels or shops. The recognized paper currency consists of the Biglietti 
di Stato and the banknotes of the Banca Nazionale ; notes of the 
Banca di Toscana are legal tender in Tuscany. The notes of other 
large Italian banks are generally accepted at Rome. — The traveller 
should be on his guard against old coins from the papal mint, Swiss 
silver coins with the seated figure of Helvetia, Roumanian, and 
South American coins, which are much depreciated, and Greek cop- 
per coins. Even Italian coins issued before 1863 ('Re Eletto') are 
liable to refusal, as are also much-worn coins of any kind. Base 
coins representing l /^, 1, or 2 francs are very common. 

Best Money fob. the Toue. Circular Notes or Letters of Cre- 
dit, obtainable at the principal English and American banks, form 
the proper medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the 
most favourable exchange. English and German banknotes also 



x LANGUAGE. 

realise their nominal value. A moderate supply of FrenchOold may 
prove useful. Sovereigns are almost everywhere received as the equi- 
valent of 25 fr., and sometimes a little more. Besides silver and 
small notes, l-l 1 ^ 1 " 1 - in copper should also be carried in a separate 
pocket or pouch (comp. p. xif). 

II. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be «mply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; hut such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese 1 by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, and it may suffice for Rome ; but for those who desire 
the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest possible ex- 
penditure, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country is 
indispensable. + — Those who spend any time in Rome are recom- 
mended to take Italian lessons ; teachers may be heard of at the book- 
sellers'. 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy except for receiving re- 
mittances of money and registered letters at a poste restante (p. xxi), 
are always convenient. The countenance and help of the British 
and American consuls can, of course, be extended to those persons 
only who can prove their nationality. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through E. Stan- 
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, or 
Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass 
free) are the articles chiefly sought for. The customs-receipts should 
be preserved, as they are sometimes asked for even in the interior. 

Luggage. As a rule it is advisable , and often in the end less 
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. If the traveller is obliged to 

t 'Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, with Vocabulary, etc.' (Stereotype Edit., Baedeker, Leipsic), which is 
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of Baedeker's 
Conversation Dictionary (in the same four languages ; Leipsic, 1889 ; price 
3 marks), will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a , ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dres-ing persons of the educated classes 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 3rd 
pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc. 



SEASON AND PLAN OF TOUR. xi 

forward it, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. Comp. p. xiv. 

IV. Season and Flan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected for the tour must of course depend 
on the traveller himself, but the best time for Central Italy is spring, 
from the end of March to the end of May, or autumn, from the end 
of September to the middle of November. In summer the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome as well as parts of the city itself are exposed to 
malaria, but even apart from that fact, the suitability of this season 
for the tour depends to a great extent on the constitution of the 
traveller. The scenery indeed is then in perfection, and the long 
days are hailed with satisfaction by the active traveller; but the 
fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to sap the physical and 
mental energies. The heat generally moderates about the end of 
August, when the first showers of autumn begin to refresh the 
parched atmosphere. But in Central Italy nearly the whole of Sep- 
tember is apt to be sultry, and the frequent thunder-storms render 
that month less favourable for travelling than is usually assumed. 
The winter-months, from the end of November to the end of Fe- 
bruary, when heavy rains fall in Central and Southern Italy, are quite 
unsuited for travelling. They had better be devoted to Rome. 

Flan. In Central Italy the principal attraction is Rome itself, and 
of the other towns described in the present volume the next in im- 
portance are Siena and Perugia, both of which afford good summer- 
quarters owing to their elevated situations. Two other places of great 
interest are Orvieto and Assisi, a short visit to which should not be 
omitted. Arezzo, Cortona, Spoleto, Terni, with its imposing water- 
falls, and Chiusi and Corneto, with their Etruscan antiquities, are 
also interesting points, situated near the railway. Volterra, 8. Oi- 
mignano , Montepulciano , and Viterbo, though less conveniently 
situated, are also well worthy of a visit. With regard to the towns 
lying on the coast of the Adriatic, comp. pp. 90 et seq. Besides these 
points of attraction there are many others in the less-frequented 
districts of the interior, which the traveller who desires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with Italy should not fail to explore ; and 
the farther he diverges from the beaten track , the more he will 
learn of the characteristics of this delightful country. 

V. Intercourse with Italians. Gratuities. Valets de Place. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted has long been prevalent; but 
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno- 
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the 
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases the traveller should make a distinct bargain. 



xii GRATUITIES. 

The fewest words are the best; and travellers -will find that calm 
preparations to go elsewhere will reduce obstinate hagglers to reason 
much more quickly than a war of words. In Rome and the larger 
towns of Tuscany the traveller will now meet comparatively few causes 
for complaint, and even in smaller places he will find a little tact 
and good-temper all that is necessary to avoid disputes. Prudence 
is useful at all times in Italy ; but an exaggerated mistrust is some- 
times resented as an insult, and sometimes taken to indicate weak- 
ness and timidity. 

Gratuities. In public collections, where a charge for admission 
is made, the keepers (custodi) are forbidden to accept gratuities. But 
as a general rule, there is no other country where one has to give so 
many gratuities as in Italy, or where such small sums are sufficient. 
The traveller, therefore, should always be provided with an abund- 
ant supply of copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attend- 
ants, etc., invariably expect, and often demand as their right a gratu- 
ity (buona mano, mancia, da bere, caffe, siguro), in addition to the 
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 10-15 c. to 
a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona- 
tions to the smallest possible sums. The gratuities suggested in 
this Handbook are on a sufficiently liberal scale ; some, however, will 
of course give more, while the traveller of modest claims will find 
perhaps two-thirds or even less enough. The following scale will be 
found useful by the average tourist. In private collections a single 
visitor should bestow a gratuity of ife fr., 2-3pers. %, 4pers. 1 Jr. 
For repeated visits half these sums. For opening a church-door, etc. 
10-20 c. is enough, but if extra services are rendered (e.g. uncovering 
an altar-piece, lighting candles, etc.), from !/3to 1 fr. may be given. 

In hotels and restaurants about 5-10% of the reckoning should 
be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. In restau- 
rants where 'service' and 'couvert' appear on the bill, no fee at all 
should be given. 

Valets de Place (Guide, sing, la Ouida) may be hired at 5-7 fr. 
per day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief hotels. 
In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 'Guide 
patentate'. Their services may generally well be dispensed with by 
those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should never be made, 
nor contracts with veiturini or other persons drawn up, in presence 
or with the aid of a commissionaire, as any such intervention tends 
considerably to increase the prices. 

\'I. Public Safety. Segging. 
Notwithstanding recent newspaper reports of robberies, travell- 
ing in Northern and Central Italy is scarcely attended with greater 
hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The traveller 
should, of course, avoid the less frequented parts of Rome and its 



CONVEYANCES. xiii 

environs after night-fall. Information as to the safety of the Cara- 
pagna is, also not to he despised, as a few cases of rohhery have 
lately occurred there. Brigandage proper is, however, a danger only 
for the rich occupants of retired farms. In the towns the Ouardie 
or policemen, and in the country the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes 
(who wear a black uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats), 
will be found thoroughly respectable and trustworthy. 

Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. Those of 
a secret character, such as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely 
prohibited, and the bearer is liable to imprisonment without the 
option of a fine. 

Begging, which is most prevalent at the church-doors, has re- 
cently increased in frequency in the streets of Rome. The travel- 
ler should decline to give anything, with the words, 'non c'e niente', 
or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation be bestowed, it should 
consist of one of the smallest possible copper coins (2, or at most 
5 c.), and should only be given to the obviously needy or decrepit. 
The foolish practice of 'scattering' copper coins to be struggled for 
by the street-arabs is highly reprehensible, and, like most idle gratu- 
ities to children, has a demoralizing effect upon the recipients. 

VII. Conveyances, t 

Railways. The remarks made in the first volume of the Hand- 
book are also applicable to the railways of Central Italy. The rate 
of travelling is very moderate, and the trains are often behind time. 
The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second are 
inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the Eng- 
lish and French,, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the 
lower orders. Smoking compartments are labelled 'pei fumatori', 
those for non-smokers 'e vietato di fumare. Among the expressions 
with which the railway-traveller will soon become familiar are — 
'pronW (ready), 'partenza' (departure), 'fermatd (halt), 'si cambia 
treno 1 (change carriages), and 'uscitat (egress), which are shouted 
by the officials with characteristic vigour. The station-master is 
called 'capo stazione'. 

"When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller^ will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). 'Mistakes' are far from un- 
common on the part of the ticket-clerks or of the officials [who weigh 
luggage. In addition to the fare a tax of 5 c. is payable on each 



t The best (though far from perfect) collections of time-tables etc. are 
the '■Indicatore Vfflciale delle Strode Ferrate' 1 (published monthly by the 
Fratelli Pozzo at Turin; price 1 fr.) and the Orario delfMovimento Trent e 
Piroscafi (published by Arnobaldi at Florence ; 1 fr.)- The ordinary tourist 
will probably find the smaller editions (50c. and 20c. respectively) suffi- 
cient for his purposes. — All these may be obtained at the stations or 
from newsvendors. 



xiv CONVEYANCES. 

ticket, and the express fares are about 10 per cent higher than the 
ordinary. It is also important to be at the station early. The book- 
ing-office at large stations is open 1 hr., at small stations '/4"V2 ^ T - 
before the departure of the trains. Holders of tickets are alone entitled 
to enter the waiting-rooms. At the end of the journey tickets are 
given up at the uscitti. 

Luggage is a source of both inconvenience and expense to the 
tourist who travels with it. Yet it must be mentioned that during 
the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of passengers' 
luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of 
any trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem. 
In crossing the frontier travellers should travel with the same train 
as their luggage and superintend the custom-house examination 
themselves (p. x). On alighting at small stations, they should at 
once look after their luggage in person. — The luggage-ticket is 
called to scontrino. 

No luggage is allowed free except small articles taken by the 
passenger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to and from 
the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where there is no 
fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, 
especially when the town or village lies at a distance from the rail- 
way, should leave their heavier luggage at the station till their return 
(dare in deposito, or depositare, 5o. per day for each package, with 
a minimum of 10c). 

The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently causes serious and even lifelong injury to the hotel and railway 
porters who have to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place 
their heavy articles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil 
as far as possible. 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway-stations; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus, Messrs. Gaze, 142 Strand, etc.), in Paris, and at many of 
the principal towns in Germany and Switzerland. They are generally 
available for 30 days, and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of 
luggage free. 

Those with whom economy is an object may save a good deal by buy- 
ing return-tickets to the Swiss frontier, travelling third-class through 
Switzerland, and then taking circular tour tickets in Italy. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 

Italy , available for 20-60 days , may be purchased in London, in 

France, and in Germany, as well as in Italy, at a reduction of 45 

per cent (but usually without a free allowance of luggage). Farther 

particulars will be found in the time-tables. These tickets require 

to be stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name of the 

next station at which the traveller intends to halt. If, therefore, 

the traveller leaves the train before the station for which his 

ticket has been stamped he must at once apply to the capo stazione 

for recognition of the break in the journey ('■accertare il cambia- 



CONVEYANCES. xv 

mento di destinazione'). When the traveller quits the prescribed 
route , intending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to 
procure an 'annotazione' at the station where he alights, enabling 
him to resume his circular tour after his digression (Jvale per ri- 
prendere alia stazione . . . il viaggio interrotto a . . .). If this 
ceremony be neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay 
treble fare for the omitted portion of the route for which the ticket 
is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglktti d'andata-ritomo) may often be ad- 
vantageously used for short excursions , but they are generally 
available for one day only, or for three days if issued on Saturday, 
or the eve of a public holiday. If the traveller alights at a station 
short of his destination he forfeits the rest of his ticket for the 
direction in which he is proceeding but may use it for the return 
from the station at which he has alighted. 

Steam Tramways. The system of Tramvie a Vapore, with which 
the traveller in Northern Italy has become familiar, has also extend- 
ed to Central Italy. The rate of speed attained by them is about 
half that of the ordinary railways. 

Diligences. As several of the most interesting places described 
in the following pages lie at some distance from the railway (such 
as Urbino, S. Gimignano, Subiaco, andOlevano), the traveller must 
visit them by carriage or by diligence. The Diligenza , or ordinary 
stage-coach, conveys travellers with tolerable speed, and its course 
is seldom very long. The vehicles, which are not very comfortable 
and whose passengers are not always select, are in the hands of 
private speculators. The drivers and ostlers generally expect a few 
soldi at the end of each stage. — For a party of three or four 
persons the expense of a carriage with one or two horses hardly ex- 
ceeds the diligence fares, while the travellers are far more independ- 
ent. A carriage with one horse may generally be hired for 50-75 c. 
per kilometre in the plain and about twice as much in the mountains, 
and a single seat in a carriage ('un posto') may often be obtained. 

Walking Tours. The ordinary Italian rarely walks if he can pos- 
sibly drive ; and how walking can afford pleasure is to him an inex- 
plicable mystery. In the more frequented districts, however, such as 
the vicinity of Rome, the natives are accustomed to this mania of 
foreigners, and are no longer surprised to find them exploring the 
Campagna and the Sabine and Alban Mts. on foot. There seems, 
moreover , to be a growing taste for walking among the Italians 
themselves, as a great many stations of the Club Alpino Jtaliano t 
have recently been established for the purpose of rendering the Apen- 



t The headquarters of the Roman section are at Via del Collegio Ro- 
mano 26, where information as to ascents in the Apennines is willingly 
given to members of foreign alpine clubs. The Quida delta Provincia di 
Roma, by E. Abbate (Rome, 1891 ; 6 fr.l, published on behalf of the club, 
is recommended for walking-tours among the mountains. 



xvi HOTELS. 

nines more accessible to travellers. Cool and clear weather should 
if possible be selected , and the scirocco carefully avoided. The 
height of summer is of course unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo) or donkey (asino, somaro), between 
which the difference of expense is slight, will often be found service- 
able, especially in mountainous districts. The attendant (pedone) 
acts as a guide for the time being. Animals are provided for the use 
of ladies also. The charges are moderate. A previous bargain should 
be made, tutto compreso, a gratuity being added if the traveller is 
satisfied. The donkey-drivers have an unpleasant habit of inciting 
their animals to the top of their speed when passing through a town 
or village, and it is as well to warn them beforehand that their 'mancia' 
will suffer if they do not go quietly through the streets. 

VIII. Hotels. Private Apartments. 

First Class Hotels , comfortably fitted up , are to be found at 
Rome, Siena , Perugia , and at most of the principal resorts of tra- 
vellers in Central Italy. Several of those at Rome are kept by Swiss 
and German landlords. Room 272-5 fr., bougie 75 c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance 1 fr. (exclusive of the 'facchino' and porter), table d'h6te 
4-6 fr., and so on. The charge for dinner does not generally include 
wine, which is comparatively dear. For a prolonged stay an agree- 
ment may generally be made for pension at a more moderate rate. 
Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'hote ; otherwise the charge 
for rooms is apt to be raised. Luncheon, however, need not be 
ordered at the hotel. Meals served at other than the usual hours, 
or in the traveller's private rooms, are, of course, considerably dearer. 
The charge for the use of the hotel-omnibus from the station to the 
hotel is so high (1-1 '/ 2 fr-)> that it is often cheaper to take a cab. 
It is also easier for those who use a cab (definite bargain as to fare) 
to proceed to another hotel, should they dislike the rooms offered to 
them. Rooms on the ground-floor should be avoided. 

The Second Class Hotels, thoroughly Italian in their arrange- 
ments, are much cheaper, but they are rarely very clean or comfort- 
able : R. 172-2, L. 72, A - 72 fr- There is no table d'hote, but in the 
larger towns there is generally a trattoria (p. xvii) connected with the 
house. Morning coffee is usually taken at a cafe" (p. xix) and not at 
the inn. These inns will often be found convenient and economical 
by the voyageur en garfon, and the better houses of this class may 
even be visited by ladies ; but the new-comer should, perhaps, fre- 
quent first-class hotels only. It is quite customary to make enquiries 
as to charges beforehand. A dinner, for example at 2-3 fr. may 
be stipulated for, and in bargaining as to the charge for a room the 
'servizio e candela' should not be forgotten. If no previous agree- 
ment has been made an extortionate bill is not uncommon. The 
landlord is generally prepared to have his first offer beaten down by 
the traveller, and in that expectation usually asks more at first than 



ruiYAxj!, APARTMENTS. xvii 

he will afterwards agree to accept. In small places it is quite usual 
to agree on a pension charge, including wine, even for a stay of only 
one day. — Oratuities, see p. xii. — Matches are seldom provided in 
these inns. Wax-matches (cerini) are sold in the streets (l-2boxes, 5c). 

The recommendations etc. of landlords as to hotels in other towns 
should be disregarded. They are not made with a single eye to the 
interests of the traveller. 

Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per- 
son (p. xiv) or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The PBNSioNs'of Rome and Siena also receive passing travellers, 
but as the price of dejeuner is usually (though not universally) in- 
cluded in the fixed daily charge, the traveller has either to sacrifice 
some of the best hours for visiting the galleries or to pay for a meal 
he does not consume. 

Private Apartments are recommended for a prolonged res- 
idence. A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand. 
When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on 
stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid of some one acquainted 
with the language and customs of the place (e.g. a banker), in order 
that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. For single travellers a 
verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, boot-cleaning, 
stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for fuel, and other details 
will generally suffice. 

The popular idea of Cleanliness in Italy is behind the age. The 
traveller will have little to complain of in the first-class hotels or even 
the better second-class hotels; hut those who quit the beaten track must 
be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, 
as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect-powder 
(polvere insetticida or contro gli insetti) or camphor somewhat repels their 
advances. The zanzar.e, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often 
of suffering, during the summer and autumn-months. Windows should 
always be closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin 
curtains (zanzarierO round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are 
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The 
burning of insect powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and 
pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists' for the same purpose. 
A weak dilution of carbolic acid in water is efficacious in allaying the dis- 
comfort occasioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (ditela, di cotone, di lana) ; night- shirt, 
camicia di notte; collar, il solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le 
mutande; woollen undershirt, una flanella or giuba di flanella; petticoat, 
la sottana; stocking, la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), ilfazzo- 
Utto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucalo , newly 
washed); washing-list, la nota! washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la 
lavandaja; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants of the first class (Bistoranti) in the larger towns 
resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high charges . 
— The more strictly national Trattcrie are chiefly frequented by 
Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, but those of a better class 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. b 



XV111 



RESTAURANTS AND (JAt'Ks. 



may be visited by ladies also. They are generally open from 11 a.m. 
till comparatively early in the evening, but are frequented chiefly 
between 5 and 8 p.m. Breakfast or a light luncheon (colazione) be- 
fore 1 p.m. may be more conveniently obtained at a cafe' (p. xix). 
Dinner may be obtained a la carte (l l / 2 -3fr.'), and sometimes aprezzo 
fisso (2-5 fr.). The diner who wishes to confine his expenses within 
reasonable limits, should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned 
in the bill of fare. Italian customers have no hesitation in sending 
away at once ill-cooked or stale dishes, and sometimes even inspect 
the meat or fish before it is cooked. Wine is usually brought in open 
bottles (p. xix). The diner calls for the bill with the words 'il cento', 
and should check the items and addition. The waiter (cameriere) 
expects a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. If too importunate in his recom- 
mendations or suggestions, he may be checked with the word 'basta'. 
— A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Uova, eggs, da here, soft, dure, hard, 
al piatto, poached. 

Anitra, duck. 

Polio d'lndia or Dindo, turkey. 

Onocchi, small puddings. 

Stufcitino, cibreo, ragout. 

Crochetti, croquettes. 

Pasticcio, pie. 

Contorno , Ouarnizione, garnishing, 
vegetables , usually not charged 
for. 

Palate, potatoes. 

Polenta, Maize sauce (thick). 

Insaldla, salad. 

Asparagi, asparagus (green). 

Spinaci, spinach. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Gobbi, cardi, artichoke -stalks (with 
sauce). 

Zucchini, gherkins. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiolini, Cornetti, French beans. 

Funglii, mushrooms. 

Mostarda francese, simple mustard. 

Mostarda inglese or Senape, hot mus- 
tard. 

Sale, salt. 

Pepe, pepper. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 
only). 

Dolce, sweet dish (Zuppa inglese is a 
favourite). 

Frutta, Oiardinetto, fruit, desert. 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 

Mele, apples. 



Antipasti, relishes taken as whets. 
Afinestra or Zuppa, soup. 
Brodo or Consume, broth or bouillon. 
Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Mineslra di riso con piselli, rice-soup 

with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al sugo e 

al burro, with sauce and butter ; 

al pomidoro, with tomatoes. 
Came lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 

umido , alia genovese, with sauce ; 

ben cotlo, well-done ; al sangue, aW 

inglese, underdone; ai ferri, cooked 

on the gridiron. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritlo, una Frittura, fried meat. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, roast-veal. 
Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Majale, pork. 
Monlone, mutton. 
Agnello, lamb. 
Capretto, kid. 

Testa di vitello, calfs head. 
Figalo di vitello, calf's liver. 
Bracciola di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Cosloletta alia Milanese, veal -cutlet, 

baked in dough. 
Esgaloppe, veal-cutlet with bread- 
crumbs. 
Pesce, fish. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Presciutto, ham. 
SalSme, sausage (usually with garlic, 

aglio). 
Polio, fowl. 



CAFflS, SHOPS, CIGARS. xix 



Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Frittata, omelette. 

Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian ig made without). 
Formaggio, cheese ( Oorgonzola, Slrac- 

chino). 



Pirsici, Pesche, peaches. 
Ifve, grapes. 
Fichi, figs. 
Noci, nuts. 
Limone, lemon. 
Arancio, orange. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon, and are often 
crowded until a very late hour at night. In winter the tobacco-smoke 
is frequently objectionable. 

Caffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (15-25c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is .coffee mixed with milk before being served (30-50c. ; 
cappuccino, or small cup, cheaper); or caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk 
served separately, may be preferred. Mischio is a mixture of coffee and 
chocolate (20-30c). Cioccolata, or chocolate, 30-50 c. Pane (a roll) 5 c. ; 
pasta (cake) 5-15 c. ; bread and butter (pane al burro) 20 c. — The usual 
viands for lunch (Colazione) are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and eggs. 

Ices (gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the cafes at 50 c. 
per portion; or a half portion (tnezza) may be ordered. Sorbetto, or half- 
frozen ice, and Qranita, iced-water (limonata, of lemons ; aranciata of 
oranges ; di caffe', of coffee) are other varieties. The waiter expects 5 c. 

Newspapers (giornali). The principal Parisian newspapers are to be 
found at all the larger cafes, English rarely. —Roman newspapers, see p. 128. 

Wine Shops (osterie), especially at Rome (with the exception of 
some of the better 'Tuscan wine-shops'), are a favourite haunt of 
the lower classes. The rooms are generally dirty and uninviting. 
Generally only wine is sold (nero, or at Rome rosso, red; bianco, 
white; asciutto, dry; pastoso, sweet), but bread and cheese may be 
obtained at some of the osterie. Those who sup at a wine-shop must 
bring their own eatables from a pizzicarolo, or dealer in comestibles. 
The reputation of the osterie varies with the quality of the wine; 
the number of customers is a good index of the latter. 

In Tuscany the best wines (all red) are: Chianti (best Broglio), Rufina 
(best Pomlno). Nipozzano , Altomena, and Carmignano and Akatico (sweet). 
Orvieto and Montepulciano are white wines produced farther to the south. 

— A 'fiasco' a straw-covered flask, usually holding three ordinary bottles 
is generally brought, but only the quantity consumed is paid for. Smaller 
bottles may sometimes be obtained: mezzo fiasco ('/a), quarte fiasco O/4), 
ottavino C/s); these must be bought outright. 

In Rome the commonest wines, besides the Tuscan, are those of the 
neighbourhood ( Vini del Gastelli Romani), the favourites being Frascati, 
Marino, and Genzano. Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary 
corked and labelled bottles. Table-wine (vino dapasto) is served in open 
flasks : 1 /i litre, un mezzo litro ; •/« litre, un quarto ; 1 /b litre, un quinto or 
bicchiere. The figures on the outside (6, 7, 8, etc.) indicate the price per 
V2 litre in soldi. In shops outside the town, the wine is very cheap and 
often excellent. 

Cigars (stgari) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. 
The price of the home-made cigars (Seelti Romani, Virginias, Tos- 
cani, Napoletani, Cavours, Minghetti, etc.) varies from 7!/2 to 18 c. — ■ 
Qoo&Havanna Cigars (25-60 c.) and foreign Cigarettes may be bought 
at the 'Regia dei Tabacchi' (p. 118) and other large shops in Rome. 

— Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning 
in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase. 



b* 



xx SIGHTS, THEATRES. 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12. 30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain 
open the whole day (comp. p. 125). Visitors may inspect the works 
of art even during divine service, provided they move about noise- 
lessly, and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. 
On the occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of 30-50 c. or upwards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries, and other collections that belong 
to government are usually open from 10 to 3 or 4 o'clock, on week- 
days at a charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays gratis. In Rome the col- 
lections of the Vatican and the private galleries are closed on Sun- 
days and on ecclesiastical festivals. The national collections are 
closed only on the holidays recognized by government, viz. New Year's 
Day, Epiphany (Jan. 6th), Easter Day, Ascension Day, Fete deDieu 
(Corpus Domini), June 29th (SS. Peter and Paul), Assumption of 
the Virgin (15th Aug.), Sept. 20th (anniversary of the entry of the 
Italian troops in 1870, see p. 339), Nov. 1st (All Saints' Day), and 
Christmas Day. In smaller towns museums and galleries are also 
often closed during the Carnival, on Palm Sunday, Whitsunday and 
Whitmonday, the Festa dello Statuto (first Sunday in June), and on 
the day sacred to the local patron saint. 

Those who desire to study, draw, or copy in the papal museums or 
private collections must procure a Permesso through their consul. For the 
Papal Museums permission is granted by the Archbishop of Petra (maggior- 
domo of the pope) at his office the written application having been left 
there a day or two previously. (Separate permessi required for the museums 
of the Vatican and Lateran, the Vatican picture-gallery, and Raphael's 
Loggie.) In the case of Private Galleries, application must be made to the 
proprietor in Italian or French, stating also which picture it is intended 
to copy, and the size and description of the copy. In some collections 
copies of the original size must not be made. As to this and similar 
regulations^ information should be previously obtained from the custodian. 
The following form of application to the Monsgr. Maggiordomo, may be also 
addressed to a principe or marchese, the 'Revma' being in this case 
omitted. 

Eccellenza Revma, 

II sottoscritto, che si tratliene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in quesla 
capitale i suoi studj artistici (storici, etc.), si prende la liberta di rivolgersi 
con questa a Tra Eccellenza Revma pregando La perche voglia accordargliil 
grazioso permesso di far degli studj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaiicano. 

Sperando di essere favorito da Vra Eccellenza Revma e pregando La di 
gradire anticipatamente i piu sinceri suoi ringraziamenti, ha Vonore di pro- 
testarsi col pih profondo rispetlo 

di Vra^ Eccellenza Revma 
Roma li . . . . ^ Uihmo Obbiho Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revma N, jy, 

Luigi Arcivescovo di Petra 

Maggiordomo di Sua Santila. 

In the Public Collections artists who can prove their right to that 
character receive at once free admission and permission to make copies. 



POST OFFICE. TELEGRAPH. xxi 

In Home permessi for this purpose are issued by the Ministero dell" Islru- 
zione Pubblica (p. 183). 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9, and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea) is the usual re- 
sort of the men, for which a single ticket (biglietto d'ingresso) is suf- 
ficient ; but for reserved seats (poltrone or posti distinti) or for a box 
(palco) a second tjcket must be obtained. Ladies frequent the boxes, 
which must always be secured in advance. — The theatre is the 
usual evening-resort of the Italians, who seldom observe strict si- 
lence during the performance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price asked shouldbe offered (contrattare = to bargain). 
'Non volete' (then you will not?) is a remark which generally has 
the effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases 
should never be made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet- 
de-place. These individuals by tacit agreement receive at least 
10 per cent of the purchase-money, which of course comes out of 
the purchaser's pocket. 

XL Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post Office is open daily from 8 a. m. to 
8 or 8.30 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays), in smaller places it 
is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante', Italian l ferma in posta', or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting-card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco shops. The Italian for letter-box is Buca or 
Cassetta (for letters, per le lettere; for printed papers, per le stampe). 

Letters of 15 grammes Q/i oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5c, to the rest of Italy 20 c, abroad (per I' estero) to any of 
the states included in the postal union (now comprising the whole of 
Europe as well as the United States, Canada, etc.) 28 c. The penalty 
(segnatassa) for insufficiently prepaid letters is considerable. — Postcards 
(cartolina poslale) for both Italy (white) and abroad (green) 10 c, reply- 
cards (con risposta pagatd), inland 15 c, for abroad 20 c. — Book-packets 
(stampe sotlo fascia) 2 c. per 50grammes, for abroad 5 c. — Registration- 
fee (raccommandazione) for letters for the same town and printed matter 
10 c, otherwise 25 c. The packet or letter must be inscribed Craccomman- 
data") and the stamps must be affixed in front at the different corners. 
— Post Office Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10Z., are 
now granted by the English Post Office at the following rates ; not exceed- 
ing 21., Sd. ; 51., is.; 11., Is. 6d.; iOl., 2s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must be guaranteed by two well-known residents 
(perhaps the innkeeper and one of his friends or assistants). The charge 
for money orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per M. 
sterling. 

A Parcel Post exists between Italy and Great Britain, the rates and 
conditions of which may be ascertained at any post office. The parcels 



xxii CLIMATE. HEALTH. 

must be carefully packed and fastened and may not contain anything in 
the shape of a letter; and a custom-house declaration must he filled up 
for each. Articles such as flowers , etc. , not liable to duty are best sent 
as samples of no value (carnpione senza valore) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., 
abroad 10 c. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following rate per 
word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : Great Britain 
26 c, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 6-14, Belgium 19, 
Holland 23, Denmark 23, Russia 42, Norway 34, Sweden 26 c. — To America 
from 3 3 /i fr. per word upwards, according to the distance. — In Italy, 
15 words 1 fr., each additional word 5 c. Telegrams with special hast 
(telegrammi urgenli), which take precedence of all others , may be sent in 
Italy at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate. Health. 

The climate of Rome is determined by its situation in the Oam- 
pagna, almost equidistant from the Apennines and the sea (14 M.), 
and about 100 ft. above the level of the latter. During winter the 
prevalent wind is the Tramontane/, , a term applied not only to the 
N. wind but also to the N.N.E. wind (Qreco); it blows more and 
more frequently from October to December, then becomes gradually 
rarer, and by April or May ceases altogether. This dry and cool 
(sometimes even cold) wind is generally accompanied by a clear 
sky, and except when unusually violent (in which case it irritates 
the mucous membrane) is not found trying even by invalids. The 
Scirocco, a general name for the S.E., S., and S.W. winds, is 
especially prevalent in October and April. It has an alleviating 
effect upon colds and coughs , but is apt to take away the appetite 
and impair the nervous energy. 

The most favourable month for a visit to Rome is October, dur- 
ing which the average temperature is about 63° Fahr. The rain that 
then falls is drunk in greedily by the parched earth, and all nature 
seems to awaken to a second spring. November, with a mean tem- 
perature of 54° and an average of 12!/ 2 days of rain, is also often a 
pleasant month. In December the N. and S. winds contend for 
mastery, and wet weather alternates with cold , the mean tempera- 
ture being 47° and the average number of rainy days eleven. Jan- 
uary (mean temp. 45 1 /2°> wet days HV3)) an( l February (mean temp. 
46V2 , wet days 10), during which the N. wind prevails, are the two 
coldest months. Travellers arriving at this season from the Riviera, 
where the mean temperature in these months is from 48° to 54°, 
should be careful to guard against the sudden change by warmer 
clothing. March (mean temp. 50^2 °, rainy days 10), though often 
cold, and as usual in the S. the windiest month of the year, seldom 
passes without some charming spring days. After October April and 
the first half of May form the pleasantest time for visiting Rome. 
The heat then rapidly increases, and from the end of May till Octo- 
ber it is almost insufferable (June 72°, July 76°, August 75°, Sept- 
ember 69V 2 ° F-> 

Health. Malaria or Roman fever is, of course, most prevalent 



CLIMATE. HEALTH. xxiii 

in summer, particularly from the middle of August till the begin- 
ning of September, but also occurs in spring and even in the milder 
and damper months of winter. Large parts of the city, however, 
enjoy an almost perfect immunity from it. The most conspicuous 
of these is the central district bounded towards the W. by the Via 
del Babuino, the Via Sistina, and the Via del Quirinale, extending 
on the S. to S. Pietro in Vincoli and the Capitol, and on the E. al- 
most reaching the Tiber. The streets on the Esquiline, Palatine, 
and Caelius, stretching S.E. from the Capitol to the Porta Maggiore, 
Porta S. Giovanni; and Porta Latina, are, on the other hand, all 
dangerous in summer, and few of the inhabitants of the S.E. district 
between the Colosseum and the Thermo; of Caracalla and Monte 
Testaecio escape an annual visitation of fever. The centre of the 
city has thus always been free from fever, and some of the suburban 
districts, such as the W. slopes of the Pincio (since the draining 
of the pond at the entrance to the Villa Borghese) have become 
comparatively healthy. Beneath this hill, e.g. in the Via Margutta, 
large numbers of new houses have been built. The new Ludovisi 
quarter (p. 139) and many of the streets on the Viminal (between 
the Piazza Barberini and S. Maria Maggiore) are also healthy, while 
on the right bank of the Tiber the neighbourhood of the Piazza S. 
Pietro and the quarter between the Ponte Sisto and the Ponte Rotto 
(intersected by the Via delta Lungarettd) are almost exempt from 
the scourge. 

The visitor should exercise some care in choosing his apartments 
and in seeing that they are supplied with all needful comforts. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable. A southern aspect is absolutely 
essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the robust. An 
Italian proverb says : 'Dove non va il sole, va il medico\ Rooms on 
the upper floor are drier than those on the ground-floor. Windows 
should be closed at night. 

Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusu- 
ally susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be 
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Even in summer 
it is advisable not to wear too light clothing. Flannel is strongly 
recommended. — The Pincio is the safest promenade in Rome, but 
a prolonged sojourn in the somewhat damp gardens of the Villa 
Borghese is not advisable. The visitor should be careful not to drive 
in an open carriage after dark, or to sit in the evening in such 
malarial places as the Colosseum. In visiting picture-galleries or 
churches on warm days , it is advisable to drive thither and walk 
back, as otherwise the visitor enters the chilly building in a heated 
state and has afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable 
temperature through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should 
be avoided as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, only 
dogs and foreigners (Inglesi) walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. 
Umbrellas or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to 



xxiv BIBLIOGBAPHIE. 

protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when a 
walk in the sun is unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to 
ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a siesta of 
moderate length is often refreshing. 

The drinking-water of Rome is very pure and palatable, but strongly 
impregnated with lime, which makes it unsuitable for those suffering from 
gout, and sometimes causes constipation. The water of the Trevi has the 
least lime, that of the Marcia the most. Persons with delicate chests often 
find a winter in Rome very beneficial. It is less dusty than the Riviera, and 
not so windy as the Sicilian health-resorts. — Typhus Fever does not occur 
in Rome as an epidemic. 

There are several good English and German doctors in Rome, but it 
is sometimes wise, in the case of maladies arising from local causes, to 
employ native skill. German and English chemists are preferable to the 
Italian. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in Italy, which is gener- 
ally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and rice are two of the com- 
monest remedies. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may also be 
mentioned. In such cases, however, thorough repose is the chief desid- 
eratum. A small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and 
stocked with tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, & Co., Holborn 
Viaduct, London, will often be found useful. 

XIII. Bibliography of Borne. 

The literature on the history and topography of Rome, especially 
of ancient Rome, is so extensive, that it is impossible to do more 
than indicate a few of the most useful works on the subject. At 
the revival of learning after the dark ages numerous scholars, such 
as Poggio (1440), Flavio Biondo, and Lucio Fauno, devoted them- 
selves with enthusiasm to exploration in this field. The most im- 
portant of the mediaeval works on Rome is Nardini's Roma Antica 
(1666), edited by Nibby in 1818. 

Among modern works we may mention the following : — 

1. Italian. Nuova Detcrizione di Roma Antica e Moderna 1820, by 0. Fea. 

Indicazione Topograflca di Roma Antica (3rd ed., 1841) and other works 

by Canina. 
Roma nelV Anno 1838, by Nibby (3 vols. ; 1843. 

2. French. Rome, Description et Souvenir, by Francis Wey , a handsome 

illustrated work, with 358 wood-cuts (3rd ed., Paris, 1875). 
Rome au Siecle d'Auguste, by Dezobry (1844). 
Promenades Archiologiques, by Boissier (Paris, 1881). 
Rome et ses Monuments , by Debleser (1882 ; useful information about 

church services and other ecclesiastical matters). 
Lei AnUquUds de la Ville de Rome au XIV s , XV<>, et XVI e siecles, by 

B. Miintz (Paris; 1886). 

3. Gekman. Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Rom, by Sachse (1824). 

Beschreibung Roms, by Niebuhr, Plainer, Bnnsen, Ulrichs, and others, a 
learned and extensive work forming the basis for all subsequent ex- 
ploration (6 vols., 1830-42). An abridgment of this work, in 1 vol. 
was issued by Platner and Ulrichs in 1845. ' 

Handbuch der Rbmischen Alterthiimer, by W. A. Becker, a useful sup- 
plement to the foregoing (numerous references to classical authors). 

Topographie der Stadt Rom im Allerthum, by H. Jordan, with an ac- 
count of the present state of the excavations (3 vols. ; 1871-85). 

Topographie der Stadt Rom, by 0. Richter (1889). 

Die Ruinen Roms, by Reber (4th ed., Leipsic, 1883). 

Darstellungen aui der Sittengeschichle Roms in der Zeit von August bis 
zum Autgang der Antonine, by L, Friedlaender (6th ed., 1888-90). 



Origin. HISTORY. xxv 

Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mitte latter, by Ferdinand Gregorovius , a 

history of Rome in the middle ages, closing in 1537 (1S58-72). 
Getchichte der Stadt Rom, by A. von Reumont, a history of Rome from 

its foundation to 1846 (3 vols. ; Berlin, 1867-70). 
Filhrer durch die offentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Alterlumer in Rom, 

by Helbig and Reisch, a valuable and convenient guide (2 vols., 

Leipsic 1891). 
Das alte Rom, by Buhlmann and Wagner, a panorama with the entry 

of Constantine the Great in 312 A.D., is an excellent aid to forming 

an idea of the appearance of ancient Rome (Munich, 1890; 6 marks). 
English. Walks in Rome, by Augustus J. C. Bare (13th ed., 1893) , a 

cicerone for the .ordinary visitor to Rome. 
Days near Rome, by A. J. G. Hare. 
Rome, Ancient and Modern , by the Rev. Dr. Donovan (4 vols. ; 1842), 

based on the works of Professor Nibby. 
Transformation or The Marble Faun, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, contains 

much incidental matter of interest for the visitor to Rome. — See also 

George Sand's '•Daniella ', Hans Andersen's k Improvisator e? ', and Miss 

Roberts's ' Mademoiselle Mori\ 
Archaeology of Rome, by J. H. Parker, profusely illustrated (1872-80). 
Architectural History of Rome, by /. H. Parker (1881). 
Romae Antiquae Notitia, or the Antiquities of Rome, by Basil Kennel (1731). 
Rome Illustrated, translated from the French of Francis Wey (see above; 

new ed., 1887). 
Architectural Antiquities of Rome, by Taylor & Cresy (new ed., 1874). 
Rome and the Campagna, by Burn (London, 1870), the best English work 

of the kind. 
Historic and Monumental Rome, by G. J. Hemans (1874). 
Manual of Roman Antiquities, by Prof. Ramsay. 
Topography of Rome and its Vicinity, by Sir William Gell (1846). 
Roma Sotteranea, by Northcote and Brownlow (London, 1878-80). 
The City of Rome, by Dyer (1883). 

The Remains of Ancient Rome by Prof. J. H. Middleton (Edinburgh, 1892). 
Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries, by R. A. Lanciani 

(illus.-, London, 1888). 
Pagan and Christian Rome, by R. A. Lanciani (London, 1893). 
The reader need scarcely be reminded of the histories of Gibbon, Me- 

buhr, Mommsen, Merivale, Arnold, Duruy, and Ihne. 



History of the City of Rome. 

Difficult as it undoubtedly is to trace the career of the Eternal 
City throughout upwards of two thousand years , and to mark and 
appreciate the manifold vicissitudes which it has undergone, the 
traveller will naturally desire to form some acquaintance with 
the history of the ancient centre of Western civilisation, the city of 
the Republic and Empire, on the ruins of which the seat of a vast 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was afterwards founded, and now the 
capital of an important and steadily progressing modern state. 
Wherever we tread , our thoughts are involuntarily diverted from 
the enjoyment of the present to the contemplation of the past ; and 
the most careless of pleasure-seekers will find it difficult to with- 
stand the peculiar influence of the place. The following sketch is 
merely designed to put the traveller in the way of making farther 
researches for himself, and deals exclusively with those leading and 



xxvi HISTORY. Origin 

general facts with which he ought to be acquainted before proceed- 
ing to explore the city in detail. 

As the more remote history of Italy is involved in much ob- 
scurity, so also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a 
matter of mere conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late 
period that the well-known legend of Romulus and Remus was 
framed, and the year B. C. 753 fixed as the date of the foundation. 
In all probability, however , Rome may lay claim to far greater an- 
tiquity. We are led to this conclusion , not only by a number of 
ancient traditions , but also by- the recent discovery in Latium of 
relics of the flint-period , an epoch far removed from any written 
records. The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus 
of the city, around which new quarters grouped themselves by slow 
degrees ; and it was here that Romulus is said to have founded his 
pity, the Roma Quadrata, of which Tacitus (Ann. 12, 24) states the 
supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to light portions 
of the wall, gateways, and streets which belonged to the most an- 
cient settlement (seepp. 238, 232). After the town of Romulus had 
sprung up on the Palatine, a second, inhabited by Sabines, was built 
on the Quirinal , and the two were subsequently united into one 
community. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctu- 
aries, the Forum , situated between them , and commanded by the 
castle and the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol , formed the com- 
mon focus and place of assembly of the entire state, and the Forum 
and Capitol maintained this importance down to the latest period of 
ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city is mainly to be attri- 
buted to its situation , the most, central in the peninsula , alike 
adapted for a great commercial town , and for the capital of a vast 
empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy 
(5, 54) : 'flumen opportunum , quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges 
devehantur , quo maritimi commeatus accipiantur , mare vicinum 
ad oommoditates nee expositum nimia propinquitate ad pericula 
classium externarum , regionum Italia? medium , ad incrementum 
urbis natum unice locum'. The Tiber was navigable for sea-going 
ships as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as the Anio, Nera, 
Chiana, and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river vessels 
which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has, however, in the course 
of ages undergone a complete revolution, chiefly owing to the grad- 
ual levelling of the forests on the mountains , and at the present 
day the lower part only of the Tiber, below Orte, is navigable. 

Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is traditionally re- 
ferred to Romulus, its extension is attributed with something more 
of certainty to Servius Tullius. Around the twin settlements on the 
Palatine and Quirinal, extensive suburbs on the Esquiline and 
Caelius , as well as on the lower ground between the hills had 



The Kings. HISTORY. xxvii 

sprung up ; for not only were numerous strangers induced to settle 
permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently trans- 
planted thither. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic 
community was organised towards the close of the period of the 
kings, and its constitution commemorated by the erection of the 
Servian Wall. This structure included an external wall round the 
whole of the town, and also the fortifications of the Capitol and other 
heights within it. The outer wall led from the N. slope of the Cap- 
itol across what was later the Forum of Trajan , skirted the Qui- 
rinal , and turned to the S.E. at the gardens of Sallust (p. 142). 
For more than 3 / 4 M. at this part of the circuit, where the artificial 
defences are not aided by nature , the wall was replaced by a ram- 
part about 80 ft. in breadth , with a moat 100 ft. wide in front of 
it. Considerable remains of this rampart are extant near the rail- 
way-station. The wall recommenced on the E. side of the Esquiline, 
skirted the S. slope of the Cselius, enclosed the two summits of the 
Aventine , and ended at the Tiber (below St. Sabina's , p. 242). 
While care was taken thus to protect the city externally, the kings 
were not less solicitous to embellish the interior with handsome 
buildings. To this period belong the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 
(p. 198), the Circus in the valley between the Palatine and the 
Aventine (p. 241), the Career Mamertinus (p. 228), and above 
all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 239), destined to drain the swampy site 
of the Forum, and still admired for its massive construction. This 
energetic and brilliant development of the city under the kings of 
the Tarquinian family in the 6th. cent. B.C. came to a close with 
the expulsion of the last king Tarquinius Superbus (509). 

During the first century of the Republic the united efforts of 
the citizens were directed to the task of establishing themselves 
more securely in the enjoyment of their new acquisitions ; and in 
this they succeeded, although not without serious difficulty. It 
was a hard and bitter period of probation that the nation had to 
undergo in the first period of its new liberty, and it was not till the 
decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to breathe freely 
again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering and 
destroying her formidable rival Veii (396) , a victory by which the 
Roman supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far 
as the Ciminian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390) the city, with the 
exception of the Capitol, was taken and entirely destroyed by the 
Gauls. Although this catastrophe occasioned only a transient loss 
of the prestige of Rome, it produced a marked effect on the external 
features of the city. The work of re-erection was undertaken with 
great precipitation ; the new streets were narrow and crooked, the 
houses poor and unattractive , and down to the time of Augustus, 
Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increasing 
power, however, could, not fail in some degree to influence her ar- 



xxviii HISTORY. The Republic. 

chitecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy , the 
first aqueduct and the first high-road were constructed at Rome by 
Appius Claudius in 312 (Aqua and Via Appia, p. 345); in 272 a 
second aqueduct (Anio Vetus) was erected. Down to the period of 
the Punic wars Rome had not extended beyond the walls of Servius 
Tullius; but, after the overthrow of Carthage had constituted her 
mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The wall was al- 
most everywhere demolished to make room for new buildings , so 
that even in the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter 
to determine its former position , and new quarters now sprang up 
on all sides. During the last century B.C., after the Graeco- 
Asiatic wars of the previous century had brought the Romans into 
contact with the civilisation of the East, the city began to assume 
an aspect more worthy of its proud dignity as capital of the civilised 
world. The streets , hitherto unpaved , were now converted into 
the massive lava-causeways which are still visible on many of the 
ancient roads (e. g. Via Appia). The highest ambition of the 
opulent nobles was to perpetuate their names by the erection of 
imposing public buildings. Thus in 184 M. Porcius Cato erected 
the first court of judicature (Basilica Porcia) in the Forum, and 
others followed his example. Speculation in houses was extensively 
carried on, and it was by this means that the Triumvir Crassus, 
among others , amassed his fortune ; for rents were high , and the 
houses of a slight and inexpensive construction. These insulae, or 
blocks of houses erected for hire, contrasted strikingly with the 
domus , or palaces of the wealthy , which were fitted up with the 
utmost magnificence and luxury. Thus the tribune Clodius, the 
well-known opponent of Cicero, paid 14,800,600 sesterces (i. e. 
about 130,5251.) for his house. The ordinary building material 
consisted of sun-dried bricks (lateres), while the volcanic stone 
(tufa and peperino) of the neighbourhood was used for the more 
ambitious edifices. Among the comparatively few extant buildings 
of the Republican period are the Tabularium of B. C. 78 (p. 212), 
the Ionic Temple at the Ponte Rotto (p. 240), and the tombs of the 
Scipios (p. 248), Bibulus (p. 165), and Caecilia Metella (p. 348). 
The transformation of the republic into a Military Despotism 
involved the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usurp- 
ers are generally wont to direct their energies to the construction 
of new buildings , with a view to obscure the lustre of the older 
edifices , and to obliterate the associations connected with them. 
Caesar himself had formed the most extensive plans of this nature, 
but their execution was reserved for his more fortunate nephew. Of 
all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings of Augustus 
occupy by far the highest rank , both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martins with 
the Pantheon (p. 180) and the Thermae of Agrippa (p. 182) the 
Theatre of Marcellus (p. 196), the Portico of Octavia (p. 196) and 



The Emperors. ttlSXUKY. xxix 

the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 178), the Basilica Julia (p. 217), 
the Bomus Augustana on the Palatine (p. 235) and the Forum of 
Augustus with the Temple of Mars (p. 229). No fewer than 82 temples 
were restored by Augustus ('templorum omnium conditorem ac resti- 
tutorem' as he is termed by Livy), who might well boast of, having 
found Rome of brick and left it of marble. The wonderful hard bricks, 
the time-resisting qualities of which excite our admiration in the 
Roman buildings of the next 500 years, now came into use, supple- 
mented by the beautiful travertine from the vicinity of Tivoli, while 
the walls were lined with marble from Carrara, Paros and other Greek 
islands, Numidia ('giallo antico'), Laconia ('rosso antico'), and 
Euboea ('cipollino'). The administration and police-system of the 
city were also re-organised by Augustus , who divided Rome into 
14 quarters (regiones) , adapted to its increased extent (p. xxx). 
A corps of watchmen (vigiles) , who also served as firemen , was 
appointed to guard the city by night. These and other wise in- 
stitutions , as well as the magnificence attained by the city under 
Augustus, are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. 
His successors followed his example in the erection of public edi- 
fices, each striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respeot 
Nero (54-68) displayed the most unbridled ambition. The con- 
flagration of the year 64 , which reduced the greater part of Rome 
to ashes , having been ignited , it is said , at the emperor's in- 
stigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the whole city 
in a modern style and according to a regular plan. For his own use 
he erected the ' Golden House' , a sumptuous palace with gardens, 
lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, covering an enor- 
mous area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of the Co- 
losseum, and far up the Esquiline (p. 224). These and other works 
were destroyed by his successors, and well merited their fate ; the frag- 
ments which still bear the name of Nero at Rome are insignificant. 
The Flavian Dynastt, which followed the Julian , has on the 
other hand perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing 
works, which have survived, though in ruins, to the present day, 
above all the Colosseum (p. 224), which has ever been regarded as 
the symbol of the power and greatness of Rome, the Therma of Titus 
on the Esquiline (p. 227), and the Triumphal Arch (p. 223) erected 
after the destruction of Jerusalem. Under Trajan, architecture 
received a new impetus, and indeed attained the highest develop- 
ment of which the art was capable at Rome. To this the Forum 
of Trajan (p. 239), with the column, and the reliefs afterwards 
employed to decorate Constantine's arch, bear eloquent testimony. 
Under Trajan the culminating point both of art and of political 
greatness was attained. Thenceforward the greatness of the empire 
began gradually, but steadily, to decline. Although under the next 
emperor Hadrian this tendency was apparently arrested, yet the 
monuments of his reign , such as the Temple of Venus and Roma 



xxx HISTORY. The Emperors. 

(p. 224), and his Mausoleum (p. 266), exhibit traces of de- 
generacy. 

The same remark applies also to the time of the Antonines. These 
monarchs were remarkable for their excellent qualities as sovereigns, 
and their peaceful sway has frequently been regarded as the period 
during which mankind in general enjoyed the greatest prosperity. 
There is even a tradition that 'the good old times' will return when the 
equestrian statue of the worthy Marcus Aurelius (p. 201), the gilding 
of which has almost entirely disappeared, shall resume its costly cover- 
ing. This, however, was but the lull preceding a storm. The great 
plague under the latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful 
calamities which devastated the empire. Throughout an entire cen- 
tury civil wars , incursions of barbarians , famine , and pestilence 
succeeded each other without intermission. Although Rome was 
less affected by these horrors than the provinces , it is computed 
that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 2nd 
cent, was about 11/2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is traceable; 
but , as building always formed an important feature in the policy 
of the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of this period are 
considerable. To this epoch belong the Column of Marcus Aurelius 
(p. 162), the Arch of Sept. Severus (p. 218), the magnificent Baths 
of Caracalla (p. 246), and the huge Thermae ofDiocletian (p. 145). 

After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to 
fall to decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute 
of fortification. Under the emperor Aurelian, however, danger 
became so imminent that it was deemed necessary again to protect 
the city by a wall against the attacks of the barbarians. This 
structure is to a great extent identical with that whieh is still 
standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear the name of 
Constantine thb Gkeat , viz. the Basilica (p. 222), Baths (pp. 
150, 175), and Triumphal Arch (p. 226). The two former were, 
however , erected by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested 
little partiality for Rome and ancient traditions, and the transference 
of the seat of empire to Byzantium (in 330) marks a decided turn- 
ing-point in the history of the city, as well as in that of the whole 
empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of its glorious past 
and its magnificent monuments , but in many respects it had sunk 
to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were thence- 
forth undertaken, and the old gradually fell to decay. 

The city was still divided, in accordance with the Augustan System, 
into fourteen regions, in enumerating which we shall name the principal 
ruins belonging to each : — 1. Porta Capena , Via Appia , within the city 
(p. 245); 2. Caelimontium , Cselius (p. 249); 3. Isis et Serapis Colosseum 
(p. 224), Baths of Titus (p. 227) ; 4. Templum Pads, Venus et Roma (p. 224) 
Basilica of Constantine (p. 222), Temple of Faustina (p. 221) ; 5. Exquiliae 
Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 166) ; 6. Alta Semita, Baths of Constantine 
(p. 175) and Diocletian (p. 145) ; 7. Via Lata, between the modern Corso 
the Qnirinal , and Pincio (p. 164) ; 8. Forum Romanum , the republican 



Rise of Christianity. HisxuKY. xxxi 

and imperial Fora (pp. 213, 227) and the Capitol (p. 193); 9. Circus Fla- 
minius , Theatres of Marcellus (p. 195) and Pompey (p. 192) , portico of 
Octavia (p. 195), Pantheon (p. 180), column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 162), 
and the Temple of Neptune (p. 163); 10. Palatium, Palatine (p. 232); 11. 
Circus Maximus , temple in the Forum Boarium (p. 239) ; 12. Piscina 
Publica, Baths of Caracalla (p. 246); 13. Aventinus , Pyramid of Cestius 
(p. 244) ; 14. Transtiberim , Trastevere and the Borgo. According to the 
statistics of this period, Rome possessed 37 gates, from which 28 high- 
roads diverged, and 19 aqueducts; and although four only of these last are 
now in use , there is probably no city in the world which can boast of 
such an excellent supply of water as Rome. The banks of the Tiber 
were connected by 8 bridges. There were 423 streets , 1790 palaces, and 
46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public structures are mentioned 11 
Thermae, 856 baths, 1352 fountains in the streets, 36 triumphal arches, 10 
basilicas, etc. When the grandeur and magnificence suggested by these 
numbers is considered, it may occasion surprise that comparatively so 
few relics now remain ; but it must be borne in mind that the work of 
destruction progressed steadily during nearly a thousand years, and was not 
arrested till the era of the Renaissance, but for which even the monuments 
still extant would ere now have been consigned to oblivion. 

The Catacombs, the earliest burial-places of the Christians, 
illustrate the gradual progress of this interesting community, in 
spite of every persecution, from the 1st century downwards. At 
the beginning of the year 313 Oonstantine issued his celebrated 
decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all 
other religions. This was the decisive step which led to the union 
of the church with the state. In 325 the first oecumenical council 
was held at Nicaea , and in 337 the emperor caused himself to be 
baptised when on his death-bed. Tradition attributes the earliest 
ecclesiastical division of Rome into seven diaconates to St. Clement, 
the fourth bishop , and St. Peter is said to have founded the first 
place of worship in the house of the senator Pudens, now the 
church of S. Pudenziana (p. 152). To Callistus I. (217-22) is 
ascribed the foundation of the church of 8. Maria in Trastevere 
(p. 322), and to Urban, his successor, that of S. Cecilia (p. 323). 
About the beginning of the fourth century <S. Alessio and 5. Prisca 
on the Aventine are supposed to have been founded. Of these 
chuTches, however, and also of the edifices erected by Constantine, 
no trustworthy record has been handed down to us. To that 
monarch tradition attributes the foundation of the following 
churches — the Lateran, St. Peter's, S. Paolo Fuori, 8. Croce in 
Oerusalemme, 8. Agnese Fuori, S. Lorenzo Fuori, and SS. Pietro e 
Marcellino at Tone Pignattara (p. 344), — but probably errone- 
ously , with the exception of the first , which was styled 'omnium 
urbis et orbis ecelesiarum mater et caput'. It is, however, note- 
worthy that the oldest and most important churches were generally 
outside the gates, or at least in their immediate vicinity ; and this 
is accounted for by the fact that the Roman aristocracy at fiTst clung 
tenaciously to the old traditions, and for a long period the city pre- 
served its heathen character. The state at length overcame this 
antagonism. In 382 the altar of Victoria was removed from the 
senate-hall, and in 408 the ancient religion was at length deprived 



xxxii HISTORY. Early Middle Ages. 

by a law of Honorius of all its temporal possessions , and thus in- 
directly of its spiritual authority also. The destruction of the an- 
cient temples, or their transformation into Christian places of wor- 
ship now began, and the churches rapidly increased in number. At 
this early period Rome possessed 28 parish churches (tituli) , be- 
sides numerous chapels, and among them arose the Ave Patriarchal 
Churches, presided over by the pope, and forming a community to 
which the whole body of believers throughout the world was con- 
sidered to belong. These five were S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. 
Pietro, S. Paolo, S. Lorenzo, and the church of S. Maria Maggiore 
founded by Liberius. Besides these, $. Croce in Gerusalemme and 
S. Sebastiano, erected over the catacombs of the Via Appia, enjoyed 
special veneration. These formed the 'Seven Churches of Rome' to 
which pilgrims flocked from every part of western Christendom. 
The number of monasteries now steadily increased, and at the same 
time the inroads of poverty made rapid strides. 

In the 4th Century the cultivation of the Roman Campagna 
began to be seriously neglected, and in an official document of the 
year 395 it is stated that upwards of 500 square miles of arable land 
had been abandoned and converted into morass. The malaria at the 
same time extended its baneful sway from the coast into the in- 
terior of the country. The storms of the barbarian irruptions greatly 
aggravated the misery. Although the Vandals and Goths are often 
erroneously held responsible for the destruction of all the great 
monuments of antiquity , which , on the contrary, Theodoric the 
Great did his utmost to protect , Rome doubtless suffered terribly 
from having been the scene of their battles and pillagings. In 410 
the city was plundered by Alaric, and in 445 by the Vandals , and 
in 537 it sustained its first siege from the Goths under Vitiges. 
They laid waste the Campagna and cut off all the supplies of water 
brought to the city by the aqueducts , but the skill of Belisarius, 
and the strength of the walls , particularly those of the Castle of 
S. Angelo, effectually repelled their attacks on the city. In March 
538 they were at length compelled to abandon their designs, after 
having beleaguered the city for upwards of a year. In December 
546, Totila, the king of the Goths, entered Rome, and is said to 
have found not more than 500 persons within the walls of the 
devastated city. Belisarius then repaired the walls, which had been 
partially destroyed, and in 547 he sustained a second siege. In 549 
the city again fell into the hands of Totila , but in 552 it was re- 
captured by Narses and once more united with the Byzantine empire. 
About this period the city was reduced by war, pestilence and 
poverty to a depth of misery which was never again paralleled ex- 
cept during the absence of the papal court at Avignon. No thorough 
restoration was possible, for the Byzantine emperors cared nothing 
for Rome, and in the Lombards arose new enemies to their dynasty 
in Italy. In 663 Constans II. visited Rome , an interval of 306 



The Papacy. HISTORY. xxxiii 

years having elapsed since it had been entered by a Byzantine em- 
peror, and availed himself of the opportunity to carry off the last 
remains of the bronze with which the ancient monuments were de- 
corated. In 755 the Longobards under their duke Aistulf besieged 
Rome for two months and ruthlessly devastated the Campagna, 
which during the preceding interval of peace had begun to wear a 
more smiling aspect. A lamentation of that period begins thus : — 
'NoMlibus quondam fueras constructa patronis, 

Subdita nunc servis, hen male Roma mis; 
Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges, 
Cessit et ad Grfficos nomen honosque tuus\ 
and terminates with the words : — 

'Nam nisi te Petri meritum Paulique foveret, 
Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores'. 

It was in fact the tradition , indelibly attaching to Rome, of the 
great struggles and victories of Christianity which preserved the 
city from total destruction. The transformation of heathen into 
Christian Rome was accompanied by the gradual development of the 
Papacy as the supreme ecclesiastical power in the West. Leo the 
Great (440-461) and Gregory the Great (590-604) may be regarded 
as the chief originators of this scheme of aggrandisement. These 
prelates and their successors were indefatigable in their efforts to 
realise their project, and under their auspices, notwithstanding the 
poverty and misery into which Rome had sunk , new churches and 
monasteries were constantly springing up among the ruins of the 
monuments of antiquity , and the last feeble spark of artistic taste 
which still survived was devoted to the decoration of these build- 
ings. The objects at which they chiefly aimed were independence 
of Byzantium, the subjection of the Eastern church to the court of 
Rome, and the conversion of the heathen Germans, the accomplish- 
ment of which would materially pave the way for their ulterior am- 
bitious schemes. In 727 the Longobard king Luitprand presented 
Sutri, which had been captured by him, to the pope, this being the 
first instance of a town being presented to the church, and this gift 
constituted a basis for the subsequent formation of the States of the 
Church. In 755, on the invitation of the pope, the Frankish king 
Pepin proceeded to Italy and practically put an end to the Byzan- 
tine supremacy. It is not known whether that monarch actually 
fulfilled his promise of making over the Exarchate of Ravenna and 
the other towns to the representative of St. Peter ; but it is certain 
that the temporal power of the popes and their supremacy over Rome 
dates from the grants made by Pepin to the church. On Christmas 
Day, in the year 800, Charlemagne was crowned by Leo III., and 
from that period dates the career of the 'Holy Roman Empire' and 
the Medieval History of Rome and the Roman Catholic Church. 

A characteristic of this period is to be found in the numerous, 
many-storied towers of red brick which contrast so strongly with 
the monuments of ancient Rome. This style of architecture was 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. c 



xxxiv HISTORY. The Middle Ages. 

developed in the Carlovingian epoch, although most of these towers 
now extant were not erected before the 12th or 13th century. In 
still greater numbers sprang up towers of a defensive character, a 
few only of which, such as the so-called Torre di Nerone (p. 149), 
are still preserved. The forest of towers , belonging to numerous 
different owners , which reared themselves oyer the ruins of the 
mistress of the world, affords at the same time a clue to the 
character of the whole epoch ; for , in spite of the nominal sway 
exercised over the greater part of Europe by the pope and the em- 
peror, continual feuds raged both at Rome and elsewhere between 
the temporal and spiritual powers , and between the nobility and 
the populace. The great monuments of antiquity were now doomed 
to utter destruction, and their fate is thus described by the historian 
Gregovorius (iii, 565) : — 

'Charlemagne had already set the example of carrying off ancient 
columns and sculptures to adorn his cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the 
popes, who regarded the greatest monuments of Rome as the property ot 
the state, possessed neither taste, nor time, nor ability to take measures 
for their preservation. The plundering of ancient buildings became the 
order of the day. The priests were indefatigable in transferring antique 
columns and marbles to their churches ; the nobles, and even the abbots, 
took possession of magnificent ancient edifices which they disfigured by 
the addition of modern towers ; and the citizens established their work- 
shops, rope-walks, and smithies in the towers and circuses of imperial 
Borne. The fisherman selling his fish near the bridges over the Tiber, 
the butcher displaying his meat at the theatre of Marcellus, and the baker 
exposing his bread for sale, deposited their wares on the magnificent slabs 
of marble which had once been used as seats by the senators in the 
theatre or circus and perhaps by Caesar, Mark Antony, Augustus, and 
other masters of the world. The elaborately sculptured sarcophagi of 
Eoman heroes were scattered in every direction and converted into 
cisterns, washing-vats, and troughs for swine ; and the table of the tailor 
and the shoemaker was perhaps formed of the cippus of some illustrious 
Roman, or of a slab of alabaster once used by some noble Roman matron 
for the display of her jewellery. For several centuries Rome may be said 
to have resembled a vast lime-kiln, into which the costliest marbles were 
recklessly cast for the purpose of burning lime; and thus did the Ro- 
mans incessantly pillage, burn, dismantle, and utterly destroy their glorious 
old city'. 

Leo IV. (847-855) encircled the 'Leonine City' with a wall, and 
erected other useful structures, which indicate a renewed period of 
prosperity ; but the ravages of the Saracens in the city and its en- 
virons soon prevented farther progress. When at length these bar- 
barians were finally subdued by John X. (914-928), the city was 
repeatedly besieged and captured by German armies during the contest 
for the imperial supremacy ; and subsequently, in consequence of 
incessant civic feuds , the whole city was converted into a number 
of distinct fortified quarters, with castellated houses, in the construc- 
tion of which numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly 
destroyed for the sake of the building materials they afforded. Every 
temporary re-establishment of peace was invariably followed by new 
scenes of devastation, as when the senator Brancaleone dismantled 
no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of the warlike nobles. 



Modem Times. HISTORY. xxxv 

The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at length 
compelled Clement V. (1305-16) in 1309 to transfer the seat of the 
pontifical government to Avignon, where it remained till 1377, 
whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
Neapolitans and Germans , Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief 
period (1347) Cola di Bienzi even succeeded in restoring the an- 
cient republican form of government. This was an epoch of the ut- 
most misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced the popu- 
lation to less than 20,000 souls. 

A happier era was inaugurated by the return of Gregory XI. 
(1370-78) to the city (1377). After the termination of the papal 
schism (1378-1417), the new development of the city progressed 
rapidly, aided by the vast sums of money which flowed into the papal 
coffers, and by the revival of taste for art and science promoted by 
Nicholas V. (1447-55), Julius II. (1503-13), LeoX. (1513-22), etc. 
In 1527 the city was devastated by the troops of Charles of Bourbon; 
but it gradually recovered from the blow, its population again in- 
creased, many palaces were reared by papal favourites, while the 
popes and their cardinals restored the old churches and vied with 
each other in building new ones. This was especially the case dur- 
ing the pontificate of Sixtus V. (1585-90), to whom modern Rome 
is chiefly indebted for its characteristic features. Comp. p. lxix. 

In 1798 a republic was established for a short period at Rome, 
and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under the supremacy of France. 
A republican form of government was again declared in 1849, in 
consequence of the events of 1848, but Pius IX. was restored by the 
French in 1850. The city was then garrisoned by 15,000 French 
troops, who were withdrawn in 1866, in accordance with the con- 
vention of 1864; but they were recalled after the Garibaldian 
hostilities of 1867, and were quartered in the environs until the 
breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On 20th Sept. of 
that year the Italian troops marched into the city, after a bombard- 
ment of five hours. The States of the Church are now incorporated 
with the kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is once more the capital. 
The population of the city in 1870 was about 215,000> — On Jan. 
9. 1878 occurred the death of Victor Emmanuel II. , and the ac- 
cession of Humbert I. 



xxxvi Chronolog. Table of HISTORY. Emperors and Popes. 
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF ROMAN EMPERORS AND POPES. 



B.C. 


Rom. Emp 


Popes ». 


A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


44 


Julius Caesar 




238 


Gordian III. 






murdered. 




244 


Philip the 




28 


Caesar Octa- 






Arabian. 






viauus Au- 




249 


Decius. 




A.D. 


gustus. 




251 


Gallus and 




14 


Tiberius. 






Volusianus. 


Cornelius, 


37 


Caligula. 




252 




251-252. 


41 


Claudius. 




253 


yEmilianus. 


LuciusL, 252-253. 


54 


Nero. 






Valerianus. 


Stephen I., 


67 




Martyrdom of 
St. Peter. 


257 




253-257. 
Sixtus II., 


68 


Galba. 


Linus, 67-79. 


260 


Gallienus. 


257-258. 


69 


Otho. 








Dionysius, 




Vitellius. 




268 


Claudius II. 


259-269. 


69 


Vespasian. 




270 


Aurelian. 


Felix I., 269-274. 


79 


Titus. 


Anacletus, 79-91. 


275 


Tacitus. 




81 


Domitian. 


Clement, 91-100. 


276 


Florianus. 


Eutychianus. 


96 


Nerva. 






Probus. 




98 


Trajan. 




282 


Carus. 




100 




Euaristus. 


283 


Carinus and 




109 




Alexander I. 




Numerianus. 




117 


Hadrian. 




283 






119 




Sixtus I. 


284 


Diocletian. 


Cajus. 


128 




Telesphorus. 


296 






138 


AntoninusPius 




306 


Constantius 


Marcellinus. 


139 




Hyginus. 




Chlorus and 




142 




Pius I. 




Maximianus 




157 




Anicetus. 




Galerius. 




161 


Marcus Au- 
relius. 




306 


Constantine 
the Great 




168 




Soter. 




(sole Emp. 




177 




Eleutherus. 




324-337). 




180 


Commodus. 




307 


Maximin II. 




190 




Victor I., 190-202. 




Severus. 




193 


Pertinax. 
Didius Ju- 






Licinus. 
Maxentius. 






lianus. 




308 




Marcellus 


193 


Septimius 




309 




Eusebius. 




Severus. 




311 




Melchiades. 


202 




Zephyrinus, 
202-218. 


314 
336 




Sylvester I. 
Marcus. 


212 


Caracalla 
(Geta d. 212.) 




337 


3onstantine II. 
3onstantius. 


Julius I. 


217 


Macrinus. 






3onstans. 




218 


Heliogabalus. 


Callistus I.. 


352 




Liberius. 
Felix II. 


222 


Alexander 


218-222. 


355 






Severus. 


Urbanus I., 


360 


Julian. 




223 




223-230. 


363 


Jovian. 




230 




Pontianus, 








235 


Maximums. 


230-235. 


364 


Valenti- 


o u 




236 




Anterus, 235-236. 




nian I. 


o'S, 




238 


Gordianl. &II. 


Fabianus, 




and 


,.s a 






Pupienus and 


236-250. 




Valens. 


*-« ^ 




1 


Balbinus. 








£-3 





(a) The dates of the popes down to Constantine are uncertain havine 
been handed down by vague tradition only. uncertain, having 



Chronolog. Table of HISTORY. Emperors and Popes, xxxvii 



A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


366 




Damasus I. 


615 




Deusdeditus. 


367 


Gratian. 




619 




Boniface V. 


375 


Valentinian II. 




625 




Honorius I. 


379 


Theodosi«s(sole 
Emp. 392-395) 




640 




Severinus. 
John IV. 


383 


Arcadius. 




642 




Theodorus I. 


384 




Siricius. 


649 




St. Martin I. 


395 


Honorius ». 




655 




St. Eugene I. 


398 




Anastasius I. 


657 




St. Vitalianus. 


402 




Innocent I. 


672 




Adeodatus. 


417 




Zosimus. 


676 




Donus I. 


418 




Boniface I. 


678 




St. Agathus. 


422 




Coelestinus I. 


682 




St. Leo II. 


425 


Valentinian III 




684 




St. Benedict II. 


432 




Sixtus III. 


685 




John V. 


440 




Leo I., the Great. 


686 




Conon. 


455 


Petronius 




687 




St. Sergius I. 




Maximus 




701 




John VI. 


455- 


Avitus. 




705 




John VII. 


475 


Majorianus. 
Lib. Severus. 




708 




Sisinnius. 
Constantine I. 




Anthemius. 




715 




St. Gregory II. 




Olybrius. 


Hilarius 461-468. 


731 




St. Gregory III. 




Glycerius. 


Simplicius 


741 




St. Zacharias. 




Julius Nepos. 


468-483. 


752 




Stephen II. 


475 


Romulus Au- 








Stephen III. 




gustulus. 




757 




St. Paul I. 


476 


End of the W. 




767 




Constantine II. 




RomanEmpire 




768 




Philip. 


483 




Felix III. 






Stephen IV. 


492 




Gelasius I. 


772 




Hadrian I. 


496 




Anastasius II. 


795 




St. Leo III. 


498 




Symmachus. 




Rom. Emp. of 




514 




Hormisdas. 




Qerm. origin c 




523 




John I. 


800 


Charlemagne. 




526 




Felix IV. 


814 


Louis thePious 




530 




Boniface II. b 


816 




Stephen V. 


532 




John II. 


817 




St. Paschalis I. 


535 




St. Agapetus I. 


824 




Eugene II. 


536 




St. Silverius. 


827 




Valentinus. 


538 




Vigilius. 






Gregory IV. 


555 




Pelagius I. 


843 


Lothaire. 




560 




John III. 


844 




Sergius II. 


574 




Benedict I. 


847 




St. Leo IV. 


578 




Pelagius II. 


855 


Louis II. 


Benedict III. 


590 




St. Gregory I. the 


858 




St. Nicholas I. 






Great. 


867 




Hadrian II. 


604 




Sabinianus. 


872 




John VIII. 


607 




Boniface III. 


875 


Charles the 




608 




S. Boniface IV. 




Bald. 





(a) From 395, the year of the death of Theodosius, the division of the 
Empire became permanent; in the above table the Emperors of the W. 
Roman Empire only are enumerated. 

(b) Thus far all the popes have been canonised. 

(<9 The names of a few English sovereigns, especially those who appear 
most prominently in papal history, have been added to this column to 
facilitate realisation of contemporary history. 



xxxviii Chronolog. Table of HISTORY. Emperors and Popes. 



A.D. 


Eom. Emp. 


Popes. 


A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


881 


Charles the 








(Hildebrand.) 




Fat. 




1087 




Victor III. 


883 




Marinas I. 


1088 




Urban II. 


884 




Hadrian III. 


1099 




Paschalis II. 


885 




Stephen VI. 


1106 


Henry V. 




887 


Arnulf. 




1118 




Gelasius II. 


891 




Formosus. 


1119 




Calixtus II. 


896 


[Alfred the 


Boniface VI. 


1124 




Honorius II. 




Great ofEng- 


Stephen VII. 


1125 


Lothaire of 




897 


land,871-901.] 


Romanus I. 




Saxony. 








Theodoras II. 


1130 




Innocent II. 


898 




John IX. 








900 


Louis the 
Child. 


Benedict IV. 


1138 


Conrad III. 
of Hohen- 




903 




Leo V. 




staufen. 








Chris tophorus. 


1143 




Coelestine II. 


904 




Sergius III. 


1144 




Lucius II. 


911 


Conrad I. 


Anastasius III. 


1145 




Eugene III. 


913 




Landonius. 


1152 


Frederick I. 




914 




John X. 




Barharossa. 




919 


Henry I. 




1153 




Anastasius IV. 


928 




Leo VI. 


1154 


[Henry II. of 


Hadrian IV. 


929 




Stephen VIII. 


1159 


England, 1154 


Alexander III. 


931 




John XI. 


1181 


-1189.] 


Lucius III. 


936 


Otho I. 


Leo VII. 


1185 




Urban III. 


939 




Stephen IX. 


1187 




Gregory VIII. 


942 




Marinus II. 


1187 




Clement III. 


946 




Agapetus II. 


1190 


Henry VI. 




955 




John XII. 


1191 




Coelestine III. 


963 




Leo VIII. 


1198 


Philip of Swa- 


Innocent III. 


964 




Benedict V. 




bia and 




965 




John XIII. 




Otho IV. 




973 


Otho II. 


Benedict VI. 




[Richard Coeur 




974 




Benedict VII. 
Boniface VII. 




de Lion, 1189 
-1199.] 




983 


Otho III. 


John XIV. 


1212 


Frederick II. 




985 




John XV. 


1216 


[John Lack- 


Honorius III. 


996 




Gregory V. 


1227 


land , 1199- 


Gregory IX. 


999 




Sylvester II. 


1241 


1216.] 


Coelestine IV. 


1002 


Henry II. 




1243 




Innocent IV. 


1003 




John XVII. 


1250 


Conrad IV. 




1009 




John XVIII. 


1254 


Interregnum. 


Alexander IV. 




Sergius IV. 


1261 




Urban IV. 


1012 




Benedict VIII. 


1265 




Clement IV. 


1024 
1033 
1039 
1045 


Conrad II. 
Henry III. 


John XIX. 
Benedict IX. 

Gregory VI. 


1271 
1273 

1276 


Rudolph of 
Hapsburg. 


Gregory X. 
Innocent V. 


1048 
1049 
1055 
1056 
1057 
1058 
1059 




Clement II. 




Edward I. of 


Hadrian V. 


Henry IV. 


Damasus II. 
St. Leo IX. 
Victor II. 

Stephen X. 
Benedict X. 
Nicholas II. 


1277 
1281 
1285 
1288 
1292 


England, 1272 
-1307.] 

Adolph of 


John XX. 
or XXI. 
Nicholas III. 
Martin IV. 
lonorius IV. 
Nicholas IV. 




[William the 






Nassau. 




1061 
1073 


Conqueror, 
1066-1087.] 


Alexander II. 
Gregory VII. [| 


1294 
1295 




3t. Coelestine V. 
Boniface VIII. 



Chronolog. Table of HISTORY. Emperors and Popes, xxxix 



A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


1298 


Albert I. 




1550 


England, 1553 


Julius III. (Joan. 


1303 




Benedict XI. 




-1558.] 


Maria de Monte). 


1305 




Clement V. 


1555 




Marcellus II. 


1308 


Henry VII. of 
Luxembourg. 








Paul IV. (Gian 
Pietro Caraffa 


1314 


Louis of Ba- 




1556 


Ferdinand I. 


of Naples). 




varia and 




1559 


[Elizabeth of 


Pius IV. (Joan. 




Frederick of 


, 




England, 1558 


Angelus Medici 




Austria. 






-1603.] 


of Milan). 


1316 


[Edward III. of 


John XXII. 


1564 


Maximilian II. 




1334 


England, 1327 


Benedict XII. 


1565 




St. Pius V. 


1342 


-1377.] 


Clement VI. 






(Ghislieri of 


1346 


Charles IV. of 








Piedmont). 




Luxembourg. 




1572 




Gregory XIII. 


1352 




Innocent VI. 






(Ugo Buon- 


1362 




Urban V. 






compagni of 


1370 




Gregory XI. 






Bologna). 


1378 


Wenzel. 


Urban VI. 


1576 


Rudolph II. 




1389 




Boniface IX. 


1585 




Sixtus V. (Felix 


1400 


Rupert of the 








Peretti). 




Palatinate. 




1590 




Urban VII. 


1404 




Innocent VII. 






(Giambattista 


1406 




Gregory XII. 






Castagna of 


1409 




Alexander V. 






Rome). 


1410 


Sigismund. 


John XXIII. 


1590 




Gregory XIV. 


1417 


[Henry V. of 
England, 1413 


Martin V. 






(Nic. Sfondrati 
of Milan). 


1431 


-1422.] 


Eugene IV. 


1591 




Innocent IX. 


1438 


Albert II. 








(Giannantonio 


1440 


Frederick III. 








Facchinetti of 


1447 




Nicholas V. 






Bologna). 


1455 


[Henry VI. of 


Calixtus HI. 


1592 




Clement VIII. 


1458 


England, 1422 


Pius II. (.ffineas 






(Hippolyt. Aldo- 




-1461.] 


Sylvius, Siena). 






brandini of 


■ 1464 




Paul II. 




[James I. of 


Florence). 


1471 




Sixtus IV. 


1605 


England, 1603 


Leo XI. (Alexan- 






(Francis della 




-1625.] 


der Medici). 






Rovere of 






Paul V. (Camillo 






Savona). 






Borghese). 


1484 


[Henry VII. of 


Innocent VIII. 


1612 


Matthias. 






England, 1485 


(Joann. B. Cibo 


1619 


Ferdinand II. 






-1509.] 


of Genoa). 


1621 


[Charles I. of 


Gregory XV. 


1492 




Alexander VI. 




England, 1625 


(Alexander Lu- 






(Roder. Borgia). 




-1649.] 


dovisi). 


1493 


Maximilian I. 




1623 




UrbanVIII. (Mat 


1503 


[Henry VIII. of 


Pius III. (Fran- 






feo Barberini). 




England,1509 


cis Piccolomini 


1637 


Ferdinand III. 






-1547.] 


of Siena). 


1644 


[Common- 


Innocent X. 


1503 




Julius II. (Julian 




wealth and 


(Giambattista 






della Rovere). 




Protectorate, 


Pamfili). 


1513 




Leo X. (John de' 




1649-1660.] 








Medici). 


1655 




Alexander VII. 


1519 


Charles V. 








(Fabio Chigi of 


1522 




Hadrian VI. 






Siena). 






(of Utrecht). 


1658 


Leopold I. 




1523 




Clement VII. 


1667 


[Charles II. of 


Clement IX. 






(Julius Medici). 




England, 1660 


(Giul. Rospig- 


1534 


[Mary I. of 


Paul III. (Alex- 
ander Farnese). 




-1685.] 


liosi). 



xl Chronolog. Table of HISTORY. Emperors and Pcpes. 



A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


A.D. 


Rom. Emp. 


Popes. 


1670 




Clement X. 


1765 


Joseph II. 








(EmilioAltieri). 


1769 




Clement XIV. 


1676 




Innocent XI. 
(Benedetto 
Odescalchi). 






(Giov. Ant. Gan- 
ganelli of Ri- 
mini). 


1689 




Alexander XIII. 


1775 




Pius VI. (Giov. 




[William III. 


(Pietro Otto- 






Ang. Braschi). 




and Mary II. 


buoni). 


1790 


Leopold II. 






of England, 




1792 


Francis II. 






1688-1702.] 




1800 




Pius VII. (Gre- 


1691 




Innocent XII. 
(Ant. Pigna- 






gorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti of 






telli). 




[George IV. of 


Cesena). 


1700 




Clement XI. 


1823 


England, 1820 


Leo XII. (Annib. 






(Giov. Franc. 




-1830.] 


della Genga of 


1705 


Joseph I. 


Albani). 






Spoleto). 


1711 


Charles VI. 




1829 




Pius VIII. 


1721 




Innocent XIII. 
(Mich. Ang. de 






(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 




[George II. of 


Conti). 






Cingoli). 


1724 


England, 1727 


Benedict XIII. 


1831 




Gregory XVI. 




-1760.] 


(Vine. Maria 
Orsini). 






(Mauro Capellari 
of Belluno). 


1730 




Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cor- 
sini). 


1846 




Pius IX. (Gio- 
vanni Maria 
Mastai - Feretti 


1740 




Benedict XIV. 






of Senigallia). 






(Prosp. Lam- 


1878 




Leo XIII. 






bertini). 






(Gioachino 


1742 


Charles VII. 
of Bavaria. 








Pecci of Carpi- 
neto, b, 2.March 


1745 


Francis I. 








1810, Cardinal 


1758 


[George III. of 


Clement XIII. 






1853. Pope 20. 




England, 1760 


(Carlo Rezzo- 






Feb. 1878). 




-1820.] 


nico of Venice). 









MARTINUS y. 
14-17 •'SrX 1*31 




COLONNA 



pius n. pius m. 

1503 




PICCOLOMINI 



EUGENIUS W. 
1*31 / \ 14-17 




CONDOLMIERI 



PAULUS n. 
1464- ./"~^x 14-71 




BARBO 



NICOLAUS V 
1447 /• X 1*55 




PARENTUCELLI 



SIXTUS IV. 
1+71 /dTX 1484 




DELLAROVERE 



calixtus m. 

1455 /CT-\ 1458 




INNOCENTIUS Vm. 
1484 /TF\ 1492 




CIBO 



ALEXANDER VI. 
1492 /ST\ 1503 




JULIUS H. 
1503 /<r>\ 1513 




LEOX. LEOXI. 
1605 



HADKIANITSVI.CLEMENSm 





BORGIA 



DELLAROVERE 



MEDICI 



(UTRECHT) MEDICI 



PAULUS in. 
1534 /"T"X 1549 




JULIUS ffl. 
1550 /TI>. 1555 




AIARCELLUS H. 
1555 




PAULUS IV 
1555 yerT 7 -**. 1559 




DEL MONTE 



CERVINO 



CARRAFA 



PIUS TV. 
1559 /"^TX 15G5 




PIUS V 
1566 ^<~\ 1572 




GREGORIUS Xm. 
1572 / X 1585 



SIXTUS V. 




1585 




1590 



MEDICI 



GHISLIERI 



BUONCOMPAGNO 



PERETTI 



URBANUS-VntASTAGNA) 
1590. - 1 




CLEMENS VOL 
1592 / \ 1605 




PAULUS V. 
1605 /"IfX 1621 



1591 
CHEGOBnjSIffilNNOCENT.Ix] ALDOBRANDINI 




GREGORIUS XV. 
1621 /T\ 1623 



BORGHESE 




LUDOVIS 



Geograph. Anst.von Wagner t Debes, Leipzi 



URBANUS VHI. 
1623 / X 1644- 




BARBERINI 



INNOCENTIUS X. 
1644 /TmK 1655 




ALEXANDER TH. 
1655 y<7PX 1667 




CHIGI 



CLEMENS K. 
1667 /H§i^ 1669 




ROSPIGLIOSI 



CLEMENS X. 
1670 / "X 1676 




INNOCENTIUS XI. 
1676 x?3S\ 1689 




ALEXANDER VHI. 
1689 /C^\ 1691 




INNOCENTIUS 2H. 
1691 X \ 1700 




ALTIERI 



ODESCALCHI 



OTTOBONI 



PIONATELLI 



CLEMENS XI. 
1700 /"~-\ 1721 




INNOCENTIUSXI1I. 
1721 /«3""\ 1724- 




BENED1CTUS XHI. 
1724- XTIFX 1730 




CLEMENS XI. 
1730 X*«1K\ 1740 




ALB AN I 



ORSINI 



CORSINI 



BENEDICTUS XIV. 
1740 /fTTX 1758 




CLEMENS Xm. 
1758 ^<T~\ 1769 




CLEMENS XW. 
1769 XtSTX 17?* 



PltTSTH. 





LAMBERTINI 



PIUS vn. 
1800 /"T"~X 1823 




CHIARAMONTI 



PUTS IX. 
1816 /^T\ 1878 




REZZONICO 



GANGANELLI 



BRASCHI 



LEO XH. 
1823 S "N, 1829 




PIUS vm. 

1829 / ~\ 1830 




GREGORIUS XVL 
1B31 /TX 184€ 



DELLA GENGA 



CASTIGLIONE 



LEO XIH. 



1878 



.MASTAI-VERETTI 





PEC CI 




;t.V[mWn6i».rJTl n t, DO I 



Ancient Art 

A HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

"As the streams lose themselves in 
the mightier Ocean , so the history of 
the peoples once distributed along the 
Mediterranean shores is absorbed in that 
of the mighty Mistress of the World". 
Niebuhk. 

The traveller -who would not wander through the galleries of 
Rome in mere vacant wonderment may hear in mind these words of 
Niehuhr. As a preface to the following pages, they will not only 
help the intelligent observer to a worthy appreciation of the master- 
pieces presented to him, but enable him to invest them with appro- 
priate historical associations . 

Amongst the crowd of statues which fill the galleries and cham- 
bers of the Vatican and Capitol of Rome are to be seen the noblest 
examples of Antique Sculpture. These do not, however, stand in the 
same relation to Imperial Rome as, for example, the frescoes of Fra 
Angelico in the Cloisters of St. Mark, or those of Andrea del Sarto 
in the Church of the Annunziata to Florence, or as the masterpieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo to mediaeval and pontifical Rome. 
These latter originated, so to speak , with her, were her peculiar 
attributes, the fitting emblems of her ecclesiastical supremacy. The 
genius which created them, she inspired, fostered, and rewarded. 
On the other hand, Rome, the mistress of the World, the Rome 
of ancient history, though attracting to herself the accumulated 
treasures of entire epochs of Greek ait, though through her inter- 
position names , which otherwise must have remained mere phan- 
tom sounds , survive to receive individually the homage due to 
their transcendent genius , had nevertheless as little influence 
on the marvellous development of Greek art, as London had upon 
the Italian Renaissance, on Giotto and Masaccio , on Raphael and 
Michael Angelo. In fact, those particular works, which, while they 
fill the mind with a wonder akin to awe, minister to our noblest 
gratification, and in the presence of whose marvellous perfection all 
subsequent efforts are dwarfed into insignificance, occupied in Rome 
ages ago, and still occupy, a place corresponding to that which 



xlii ANCIENT ART. 

the masterpieces of the Italian and other schools of painting fill in 
the galleries of London, Paris, and Dresden. Winckelmann was the 
first to trace in hold and comprehensive outline the history of Art 
amongst the Ancients , from its infancy and earlier growth to its 
maturity and gradual decline. Following in the wake of Winckel- 
mann, unceasing research, patiently and persistently pursued, has 
served to confirm and extend his survey, and to supply, in addition, 
a host of particulars pregnant with interest. Those indeed, who have 
conducted this laborious quest , stimulated and directed hy the for- 
tunate recovery of monuments and various relics of antiquity, have 
been the means of determining the history of Antique Art, so far at 
least as Sculpture and Architecture are concerned ; and this not only 
in its more salient features , but with an elaboration of detail , so 
careful and so well authenticated, that the authorship of numerous 
works is clearly established , and the interest and value of their 
discoveries in so far unspeakably enhanced. Much indeed remains 
to be done, and the path of the explorer is beset with doubt and 
difficulty; but the future promises farther encouragement, if not 
complete solution. 

In Art, the Greeks were content to learn from nations whose 
civilisation preceded theirs. Long before the first image was graven 
by Grecian hands, the Egyptians, as far as history acquaints us, had 
been the first to overcome those difficulties in the choice of a suitable 
form of expression inseparable from every fresh manifestation of Art. 
They had established a well-defined system , a traditional style, 
which was exemplified as well in their Sculpture as in their Archi- 
tecture. On the other hand the richly-elaborated Art of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, with its sumptuous wealth of decoration, must 
also of necessity have had its influence on the Greeks of Asia Minor. 
Grecian Art had, to begin with, not only adopted the method, 
implements, and workmanship of their predecessors ; it had possess- 
ed itself of their forms and not unfrequently of the motives of 
their imagery. Greece did not, however, accept this heritage of 
art in the spirit of slavish imitation. Architectural models were not 
adopted in their entirety. Each part separately, each ornament in 
itself, became the centre of a new conception, and this conception 
once embodied became a distinct type , the expression of a taste 
purely Greek. In like manner they treated tho conventional render- 
ing of the human form transmitted to them. This, by constant 
reference to the living model, they continued to manipulate and 
modify until they attained to that profound and comprehensive 
grasp of nature, which to this day remains the subject of wonder 
and delight to our greatest artists. The way thus traversed was 
long and wearisome. It carries us back through an incalculable suc- 
cession of ages into the impenetrable past. The oldest Ionic and 
Doric temples, although well-nigh of prehistoric antiquity, exhibit 
in all essential particulars a clearly-defined architectural system ; 



ANCIENT ART xliii 

and, let it be borne in mind, the architecture of the Greeks did not 
start into being as Athena from the head of Jupiter, fully armed 
and equipped. Careful observation will detect in the Orders associ- 
ated in name with the two principal Hellenic races evidences of a 
very gradual development. Subsequently, to these two orders was 
added a third, known as the Corinthian. It was inevitable that in 
the practice of Sculpture as well as Architecture divergences arose 
which may be characterised as provincialisms ; and it is equally 
intelligible that as Art in Greece assumed more and more majes- 
tic proportions , these 'provincialisms should have become less and 
less observable. 

They were finally obliterated by the glories of whatmay be distin- 
guished , in reference to art , as the Age op Pericles ; glories 
associated with the talismanic names of Phidias, Myron, and Poly- 
cletus in Sculpture, and of Ietinus and Mnesicles in Architecture. 
The golden age of the Italian Renaissance, when Raphael rilled the 
world with rapturous wonder, can alone be compared to a time 
which witnessed the surpassing achievements of art in Greece. Of 
the painters of this period, of Polygnotus for example, who flourished 
somewhat earlier, little can be ascertained. Their works have 
perished ; and all that we can learn of them is at best too hypothe- 
tical to be worthy of record. 

The name of Polycletus belongs to the Peloponnesus. The 
connoisseur of his day claimed for him the merit of having pre- 
sented the human form complete in its minutest details, correct in 
proportion, perfect in symmetry. One of his works in particular, 
the figure of a powerful youth armed with a spear (Doryphorus), 
was upheld as an example of the master's peculiar excellence, 
and hence was surnamed the Canon. As a counterpart to the Dory- 
phorus, and in like manner regarded as a type or model, is the figure 
of a youth of distinguished beauty, who with both hands folds a 
band round his head (Diadumenus). Of one of his Amazons it was 
said, that it surpassed even the Amazon of Phidias in beauty. 
Finally, especial glory was claimed for his statue of Hera placed 
in a temple dedicated to this goddess at Delphi. — Myron's chief 
delight was to portray the human form in action, but his success 
was, to say the least of it, partial. Thus he represents his Disco- 
bolus actually doubled up in the act of throwing the discus. In 
a group on the Acropolis at Athens the same artist has chosen for 
his subject the incident of Marsyas in the act of seizing the pipes 
which the Goddess Athena has rejected, and on which he plays 
while dancing with delight. He recoils in terror and bewilderment 
as the Goddess, suddenly appearing, dashes the pipes from his hand. 
Finally the Cow of Myron was especially popular. It was boasted 
of her that so lifelike was she that she deceived both man and beast : 
nay imposed even on a living calf. But mightiest amidst this 
sculptor band was Phidias. His colossal Statue of Zeus excited 



xliv ANCIENT ART. 

wonder even in Olympia. It was accounted a reproach not to have 
seen it. His principal works were, however, devoted to the adorn- 
ment of his native city Athens. The colossal figure of Athens' tute- 
lary deity, the virgin goddess Athena in the Parthenon, was from 
the hand of Phidias. "With him, we may assume , originated those 
plastic decorations of her temple the remains of which are preserved 
in Athens and in London ; and in all that his friend Pericles under- 
took with a view to enhance the beauty and glory of their native 
city, the creative genius , if not always the hand of Phidias was 
active. So completely indeed had he subjected to his irresistible 
will the resources of his art, so faT had he distanced all competi- 
tors, whether in the present or past, that the force of his genius, 
overstepping the narrow confines of Attica, imposed its sway upon 
successive generations of artists. Alcamenes and his favourite Ago- 
racritus were his most distinguished and successful pupils. The 
Statue of a Victor in the pentathlon by Alcamenes was, in a simi- 
lar way to the DoTyphorus of Polycletus , distinguished by the title 
of 'Enkrinomenus', or 'the classical'. 

In the history of Art, as in the history of Poetry, there usually 
succeeds to what Winckelmann terms the 'lofty style', which 
delights rather in depicting the sublime and majestic, a reaction in 
favour of a vein of sentiment more tender, more expressive of beauty 
in her gentler and more graceful aspects ; while at the same 
time freer and more forcible utterance is given to joy and anguish, 
and generally to the emotions and passions. Tenderness and grace 
were the divine attributes of Praxiteles and the family of whom he 
was chief. At this time when Athens , weary of conflict with the 
Hellenic confederacy, longed for peace , one of the family, Cephiso- 
dotus (the Elder) , produced his Irene and Plutus , the Goddess of 
Peace bearing in her arms the infantine god of riches, of which there 
is a copy in the Glyptothek in Munich. Praxiteles himself belongs 
to a succeeding generation. Above all his Eros in Thespia, his Satyr 
and the Aphrodite in Cnidus , were the wonder and delight of anti- 
quity. His sons Cephisodotus (the Younger) and Timarchos had 
also considerable repute. Scopas is usually regarded as the re- 
presentative of the more pathetic and impassioned expression in 
Art ; and amongst his numerous works a Group of Sea Deities and 
fantastical Sea Monsters is accounted particularly impressive. — 
The Niobe and her Children, afterwards carried to Rome, was at- 
tributed variously to Praxiteles and Scopas. Leochares, another 
contemporary of Scopas, is believed to be the author of a group re- 
presenting Ganymede borne to Olympus on the wings of an eagle. 

It is said that Alexander the Great would entrust the execu- 
tion of his portrait to none other than Lysippus of Sycium in the Pe- 
loponnesus : and with the name of Lysippus is associated a revolution 
in taste which culminated in this period. The painter and sculptor 
Euphranor, a contemporary of Lysippus, but older than he, whose 



ANCIENT ART. xhr 

especial delight it was to celebrate heroic exploit , had already 
with purpose and deliberation modified the recognised rules of pro- 
portion. Lysippus moulded the head smaller, and the figure rela- 
tively taller than had hitherto been the practice. In posing the 
figures too, either standing or in movement, as well as in the entire 
conception and rendering of Nature, he appears to have developed 
anew and with dazzling effect what hitherto had not been more 
than suggested. His forms, though of unmistakably Greek charac- 
ter, are more in conformity with modem taste than those of earlier 
artists. Among the best known works ofLysippus is the Apoxyomenus, 
the figure of a youth fresh from a struggle in the Palaestra, in the 
act of using the scraping iron. Gods and heroes, scenes of war and 
the chase, furnished him with subjects for a host of other works. 
Among his sons and pupils Laippus, Bo'edas, and Euthycrates, the 
last is most highly esteemed. Not only those of their generation but 
posterity agreed that Lysippus and the painter Apelles had reached 
the highest attainable point in the truthful rendering of nature, 
as well as in the more technical mastery of their art. The influence 
of Lysippus endured throughout and beyond the end of the follow- 
ing century. His method sufficed for the schools which succeeded 
him because the new spirit in which they worked had already 
triumphed in Lysippus. 

The conquests of Alexander and all that followed in their train 
— the glories and treasures of the East unfolded, mighty monarchies 
founded , stately cities built, and growing into centres of wealth and 
luxury, new forms of worship consequent upon a more intelligent 
study of nature — afforded conditions both material and other, 
which stimulated afresh the arts of Architecture and Sculpture. 
Henceforward Greek art vied , in the splendour of its colossal pro- 
portions, with that of the East. The deeds of victorious monarchs 
were her favourite theme : she was indefatigable in the contrivance 
of new forms of luxury and fresh splendour for city, mansion, and 
palace. Meanwhile, however, the Past was losing its hold upon her. 
The traditions of the Periclean age, which told how art was content 
to serve the household Gods with simple piety and to adorn domestic 
life, were but feebly remembered. Places once instinct with art 
life were lost in the new and overwhelming growth of cities, now 
the emporiums of the world's commerce: Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioeh on the Orontes in Syria, Pergamum, and Rhodes. — As an 
example of what Greek art was doing about this time in Egypt, we 
may mention the reclining figure of the River-god of the Nile. Around 
this colossal personage , so benignant in aspect , play, with true in- 
fantine grace , sixteen cherub-like children. These are symbols of 
the 16 cubits , the measure of that periodical rise in the Nile's 
waters which annually submerges the land and endows Egypt with 
perennial fruitfulness. — A pupil of Lysippus, one Eutychides, re- 
presented the city of Antioch in a group of considerable grace. The 



xM ANCIENT ART. 

tutelary deity (Tyche) of the city is seated on a rook. In her right 
hand she holds ears of corn , and on her head she -wears a mural 
Mown ; while at her feet appears, in the shape of a youth rising out 
of the earth , the river-god Orontes (the river actually flows under- 
ground for some distance). 

The sculptors of Peuqamum celehrated the victories of their kings 
over the Celts. The statue of the Dying Gaul (the so called 'dying 
gladiator'") in the museum of the Capitol, and the Group of Gauls in 
the Museum Boncampagni are most impressive examples of the man- 
ner in which they were inspired by the theme. The northern barbarian, 
differing widely as he did in configuration, costume, and habit from 
the Greek, was a study of engrossing interest to the sculptor, and 
was reproduced with physiological accuracy. At the same time, 
that the fame of the victor might be magnified to the utmost, the 
sculptor sought to embody all that was admirable in the character 
of the vanquished: his ill-trained but chivalrous valour, his 
inflexible determination to die rather than suffer disgrace. So late 
as the 4th century A.D. there was still to be seen on the Acropolis 
a votive offering of King Attalus in the shape of a group with 
numerous figures representing the struggles of the gods with the 
giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, of the Athenians with 
the Persians, and Attalus himself with the Celts. Quite recently, 
figures have been recognised as belonging to these groups in the 
collections of Venice, Rome, and Naples. — Of the Rhodian School 
we have examples in the so-called Farnese Bull in the museum of 
Naples, and in the Laocoon. The date of the Laocoon has not been 
established. Since the days of Winckelmann, who assigned it to 
the time of Alexander, and of Lessing, who maintained that it 
belonged rather to that of Titus, there has been a constantly 
recurring controversy on the subject. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that the Rhodian School retained, as late as the reign of 
Titus, the vitality necessary for the production of so considerable 
a work. 

From the preceding pages it will be gathered how many crises 
and how varied a development had been experienced by Greek art 
down to the time when Rome herself came to be included within 
the charmed circle of Greek culture. Transplanted to strange lands, 
and subjected to new influences and associations, Greek art ex- 
changed its distinctive Greek character for one universal and cos- 
mopolitan. Rome had not been, it may be remarked, without an art 
she could call her own. The old City-Walls raised in the time of 
the Kings, the Career Mamertinus, and the Cloaca Maxima prove 
that the Romans could in times comparatively remote carry out 
architectural works on a grand scale, although principally for utili- 
tarian purposes. The rudiments of Sculpture they probably acquired 
from Etruscan artists, whose earliest attempts would be the exe- 
cution of images of the gods in wood and clay. In Etruria 



ANCIENT ART. xlvii 

where Greek influence had long been active, considerable proficiency 
as well as activity prevailed in the pursuit of art. although but 
scanty traces of the purity and elevation of Greek taste are dis- 
cernible. In Rome, however, the Greeks of Southern Italy grafted 
their art on that of the Etruscans. A bronze toilet casket (the so 
called Ficoronian Cista) found in Palestrina, which was executed in 
the workshop of Novius Plautius in the 3rd century B.C. , exhibits 
in its tracery a purity of design unmistakably Greek, although 
differing little in shape and plastic accessories from the very ordin- 
ary and often rude vessels of the period. The Romans highly esteem- 
ed faithful Portraits. Likenesses of ancestors were preserved in wax 
masks, and displayed on occasions of ceremony. The plastic art of 
the Etruscans gives evidence of a certain grasp of portraiture, which, 
though not profound, was still effective. As Roman rule extended 
itself over Southern Italy and Sicily, and later to Greece and the 
Asiatic continent, a constantly increasing number of works by Greek 
artists found their way to Rome, for the most part, probably, as spoil 
of war. Presently, too, the wealthy patrician, following the bent of 
his individual taste or the prevailing fashion, gave commissions for 
works to be executed in Greece, or in Rome itself, to which ne- 
cessity had brought many artists. Rome thus became the recognised 
centre of a taste and fashion which she could call her own. Both 
stood in close relation, not only in point of time, but in a community 
of idea and aspiration , to the art of a period immediately following 
the reign of Alexander. There is no doubt, however, that a vast 
number of works are accepted as specifically Roman only because all 
traces of the Greek models have been lost. From these, it may be 
taken for granted, the artists of Imperial Rome derived the designs 
or at least the suggestion of works of utility, as well as of buildings 
devoted to mere display, such as temples, palaces, triumphal 
arches, and tombs. 

The student familiar with the three orders of Architecture, viz. 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as they are to be seen in Athens, 
and comparing these examples with their reproductions in Rome, 
will have little difficulty in detecting a divergence which cannot 
be explained by differences either in forms of worship or in the 
general scope of the design (a conspicuous basement with flights of 
steps in front). The delicate modelling of the best period of Greek 
art was in Roman hands either simplified, and so denuded of its true 
artistic significance — looking in short like the work of the handi- 
craftsman — or so overloaded as to become hopelessly confused. 
Even in their most admirable buildings a mere profusion of super- 
ficial decoration is substituted for that perfect harmony pervading 
and animating the Greek structure , whether as a whole or in its 
minutest detail, which we find in the Parthenon for example. The 
Doric and Ionic orders found comparatively little favour with the 
Romans , and where they appear , it is rather in the form of mural 



xlviii ANCIENT AET. 

columns than entire shafts. The exquisite taper of the shaft was 
thus sacrificed , the capitals were not happily disposed , and the 
Doric column instead of springing, as with the Greeks, direct from 
the flooring received a separate base. The favourite style was the 
more ornate Corinthian ; and the Romans thought yet to add to the 
wealth of ornament hy superimposing upon the capital already 
veiled with the graceful form of the acanthus leaf, the volute and 
abacus of the Ionic capital. The entablature of the earlier orders 
is easily distinguished. In the Doric the architrave rests on the 
column and is unarticulated, while the frieze above the architrave 
receives the triglyphs at short, regular intervals. The Ionic archi- 
trave on the other hand is divided into three horizontal courses, 
the frieze being without triglyphs. The Corinthian entablature re- 
sembles the Ionic , but the cornice is more richly articulated , cor- 
bels are substituted for the indentations , and the whole is richly 
wreathed with acanthus leaves and other ornamentation. 

The noblest, happily also the best-preserved building of old Rome 
is unquestionably the Pantheon of Agrippa, built in the time of Au- 
gustus. In spite of much disfigurement received in later times, this 
vast edifice, comprised in its interior within the precincts of one 
majestic circle, and obtaining the light of heaven from the centre 
of its wondrous dome , continues to impress the beholder with un- 
failing, overwhelming effect. Therefore it is that the Pantheon, hav- 
ing survived the period of art's extinction and revival, better re- 
presents the solidity, the daring, and the splendour of Roman archi- 
tecture than the stupendous remains of palace , bath, and circus. 

An important innovation which Plastic Art experiences in the 
latter days of the Roman republic remains to be mentioned. The 
introduction of Eclecticism may be attributed to Pasiteles, a native 
of Southern Italy. It would appear that he had striven, by way of 
protest against the unrest and violence apparent in the works of 
his predecessors of the Rhodian School , to restore to art something 
of her primitive simplicity, and to combine the excellences of the 
older schools while he avoided their errors. His aim was to revert 
to the stern simplicity and thoroughness of the earliest sculptors. 
At the same time he studied nature independently and carefully ; 
while he was not neglectful of the minor graces of his art. Ste- 
phanus was his pupil, whose pupil again was Menelaus, from 
whose chisel we have a group now in the Museum Boncompagni, 
commonly known as Electra and Orestes. Though the real intention 
of the author will probably never be known , this work serves to 
teach us how earnest was the endeavour, and how happy the result of 
art-study in the school of Pasiteles. Itisnot, however, given to eclectic 
schools to exercise a powerful or enduring influence. Accordingly 
we find a comparatively small number of works belonging to the 
school of Pasiteles. 

That school of art, too, which was especially encouraged by the 



ANCIENT ART. xlix 

Emperor Hadrian, adopting as it did not only Greek but also Egyp- 
tian models, was eclectic in the most extended sense of the word. 
Amongst its better known works is the figure of Hadrian's favourite 
Antinous, in which with undoubted beauty of form is combined a 
somewhat lugubrious solemnity together with a smooth glossy and 
superficial elegance little to the taste of the modern connoisseur. 
Far more attractive are the basreliefs on various public monuments 
— such as the Arch of Titus and Trajan's Column — celebrating 
the triumphs of Roman arms. With Greek artists a characteristic 
mode of representing in relief the triumphs, actual or mythical, 
of their heroes was to express battle by means of isolated groups 
of single combatants. And not only are the more stirring incidents 
of the battle thus signalised. Appeal is made to the gentler emo- 
tions : a dying warrior is carried off the field j or the victor spares 
the life of a prostrate adversary. For plastic purposes this was 
found to be the most effective mode of representation, serving as 
it does to awaken the interest and rivet the attention of beholders. 
The Assyrians had , however , already executed reliefs in which 
the effect of pitched battle was rendered with more literal accuracy ; 
and that the Greeks, too, could on occasion meet the requirements 
of this more arbitrary taste, we learn from the friezes of the so- 
called Nereid monument discovered in Lycia, where the con- 
tending hosts close with each other in elaborate order of battle. 
The painter, favoured by conditions more submissive to his will, had 
already grouped the combatants in larger and denser masses. How 
admirably they contrived along with the crowd and confusion of 
battle, to give effect to traits of individual heroism and to give to 
single and central figures their appropriate expression , is exem- 
plified in the celebrated mosaic to be seen in Naples of the Battle 
of Alexander, which, there is no doubt, was copied from a painting of 
the period. It may be premised therefore that this condensed and 
elaborated treatment in relief — obviously akin to painting — in 
which the marches, battles, and triumphs, the operations of Roman 
armies and their imperial chiefs, were set forth with the utmost 
attainable accuracy, with all detail of equipment and armament of 
camp and battle-field, was not the newly gathered fruit of Roman in- 
ventiveness , but must rather be ascribed to the age of Alexander 
and his successors. And the same may be assumed of the archi- 
tectural form of these monuments. In Portraits, too, whether of full 
length or only busts, of emperors and empresses, warriors and states- 
men, as of persons of less exalted position, there were not wanting 
impressive examples in Greek art; and here again Roman taste 
coincides with that of the Diadochan age. It may be conceded, 
however, that owing to the interest long taken in portraiture by the 
Romans and to the attention which this branch of aTt had so long 
received in Rome and Etruria, it had acquired a more distinctly 
Roman and Italian character , and so had. a perceptible influence 
Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. ^ 



1 ANCIENT ART. 

on Greek artists resident in Rome. Thus is it that portraits of the 
Emperors exhibit a degree of power in execution and expression 
scarcely to be looked for at so late a period. Not unfrequently the 
Emperors 'were represented in the costume proper to religious cere- 
monies ; or in fashion like to the gods themselves, and invested with 
their attributes. Most commonly, however, they appear in the 
costume and character of a general in the act of haranguing his 
cohorts. We have striking examples of these imperial portraits in 
the equestrian statue in bronze of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol, 
and in the marble statue of Augustus in the Vatican. This latter 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been painted. From the 
reliefs on the richly ornamented armour which set forth with due 
regard to historical accuracy the more conspicuous and familiar in- 
cidents of a reign especially favoured by the gods, we are justified 
in the conclusion that this figure was executed about the year 17 
B.C. In his treatment of the female figure, too, whether seated or 
standing , the sculptor knew how to impart a distinguished and 
imposing view by a sumptuous arrangement of the drapery. There is 
a peculiar gratification in finding, after a careful study of these 
portraits — many of them of personages famous in history — an exterior 
so closely corresponding to the picture of the historian. Many of the 
heads, indeed, which thus impress the beholder have not been identi- 
fied. In portraiture, the Greek sculptor adopted the Hermean form, 
whiletheworkoftheRoman is recognised almost infallibly in the bust 
form. The latter largely preponderate, although amongst the collective 
works of sculpture preserved, the Greek element is considerably in 
excess of the Roman. An attentive observer will not fail to mark 
this distinction , and learn also to detect the handiwork of the 
modern restorer which too often disfigures these antique marbles. 

The same tendency which led the wealthy citizens of Rome to 
adopt the literature and culture of Greece was observable in the taste 
displayed in the works of art they chose for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, whether executed in Rome itself or in Greece. 
In other respects they appear to have been attracted by the same 
objects of interest as English collectors of the present day. Antique 
art taken as a whole would probably fail to interest the average 
man of rank, unless it were associated with some historical inci- 
dent, some names of renown, or some startling anecdote. But of 
such works as the figures of the Three Graces in bas-relief (though 
rigid in execution) which the ciceroni of the Acropolis shew as the 
work of Socrates , and the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton, the 
Tyrant slayers, in the market place of Athens, of archaic antiquity, 
which had been carried off by Xerxes and restored to its wonted place 
by Alexander : — of works such as these copies at least would be in 
request. The powerful development displayed in the figures of Po- 
ly cletus, and the action expressed in those of Myron, appear to have 
possessed greater attractions for the Romans than the works of Phi- 



ANCIENT ART li 

dias. Numbers of statues belonging to the Perielean age have come 
to light in Rome, replicas for the most part of Victors in the Games 
and of Amazons. Figures of the Oods, with few exceptions, belong 
to a later period. The most numerous, and also very charming, were 
the graceful forms of more recent Attic art, represented by Praxiteles 
and his compeers ; also the elegant and animated creations of the 
Lysippian and post-Lysippian schools. It is hardly conceivable that 
in the museums of Rome, filled as they are with works of sculpture 
collected on the spot, no original works are to be found. Assuredly 
there has been a time when they have not been wanting in Rome: 
and it seems improbable that one and all should have been lost 
in the devastation which has more than once made wreck of the 
Eternal City. Certain it is , however , that the greater part of what 
we now see are either replicas or copies. This fact is determined 
by the material. The great statues of Phidias and Praxiteles set 
apart for the temples were of gold and ivory, while Polycletus and 
Lysippus worked in bronze. In Attica, too, this costly material was 
preferred by the earlier sculptors. It was only by degrees that 
marble came into use for groups as well as single figures. The 
'Discus thrower' of Myron, as well as the groups of Marsyas 
and Athena were originally in bronze. In the Palazzo Massimi 
alle Colonne there is to be seen a striking figure readily recogni- 
sed as that of Myron's 'Discus thrower', but it is in marble. In 
like manner the Marsyas in the Lateran is of marble, and so also is 
the Apoxyomenus in the Vatican museum. Just as we moderns 
delight in the copy or engraving of some celebrated picture, the 
amateur of old gave his commission for the copy of some favourite 
statue, to be executed in' bronze , or, more frequently, in marble. 
At any rate comparatively few works in bronze , of importance in 
point of size, are preserved. It was not enough to have simply 
repeated the celebrities of sculpture. The artists of the so-called 
New Attic School, which flourished in the last century B. C, weflnd 
reproducing the works of their predecessors very effectively with 
such departures from the original as are to be seen in a more arti- 
ficial and highly wrought arrangement of drapery, a more decorative 
rendering of the detail generally, and an attempt to impart increased 
animation to the figure as a whole. Such piracies, when tolerably 
successful , became in their turn models for numerous imitations. 
The results of this process are exactly what the connoisseur will 
be prepared to find , and such as present themselves in the collec- 
tions of antique art in Rome. He must not expect to find himself in 
the presence of the simplicity and directness as well as grandeur of 
aim characteristic of Greek art in her loftiest moods : but rather of 
her attenuation in the shape of imitations and adaptations , the 
growth of the Imperial age. Antique art, however, exhibits through- 
out its career an astonishing vitality and continuity. The spirit of 
the Greek is mighty even in expiring : and nowhere can the course 

d* 



lii ANCIENT ART. 

of her marvellous development be studied with the same complete- 
ness as in Rome. 

Monumental works, inconspicuous and unfamiliar as they so of- 
ten are, appeal less powerfully to the imagination than statuary, 
where dazzling beauty enthrals the senses. These monuments, 
however , will have a charm of their own for the discriminating 
observer. In the Egyptian department of the Vatican he can con- 
template the relics of a primaeval antiquity, while in the Gregorian 
Museum he is reminded of the mysterious Etruscans. It will be 
interesting to compare the attitude and proportions of Egyptian 
with Grseco-Roman figures , and to discover in the Sphinxes of the 
Villa Albani, in the Lions by the approach to the Capitol, as well 
as in the numerous obelisks , to be seen in the piazzas of Rome, 
evidence of the mastery acquired by the Egyptian in Art. And their 
works were in the Roman's eye fitting objects where with to celebrate 
his triumphs, and adorn the capital of an empire including within 
its far reaching bounds people of almost every race and climate. 

In the Gregorian Museum the portrait busts in terracotta by the 
Etruscans exhibit a mode of expressing individuality peculiar to 
themselves ; the bronze vessels display that skill in the working of 
metals for which they had long been famous; while the large copies 
of mural paintings which adorned the tombs bring to light the method 
of painting as practised by the Etruscan as well as , in the choice 
of subject, their preference for scenes of sensualism and bloodshed. 

Here, too, is to be seen a collection of Painted Greek Vases ex- 
ceedingly rich and beautiful, discovered, it is true, in Etruria, but, 
as is evident from the subjects represented, from the drawing, but 
chiefly from the inscriptions, imported from Greece — the greater 
part indeed from Athens. It is not difficult to distinguish those speci- 
mens, which, though borrowed from the Greeks, were of Etruscan 
manufacture. They are inferior in taste and execution, as well as 
in design and modelling, and are not to be mistaken for the work 
of artists. But the Greek vases themselves vary in character; those 
tor instance having the black figures on a red ground being of earlier 
date than those showing the reverse arrangement of these colours. 
Nevertheless the painters of these vases, mere handicraftsmen as we 
must suppose them to havebeen, could render mythological subjects, 
and scenes of everyday life, with a vivacity and poetry of conception ; 
they knew so well how to draw , and , with means and resources 
necessarily very limited, were so far masters of expression, that — 
despised though they may be by the superficial and ignorant — they 
bear not only remarkable testimony to the quality of workmanship 
then prevailing in Attica, but afford a glimpse at the art of theirday 
in Athens aB seen through the eyes of these unpretending artificers. 

Finally there remain to be noticed the Sarcophagi, which, vari- 
ously ornamented with reliefs, are to be seen in museum, in villa, 
and in palace court. The only specimen preserved to us from the old 



ANCIENT ART. liii 

Roman time is the Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Soipio Barbatus in 
the Museum of the Vatican. It resembles an altar both in shape and 
style of ornamentation, and. is almost the counterpart of one still 
standing in Pompeii. It is only consistent with the then prevailing 
religious rites that sepulchral monuments should have been thus 
architectural in character. In Greece itself this was conspicuously 
the case all sarcophagi which have been discovered within the con- 
fines of Geece proper showing a distinctly architectural treatment. 
The Roman sarcophagi combine much that is essentially Greek with 
adaptations from the funeral urns of Etruria. They give signs, how- 
ever, of an independent development, and although including a di- 
versity of shapes and decoration , have for the most part their bas- 
reliefs arranged on the front and sides (and, where extraordinary rich- 
ness of effect was desiderated, on the back also) as a frieze or band. 
One naturally endeavours to trace in the decoration bestowed on 
these repositories of the dead, some indication of their purpose. In 
many instances, however, it is evident, that appropriateness of design, 
if originally acknowledged as indispensable, was presently lost in a 
promiscuously lavish decoration. Certainly there is no obscurity in 
such allusions to the goal of life as we discover in Cupids rowing te 
the lighthouse tower, or when we see them careering round the goal in 
the circus. In such symbolical figures as those of the seasons we are 
taught to reflect on the inevitable course of creation, existence, and 
decay succeeding to maturity. AsHylas is borne away by the Nymphs, 
and Ganymede by the eagle, so we may fancy the soul begrudged 
from its earthly existence. Hippolytus may serve to recal the virtues 
of such as came to an untimely end, Niobe, the grief of the survivors ; 
sleeping Cupids may symbolise sleep favoured by the Gods, while 
Ariadne discovered by Dionysus, Endymion visited by Selene 
present death itself as but sleep in unfamiliar guise. On the 
other hand scenes of Bacchanalian revelry can hardly be accepted as 
allusions to the future state ; and even in a less degree are Nereids 
and Medeas , and more of the like, in bas-relief, capable of such 
Interpretation : and rarely, too, does any reference of a distinctly per- 
ional character go beyond a mere vague allusion to life and death. 
It is tolerably certain that these sarcophagi were made in large 
numbers, in advance of immediate requirements. A somewhat extra- 
ordinary expedient for introducing a reference to particular indi- 
viduals, was that of bestowingrthe lineaments of the departed upon 
such heroes of mythology as were made to figure in these reliefs. 
Thus it is we find portraits of the deceased in such mythical per- 
sonages as Admetus andAlcestis, in Hippolytus, and, what is more 
remarkable, in Phaedra herself. In a considerable number of cases 
these reliefs are almost identical, and are evidently made after one 
model, with such modifications as might be effected by the intro- 
duction or omission of single figures or groups, showing" nevertheless 
more or less of artistic intelligence and resource. They form a 



liv ANCIENT ART. 

group displaying the established forms and traditional models, 
which in respect of means of expression and motive are the 
worthy inheritance of Greek art at its best. Yet these sarcophagi, 
regarded even as Roman works, are by no means of early origin. It 
must not, however, be forgotten in estimating the quality of work 
bestowed upon the sarcophagus, that it was not intended to be 
closely inspected by the light of day, but would be consigned to the 
twilight of the tomb, where a stray gleam of light might but for 
a moment reveal its detail. Hence, in the execution of these reliefs 
the object was to give prominence to leading features, without an 
overscrupulous nicety of finish, and this end has been attained 
with a success worthy of all admiration. It has been ascertained 
beyond doubt, that the introduction of the sarcophagus as described 
above was coeval with a mode of burial which became the fashion 
in Imperial times ; otherwise the artistic merits of these monuments 
might well have misled us in computing their age. The great 
majority of Roman sarcophagi belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
after Christ, and to an even later period, 

The Early Christian Sarcophagi simply repeat and perpetuate 
preceding pagan models. It is a peculiar coincidence that these in- 
conspicuous memorials should have contributed to the revival of art 
in the middle ages. Niccolo Pisano found a fertile source of inspi- 
ration in the Roman sarcophagi of the Campo Santo in Pisa; nor 
did Peruzzi and Raphael disdain to use them as models. 

"With this passing glance at the homage thus dono by Raphael and 
his compeers to the art of antiquity, these pages may fitly conclude. 
The endeavour has not been to fetter the judgment of the reader, 
but rather so to direct his observation and stimulate his interest as 
to give him that self-reliance which alone will arouse in him an 
intelligent interest, and afford him a genuine pleasure in what 
he sees. To praise the creations of great artists in empty or mere 
conventional phrase would simply offend. They alone will exper- 
ience the full measure of delight to be derived from the contem- 
plation of these treasures , who rely upon their own judgment and 
cultivate to the utmost the delicacy of their perceptions. 



Roman Art 

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN. 

Rome as Mistress of the world became the centre of contempora- 
neous culture. Art had found with her a new term : and Greece as 
fitting tribute to the conqueror laid at her feet the accumulated 
wealth of ages — the treasures of her art, which long had embodied 
the loftiest conception of the beautiful. 

Her supremacy secured, Rome became the chief resort of artists, 
and their liberal patron. She dictated the tone, alike in taste and 
fashion , and determined the destinies of art. Down to mediaeval 
times Rome continued to receive the proud title of 'Caput mundi'. 
Presently, however, she laid claim to supremacy in another realm 
than that of art; and this latter, as the ancient traditions were 
gradually outlived, finally fell into neglect. In more recent, as 
in former times Rome has failed to create for herself, as the out- 
come of her individuality, an art peculiar to and a part of herself. 
Her destiny seems to have been to gather from external sources 
the wealth in which she revelled , with the difference that while 
ancient Rome furnished nothing beyond a magnificent arena for 
the art of her day, in later times the artist found in Rome herself 
his sources of inspiration , compelled as he was to contemplate 
perfection reflected in the dazzling mirror of antique art. Ten 
centuries , however , elapsed ere Rome resumed this proud pre- 
eminence. A glance may now be directed to the interval between 
the fall of old Rome and the period when , animated with a new 
life, Rome drew to herself the foremost representatives of the 
Renaissance, to whom she afforded inspiration for their grandest 
efforts. It is not, however, the 16th century, not the glories of 
the Renaissance, that give to the Rome of our day her distinctive 
character, but rather the new and imposing exterior which she re- 
ceived at the hand of her architects in the 17th century. The mind 
must be disenchanted before the veil can be penetrated and the 
Rome of antiquity adequately comprehended. 

The protracted suspension of all activity in art makes it appa- 
rent that Roman art has a history distinct from Italian art. For 



lvi ROMAN ART. 

several centuries the towns of Tuscany were the principal ahodes of 
a natural art life. But just as in Rome Italian art achieved its 
most signal triumphs in the persons of Raphael and Michael Angelo 
and the masters of that period : so in Roman ground we find that Chris- 
tian art first took root and attained to its most important dimen- 
sions. In Rome then we find - the strongest inducements as well as 
the richest opportunity for the study of Early Christian Art. 

In the 4th century heathendom, long tottering to its fall, was, 
in appearance at least, absorbed in the younger Christian world. A 
new era in art is inaugurated. Not that we are to assume the simul- 
taneous extinction of the pagan art of ancient Rome, nor that it was 
at once superseded by an altogether new style provided as it were 
for the emergency. The eye and hand are to a greater extent crea- 
tures of habit than the mind. New views and altered conceptions 
of the Supreme Being as well as of the destiny of man found 
acceptance. But to embody them the artist had to resort to the old 
established forms. Then heathen rules were by no means uni- 
formly hostile to Christianity (the period of bitterest persecution 
began with the 3rd century A. D.); and that the new doctrine 
should have expanded and taken root, should have been permitted 
to organise itself in the very midst of heathen society , is evidence 
that it was received even with favour. 

As a consequence of these conditions it will be observed that 
the art of the early Christians presents no remarkable con- 
trast to that which precedes it, and that they were content to adopt 
and perpetuate the traditions of the antique. The Roman Cata- 
combs afford abundant proof of this. Encircling the city as with 
a subterranean trench , they were originally far from being what 
they subsequently became — secret, carefully concealed places of 
refuge for the 3arly Christians; but rather their regularly ordained 
and publicly accessible places of burial (e.g. the Catacomb of Nieo- 
medus and that of Flavia Domitilla'), and were first designedly con- 
signed to darkness and concealment during the 3rd century, a period 
of constantly recurring persecution. The Christian community, 
feared as it was in the midst of Roman paganism, probably did 
not dream of subverting the principles of antique art. In the adorn- 
ment of the Catacombs they retain the types transmitted to them ; 
so also in the particulars of drawing and colour the precedent of 
the Antique is closely followed. Christ represented as the Good 
Shepherd, Orpheus as the symbol of Christ, and evidences of the long 
standing repugnance to any rendering of the Passion-history, afford 
proofs of the readiness to accept the art heritage of their precursors. 
The older these catacomb paintings are the more closely they ap- 
proximate to the types of antiquity. Even the Sarcophagus 
Sculpture of the 4th and 5th centuries differs in purpose only, not in 
technical rendering of form, from the typical reliefs found on pagan 
tombs. It was only in the latter half of the 6th century that a 



ROMAN ART. ]vii 

new style declared itself in painting which like other branches of 
plastic art had more or less fallen into a state of decay meanwhile. 
Architecture adapted itself to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
and in allying itself to the new architectural forms, painting acquires 
a new character. 

The term Basilica is understood to apply to Christian temples 
up to the 10th century. The subsequent belief that a more inti- 
mate relation than that suggested by a common name subsisted 
between these early Christian edifices and the forensic Basilica 
of ancient Rome, was altogether an erroneous one. The latter 
were in fact the Roman courts of law and places of public meet- 
ing. They had a place in most of the towns of the Roman em- 
pire and were erected in the forum, but have nothing, whether of 
origin or form , essentially in common with the early Christian 
temple or church. These forensic basilicas were not adapted to 
purposes of Christian worship , nor did the old Roman basilica 
serve as a model for the building of Christian places of worship. 
In proof of the one assertion may be adduced the fact that the 
forensic basilicas at the end of the 4th century retained intact 
their original destination , and in individual cases have been 
restored; while the other will be justified by an unprejudiced exam- 
ination of the various parts of the Christian basilicas , which 
give evidence of having sprung from another source than that of 
the old Roman basilica. Neither did the Temple of antiquity fur- 
nish the model for churches built by the early Christians. The 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, of the 6th century, is the earliest 
example of a pagan temple applied to Christian use. The Chris- 
tian basilica may be said rather to have grown out of the Roman 
dwelling-house, where at first the community was in the habit 
of assembling. The plan for future ecclesiastical edifices was 
acquired by simply extending the proportions of the dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Clemente in Rome is relatively the most perfect 
example existing of the architectural properties and internal arran- 
gement of the early Christian basilica. A small portico supported 
by pillars leads to the outer court (atrium), enclosed by a colonnade 
and having in its midst a fountain (caritharus). The eastern colon- 
nade leads into the interior of the church which was usually divi- 
ded into three aisles. Two rows of columns divide the side aisles 
from the loftier one in the centre known as the nave ; the nave 
and aisles abut upon a half circle or apse. At right angles to 
these aisles, between them and the apse, was sometimes inter- 
posed a third space — the transept; the altar stood within the apse 
and apart beneath a canopy supported by pillars , and in its front, 
enclosed by rails or cancelli, was the choir for the officiating priests 
and two pulpits (ambones), one used for reading the Gospel, the other 
the Epistles. In marked contrast to the temple of antiquity, little 
care was bestowed upon the external architecture of these early 



lviii ROMAN ART. 

Christian basilicas , the most impressive effect being reserved for 
the interior. And to this end , especially in earlier mediaeval times, 
a ready expedient for supplying decorative material was adopted in 
the plunder of the monuments of antiquity. Columns were carried 
off and set up in Christian churches without regard to congruity 
of material or consistency of style. Thus in the churches of 
S. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura are to be seen 
pillars of different material and workmanship. The churches of 
S. Sabina, S. Maria Maggiore and others give evidence of similar 
depredations. Crosses and lustres in metal , tapestries bestowed by 
papal piety contributed to the ornate effect of these interiors. But 
the principal decorative feature were the pictures in mosaic which 
covered the recess of the apse in particular as well as the arch which 
connected the apse with the nave (the Triumphal ArcK). These 
Mosaic Pictures, as far , at least, as the material was concerned, 
demanded a novel artistic treatment , massive and monumental in 
character. In them we find the traditions of antiquity abandoned, 
giving place to a style which from its harshness as well as austere 
solemnity of conception has been confounded with the Byzantine 
style. In reality the art was of indigenous growth; and its salient 
characteristic may be defined as the substitution of the real for the 
symbolical in general treatment. Now for the first time the pop- 
ular mind became thoroughly imbued with ecclesiastical senti- 
ment, of which the crucified Saviour was the chief embodiment. 
The oldest mosaics , composed of glass cubes , are to be seen in 
the church of S. Pudenziana. They date from the 4th century 
like those in S. Costanza and the Baptistery of Naples ; while those 
in S. Maria Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th century. 
The mosaics in SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Forum (526-30) may 
be pronounced as the most beautiful. 

The rudiments of Christian art are to be found in Rome; but 
its further development was promoted in an equal degree by other 
Italian states. Building was still active in the 9th century , while 
the Popes , especially Leo III. , of the 7th and 8th centuries 
did good service in church decoration. But during this period 
there is no evidence either of progress or continuous develop- 
ment in the Mosaic art and as little in architecture itself. The 
experiment (as seen in S. Prassede, 9th century) of combining piers 
with the pillars of the nave as a support to the walls and of con- 
necting these with transverse arches was not repeated. Finally it 
may be said of the Mosaics ($. Prassede, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 
S. Marco), that, while they bear a superficial resemblance to the 
works of the 5th and 6th centuries, they show unmistakable signs of 
corruption and decline. This may be accounted for to some extent 
by the evil times which had fallen upon Rome since the 9th century, 
culminating in a conflagration — the work of an incendiary Guis- 
cardo — which laid waste the entire southern quarter of the city, 



ROMAN ART. lix 

extending from the Forum to the Lateran and to the slopes of the 
Esquiline. The chief employment of the architect was the con- 
struction of fortified towers and places of strength rendered neces- 
sary by the ceaseless warring of factions within the city. In 1257 
Brancaleone demolished 140 of these strongholds, the majority of 
which had been erected on the ruins of some monument or other of 
antiquity. The most striking example of the rudeness of early 
mediaeval architecture is to be seen in the Casa di Pilato or di 
Rienzi. Built by one Nicolao , son of Crescentius (probably in the 
11th or 12th century), its chief ornamentation consists of marble 
fragments apparently picked up at random and put together in the 
wildest confusion. 

At the close of the 12th century brighter days dawned for 
Roman art. 'Magister Romanus' now became a title which the 
artist was proud to append to his surname. A speciality in decora- 
tive art appeared in Rome about this time which did not connect 
itself, it is true, with the traditions of antique art, though ready 
to utilise its material, without, however , resort to the depredations 
of a bygone age. And material was still at hand in richest abun- 
dance, in an endless array of shattered marbles. These were divided 
and subdivided, cut or sawn into minute slabs, arranged in patterns, 
enlivened by the introduction of stained glass and gold leaf , pre- 
senting as a whole a richly coloured decorative effect. These marble 
mosaics adorn the flooring of churches, altar sides, episcopal chairs, 
pulpits, and doorways ; they enliven monumental sculpture, they 
fill the flutings of the elegantly twisted columns which bore the 
Easter candles or adorn the entablature of cloistered courts. This 
art became the monopoly of particular families and was regularly 
transmitted from generation to generation. The monumental 
marbles of this time are generally known as Cosmato Work, a name 
derived from two members of a family thus privileged. Such work is 
frequently to be met with in Rome. Conspicuous among the mosaic 
floorings are those of S. Maria Maggiore, S. Maria in Trastevere, and 
8. Lorenzo Fuori le Mara (12th century). S. Clemente and S. 
Giorgio in Velabro possess altar tabernacles of Cosmato work and S. 
Lorenzo the finest example in its pulpit. Of similar work in cloisters 
(8. Sabina, Lateran) the best specimen is in the convent of S. Paolo 
(13th century). Cosmato work is not infrequently found elsewhere 
than in Rome. It is uncertain how far this Roman work is connected 
with kindred examples to be met with in Southern Italy. In tech- 
nical detail some differences are to be detected, such as the more 
copious use of the glass pastes by the artists of the South. On the 
other hand we fancy that the identity of pattern in the mosaics of 
theCappella Palatina in Palermo with those of S. Lorenzo cannot be 
accidental. 

Along with this decorative mosaic work , the Mosaic Painting 
of apse and choir -arch had since the 12th century successfully 



lx ROMAN ART. 

asserted itself. That impress of the antique borne by the early 
Christian mosaics is gone ; the drawing has lost its incisiveness as 
well as its traditional typical character, and in lieu of this, receives 
a new and more lively impulse from colour and wealth of ornament. 
The mosaics in front of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, in 
the apse of S. Clemente (12th century), those in the altar-tribune of 
the Lateran (13th century) and finally those in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore , the work of Jacobus Torriti in 1295 , are examples of 
this mosaic painting. — Wall-Painting also came once more into 
use as we see from paintings discovered in 1858 in the lower 
church of 8. Clemente — that basilica which in 1 1 08 was lost by a new 
structure being built upon it. — And, if church-architecture was con- 
fined to the rehabilitating of older edifices or the mere reproduction 
of earlier types , the numerous Belfries (the best is that of 8. 
Maria in Cosmedin) show an abundant fertility of resource in the 
architects of that period. They tower aloft, story upon story follow- 
ing in light and airy succession, relieved by flights of slender pillars, 
and stand, eloquent tributes to the genius of mediaeval Rome. 

The condition of art in Rome, however (particularly in the 
14th century), was far behind that of Tuscany. While in Tuscany 
popular forces directed by the municipalities provided an ample field 
for the cultivation of artistic tastes , Rome was distracted by the 
incessant war of factions and families , or the quarrels of the 
popes. Strangers were invited to execute works which where beyond 
the ordinary resources of art as it then existed in Rome. Dominican 
Friars introduced Gothic architecture into Rome — Fra Bistoro, 
Fra Sisto are probably the builders of the church of 8. Maria sopra 
Minerva — and Oiotto (chief of the Florentine school) was summoned 
to Rome during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. , and at the in- 
stance of his patron Cardinal Gaetano Stefaneschi, to execute a 
mosaic (Navicella) for the Porch of St. Peter's, and to paint a 
Ciborium (in part preserved in the Sacristy of St. Peter's); probably 
also to execute a commission from the Pope, to represent the pro- 
clamation of the Jubilee of the year 1300. Of Giotto's Roman con- 
temporary Pietro Cavallini we have unfortunately no certain 
information. 

It was not until the return of the Popes from their exile at 
Avignon, when Italians held exclusive possession of St. Peter's 
chair, and aimed at supremacy amongst the secular powers of the 
peninsula ; when the Humanists acquired their shortlived ascen- 
dency at the Papal court — that Roman art first approaches its 
maturity. Rome indeed had no direct share in the creation of the 
Eenaissance. To Florence belongs the exclusive and imperishable 
renown of this achievement. On the other hand it must not be for- 
gotten how powerful an impression the spectacle of the mighty relics 
of antiquity must have made upon the receptive minds of the first 
Humanists, exciting their emulation and inciting to a more reverent 



ROMAN ART. Ixi 

study of the Antique ; neither must it be forgotten that by study of 
old Roman art Brunelleschi and Donatello became familiar with those 
forms in which they were wont to express their artistical thought, 
and so were led to new and unexplored paths in the realm of art. 

Once more Rome occupies a foremost place in the history of art 
when Pope Nicholas V. (1447-1455), a Humanist , vies with the 
Medici in his passion for books and building. He is bent upon a re- 
novation of the Vatican Quarter ; his ambition is to erect a papal 
residence of surpassing splendour ; nay, he entertains designs on 
tlie St. Peter's pile itself and contemplates its reconstruction. The 
most imposing work of this period was the Venetian Palace begun by 
Pietro Barbo (1455), afterwards Pope Paul II., which is to a great 
extent mediaeval in character. Leon Battista Alberti, who resided 
in Rome about this time and died there in 1472, is supposed to have 
furnished the plans for this palace. 

So far indeed had the fostering of art become obligatory on the 
occupants of the papal chair, that they could not neglect this 
function without forfeiting their individual influence, and impairing 
the dignity of their office. The right powers were not, however, 
immediately at hand, which should give effect to the building pro- 
jects of these Sovereign Pontiffs, enamoured as they were of splen- 
dour in every shape. The architect who during the pontificate of 
Sixtus IV. (1471-1484) was most employed, Baccio Pintelli, was 
a practitioner of moderate skill, and far behind the great Florentines 
of his day. The building of 8. Agostino and S. Pietro in Montorio, 
as well as the facades of 88. Apostoli and S. Pietro in Vincoli were 
from his plans. His most celebrated work is the Popes' private 
Chapel in the Vatican, called after the Pope Sixtus the Sistine 
Chapel, which owes its chief attractions far less to its architectural 
merits, than to the artistic decoration of wall and ceiling. 

Abundant employment together with the favour which artists 
found with dignitaries of the Church had already allured numerous 
Tuscan and Umbrian Paintebs to Rome. Amongst those thus engag- 
ed in beautifying the churches of Rome and the Vatican Palace we 
meet such Florentine celebrities as Maestri 8and.ro Botticelli, filip- 
pino Lippi, Domenico Ohirlandajo, Cosimo Bosselli ; and from the 
Umbrian School the immediate forerunner of Michael Angelo , bold 
Luca Signorelli, along with Perugino and Pinturicchio. An attempt 
is made to found an Academy, or Guild of St. Luke at Rome. Amongst 
its members we find (1494) Melozzo da lorVt, the painter of a fresco 
(transferred to canvas) in the Vatican Gallery, representing the 
foundation of the Vatican library. — The execution of the Wall 
Paintings in the Sistine Chapel, by order of Sixtus IV. , was a moment- 
ous event in a time prolific in art enterprise. In accordance with the 
then prevailing point of view the acts of Moses are represented as 
symbolically parallel to those of Christ. On the left wall are incidents 
in the life of Moses by Pinturicchio, Botticelli, Rosselli, Signorelli, 



lxii ROMAN ART. 

on the right wall events in the life of Christ by Botticelli, Ghirlan- 
dajo, Rosselli, and Perugino. Those lovers of art who are unable to 
visit Florence before going to Rome are recommended to make these 
wall paintings their especial study. They will learn from them to 
appreciate the descriptive power of the Florentines and will be 
familiarised with the field subsequently occupied by the heroes of 
Italian Art. 

Tuscan Sculptors , too , find their way frequently to Rome 
and are constantly employed either as workers in bronze or marble. 
Little attention seems , however, to have been paid to the former. 
The great bronze doors of St. Peter, the work of Antonto Filarete, 
are interesting Tather from the wealth of mythological imagery 
with which they are embellished , than from their artistic preten- 
sions, which will not compare with those of Ghiberti's famous gates. 
So much the more powerfully does the sculptor appeal to us in 
marble. A taste for profusion and splendour of monumental deco- 
ration in adorning the tombs, which fact declares itself in the 15th 
century — a result probably of that thirst for fame which is identi- 
fied with the Renaissance — gave the sculptor unceasing opportunity 
for the exercise of his art, particularly in its purely decorative phases. 
There is scarcely a single church of a certain date which does not 
contain sepulchral monuments from the close of the 15ch century. 
The church of 5. Maria del Popolo possesses the largest number. 
These monuments — perfected in Florence and naturalised in Rome 
mainly by Mino da Fiesole — are nearly uniform, viz. a sarcopha- 
gus surmounted by a statue of the deceased, and supported by a 
pedestal ornamented with a garland of fruit and flowers, and 
genii. A niche or panelled screen finished with a medallion of the 
Madonna form the usual background. The majority of these sculp- 
tures cannot be traced to any particular artist. It would appear 
indeed that the sarcophagi, as with the ancient Romans, were rather 
articles of manufacture than works of art, made wholesale fashion 
after some favourite pattern and bought 'ready made', a com- 
mission being given to the sculptor for a portrait of the deceased 
to which would be added the armorial bearings with inscription. 

"Whoever might have visited Rome in the earlier years of the 
16th century would have found himself in the presence of an in- 
tense movement in the art world ; he would have found Archi- 
tect, Sculptor, and Painter alike occupied with projects of more or 
less grandeur. So far, however, Rome did not in this respect sur- 
pass the other chief towns of Italy ; so far art had not assumed that 
particular form of life and direction which only the atmosphere of 
Rome could sustain, or which the genius of the Vatican alone could 
quicken — during the Pontificate of Julius II. (1503-1513), where 
the golden era of Roman art began, this consummation was actu- 
ally achieved. 

To Julius belongs the glory of having associated with Rome three 



ROMAN ART. lxiii 

names, Bramante, Michael Angelo, Raphael, everlasting beacons in 
the path of art — three men who in the course of the 16th century 
(cinquecento) raised modern art to its loftiest pitch of splendour. 
His successor Leo X. (1513-1522) of the house of Medici owes 
it to his lineage only that he should have transmitted to posterity so 
splendid a reputation, — that his name should he associated insepa- 
rably with the greatest triumphs of art in modern times. Leo X. 
inherited the well-earned fame of his predecessor, but knew not how 
either to value or to use his inheritance aright. It was not given him 
to sway the imperious temper of Michael Angelo, nor fully to com- 
prehend the mighty schemes of Bramante. The latter's chief work, 
the rebuilding of St. Peter's, can be adequately studied only in the 
collection of original drawings in Florence which set forth the gran- 
deur of Bramante's designs in all their completeness ; for so many 
different hands were employed in giving effect to these, that little 
remains of the original plan. Happily this little, viz. the dome with 
the overwhelming impression of vastness it conveys, is of the very 
best. Bramante contemplated a central structure in the form of a 
Greek cross, rounded at its extremities, which, crowned by a gigantic 
dome, should present an ensemble at once simple and majestic. 
Succeeding generations have failed to embody Bramante's ideal. 
His career, extending probably from 1444 to 1514, is involved in ob- 
scurity. Of his works, Rome possesses numerous examples. The cir- 
cular chapel in the monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio, the court 
of S. Maria della Pace, the arcades in the first court of the Vatican 
(Cortile di 8. Damaso), the Palazzo Giraud and above all the Cancel- 
leria aTe perfect examples of Renaissance. 

We are wont to wonder at the profusion and splendour, too, of 
works to which the cinquecento gave birth. How much richer, how 
much more splendid would have been this profusion, had only 
these works been carried out as originally designed by the artist's 
creative genius ! 

The same fatality which pursued Bramante's mightiest projects 
served to mar Michael Angelo's (1475-1564) supreme effort in the 
realm of Plastic Art. The Tomb of Julius II. , begun while that 
pope was still living, was to consist of a large detached edifice with 
statues of Moses, St. Paul, and other colossal figures at its projecting 
angles, and ranged along its wall the naked forms of men in chains. 
The work, however, soon came to a standstill, and at last, 30 years 
after its commencement (1545), it was placed in the church of 
S. Pietro in Vincoli where it now stands, deplorably, a mere fragment 
of the original design. Its most striking feature is the tremendous 
figure of Moses, rising in wrathful indignation at the worship of the 
golden calf, to denounce the idolatry of the Israelites. In addition 
to the Moses, Rome contains two conspicuous works from the hand 
of Michael Angelo : the Pieta, badly placed in one of the chapels in 
St. Peter's, and the Statue of Christ in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 



Ixiv ROMAN ART. 

former surpasses all other efforts of the great sculptor in the deli- 
cacy of its modelling as well as in the force with which it appeals 
to human sympathies. 

As Fresco Painter Michael Angelo figures exclusively in 
Rome. Tradition tells us how loath he was to exchange the 
chisel for the brush, when at the behest of the imperious Julius II. 
he undertook the decoration in fresco of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. These frescoes are nevertheless the most important of Mi- 
chael Angelo's contributions to art. They afford a wider field for 
the exercise of his creative power than sculpture , where plastic 
forms, unequal as they are to the demands of his prolific genius, be- 
tray him into exaggeration. These frescoes of Michael Angelo are 
closely akin to the wall paintings of Florentine and Umbrian artists 
at the close of the 15th century, in which the deliverer of the Israelites 
is made to prefigure the Saviour of mankind. How salvation came 
to the world, and how proclaimed , is the theme which Michael 
Angelo undertakes to illustrate. In the centre piece is depicted the 
Creation, the history of Adam and of Noah ; how sin came into the 
world , but with sin the promise of redemption. Forecasting all 
this we next see the figures of Prophets and Sibyls. In the mar- 
ginal pictures we see continued reference to the Redemption, in 
the various deliverances of the Jewish people (the brazen serpent, 
David and Goliath, the fate of Haman, and Judith), in conformity 
with mediaeval conceptions, together with symbols of the Redemption. 
Connecting themselves with the above are the groups occupying the 
lunettes, pourtraying expectation, the anguish of suspense, and con- 
trition, which include at once matters of fact and a twofold allusion 
to the vicissitudes of the Israelites and the events of our Saviour's 
life (progenitors of Christ and Jews captive in Babylon). The sub- 
limity of the work is to be attributed very much to the skill with 
which mere matters of fact are everywhere subordinated to 
the claims of individual action as well as artistic purpose. Moreover 
Michael Angelo has contrived so to dispose the various portions of 
his vast work, ascending by figures , single and in groups, from the 
simply decorative margin to the crowning effort in the centre, so to 
adapt them to the place they occupy , that the entire work becomes 
architecturally , so to speak, self-supporting ; while the compo- 
sition as a whole is wielded with a wealth of resources together 
with a power of organisation such as no other artist has attained to. 
The thoughtful beholder will not confine himself exclusively to the 
study of the central pictures. The figures in monochrome and minor 
decorations are replete with a beauty peculiar to themselves. 

Of the 'Last Judgment', painted by Michael Angelo at a much 
later period (1541), it is difficult, owing to its dilapidated condition, 
to form an accurate estimate. The unerring audacity, however, 
with which figure and group alike are thrown into every conceivable 
attitude and movement, must command a mute and amazed attention. 



ROMAN ART. lx.v 

With the names of Bramante and Michael Angelo is associated 
that of Raphael (1483-1520), whose youthful genius had very 
early declared itself, first in Perugia and later in Florence. In Rome 
are to be seen interesting mementoes of both these periods. In the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican Gallery we see him still in 
the trammels of the Umbrian School ; the effects of his Florentine 
training are visible in his Entombment of Christ in the Borghese 
Gallery (belonging to later periods are the so called Fornarina in 
the Barterini Gallery ,, the portraits of Navagero and Beazzano in 
the Palazzo Doria, the Madonna di Foligno, and the Transfigura- 
tion, the master's last work, both in the Vatican Gallery). The 
majority of Raphael's easel pictures are to be found elsewhere than 
in Rome. 

But in Rome only could Raphael have found a field suited to 
the exercise of his highest powers in Fresco Painting. The 
mural paintings in the state apartments of the Popes in the Vatican 
palace must first be noticed. In order rightly to appreciate these, 
it must not on the one hand be forgotten that fresco painting 
never completely loses its decorative character; nor on the other 
must the peculiar position of the Pontificate in the beginning of 
the 16th century be lost sight of. In the palace of the Vatican the 
same courtly tone , the same pursuit of sensuous pleasures, of the 
mere joys of existence , prevailed as in the courts of the younger 
Italian dynasties; expressions of national sentiment met with a 
favorable reception , while an active agitation on the part of the 
Humanists did not appear to have compromised the dignity of 
the Papal Court. These conditions are more or less distinctly 
reflected in the frescoes of Raphael. The courtier repeatedly asserts 
himself; even a delicate compliment to the patron is not disdained, 
nor the ceremonial spectacle excluded. Political as well as personal 
allusions are not wanting , while ample space is devoted to the glo- 
rification of the Humanistic ideal. Finally, when it is borne in 
mind that Raphael was constantly compelled to defer to the exigen- 
cies of the allotted space, to study the separate requirements of wall 
and ceiling , we gain an insight into the nature and extent of the 
restraints imposed upon the Artist. They beset him indeed on 
every hand, and constantly compel him to alter or modify his design. 
Curiously enough these restrictions are to this day interpreted as 
an act of the Artist's free and daring will. One wonders at the 
amount of theological learning, of philosophical erudition displayed 
in the Disputa and the School of Athens, as well as at the inventive- 
ness which could connect subjects so remote from one another as 
the Heliodorus driven from the Temple , and the expulsion of the 
French from Italy. Through the entire range of subjects there 
runs a vein of profound and continuous thought. But especially 
admirable are alike the discernment which enabled Raphael to 
select, from apparently the most heterogeneous sources, matter 

Baedekek. Italy II. 11th Edit. e 



lxvi ROMAN ART. 

suitable for pictorial embodiment; the resolution with which he 
guarded the realm of fancy; and his sense of the beautiful, 
whereby he was enabled to bring the most intractable material into 
subjection to his purpose. These qualities are most conspicuous 
in the picture known as the Burning of the Leonine Quarter 
(the so-called Borgo) of Rome, or rather, as the artist's patron 
would have it , the conflagration , extinguished by intercession 
of the Pope. The spectator forgets the preposterous demand that 
a miracle should be thus palpably depicted : Raphael relegates 
the action to the heroic age , fills his picture with figures and 
groups of surpassing grandeur and animation (such as succeeding 
generations have striven in vain to imitate) and depicts the 
confusion, the preparation for rescue and flight with surpassingly 
graphic effect. The picture was not what he had been commissioned 
to paint ; but in lieu of this we have a creation teaming with ima- 
ginative power and masterful execution. In like manner Raphael 
disposed of the celebrated frescoes in the first Stanza, the Dispute 
and the School of Athena. Had he not been required to illustrate a 
chapter from the history of dogma (the proclamation of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation) or to present a pictorial extract from the 
history of ancient philosophy, the task of depicting a procession of 
historical celebrities known to fame as fathers of the church or 
mundane philosophers could not be particularly inviting. And 
further , while Raphael mingled with historical personages figures 
purely typical, and in the Disputa represents the assembled com- 
pany of believers as beholding a vision , where each individual 
present is naturally more or less overpowered by emotion — while 
in the School of Athens he especially emphasises the blessedness 
of knowledge, the good fortune which leads to the higher paths of 
learning (whether his representation literally coincides with the 
Diogenes Laertius or Sidonius Apollinaris or not) — he has asserted 
with brilliant success the Artist's right to supremacy in the realm 
of creative fancy. 

After the foregoing remarks the unprejudiced reader will need 
a hint only as to the mental attitude he shall assume as a student 
of Raphael's works. If the mere subject of the picture exclusively 
occupies his attention, if he must know the name and history of 
every figure, and feels it incumbent upon him to admire the in- 
tellectual grasp of an artist who gathered his materials from the 
remotest provinces of learning and who abounds in literary allusions, 
he is no longer in a condition fairly to test the artistic value of 
Raphael's works. From this point of view he will fail to detect in 
them any essential difference from the allegorical pictures of the 
period, nay he may even give precedence to many of these: to 
the wall paintings in the Capella degli Spagnuoli (S. M. Novella 
in Florence) for example, which indisputably exhibit greater versati- 
lity, a superior daring in the embodiment of the preternatural and 



ROMAN ART. lxui 

a loftier conception of the didactic capabilities of art. It is still 
a matter of uncertainty how far the erudition displayed by Raphael 
was an acquirement of his own or how far he may have relied on 
the contributions of contemporary scholars, such for example as Cas- 
tiglione, Bembo, and Ariosto, who would in so far share with him 
the meritdue to fertility of thought. Assuming, however, thatRaphael 
himself supplied the wealth of literary research which the frescoes of 
the Stanze are said to reveal, he would not as Artist become more in- 
telligible to us. His intellect might thus have been exercised, but 
not his imagination. Raphael's pictures will not only be more tho- 
roughly enjoyed, but his individuality and purpose will be more per- 
fectly apprehended when the effort is made to understand, how the 
painter by force of his imagination could out of material for thought, 
dead in itself, create new and living forms ; how he imparted to 
single figures so distinct a pyschological impress that the mere bear- 
ers of historical names are made to appear as representative hu- 
man characters; how subtly he balanced action and repose in his 
groups, not dwelling too long on mere beauty of outline and con- 
tour, but intent on giving harmonious expression to a more profound 
intellectual antithesis. From this point of view, interest in the 
works of Raphael will be enlightened and enduring. Numerous pro- 
blems will present themselves to the amateur for solution : what 
motive Raphael might have had in treating the Disputa and the 
School of Athens so differently in respect of colour ; how far in the 
latter picture the architectural character of the background is 
essential to the collective impression to be conveyed; for what 
reason the domain of portraiture is here narrowed to the utmost, 
while there (Jurisprudence) it is extended ; what were the grounds 
for the manifold changes in composition which are accurately 
traced in his numerous sketches, etc. 

The condition of the Stanze frescoes is such, alas, as to afford any- 
thing but unqualified gratification, just as in the Loggie we regret- 
fully trace the departed glory of unique examples of decorative art, 
and with difficulty recognise the summit of Raphael's attainments in 
the grievously injured Tapestries. These latter, it is true, in the 
detail of their composition may be studied in the cartoons now 
in the Kensington Museum ; but the subordinate decorations, mar- 
ginal arabesques and the like are still in part preserved in the ori- 
ginal tapestries, and are essential to the festive character of orna- 
mentation originally designed for the Sistine Chapel. To the ten 
tapestries so long known, an eleventh discovered in the depot of the 
Vatican has been added. These tapestries were to have adorned 
the lower compartment of the chapel walls and to this end they 
must correspond with the companion pictures : that, while these re- 
late the history of Redemption, they, the former, should pourtray the 
power and grace of God abiding with the Church. 

In apparently irreconcileable contrast to Raphael's works in the 



ljcviii ROMAN AET. 

Vatican we have his frescoes in the gay Villa Famesina. On the 
one hand we are awed by devotional fervour, sublime aspiration, 
thought earnest and profound; on the other we find Art revelling in 
the joys of life, each form radiant with an ecstasy of innocent mirth. 
Nevertheless it will cost no great effort to discern in the Famesina 
frescoes the impress of Raphael's genius. He was indebted for his 
version of the myth of Cupid and Psyche to a work of Apuleius, fa- 
miliar to readers of the 16th century as it had been to the Romans 
of old. Probably no author either in ancient or modern times can 
boast a more captivating illustration than Apuleius , while at the 
same time none has been more freely handled by his illustrator. 
In Raphael's hands the myth is moulded anew. Remembering that 
it was the adornment of a festive chamber he had in hand, Raphael 
sedulously avoided everything repugnant to the festive mood. Pysche's 
woes were consigned to the background ; the painter is intent upon 
recording her triumphs only. The confined space afforded by the 
chamber serves only to stimulate the Artist's mastery of form. Ra- 
phael's representation of the myth is condensed : many scenes are 
but glanced at for a moment, though essentials never escape him ; 
thus the claims 01 narration and decoration are adjusted without 
restraint. Harmony alike in idea and form ; nobility of proportion 
never overstepping the bounds of refinement ; the power of so losing 
himself in his subject as to present it devoid of individual caprice : 
attributes characteristic of Raphael as these are declare themselves 
in the frescoes of the Faruesina as unmistakably as in the wall 
paintings of the Vatican. The spectator's own unassisted eye will 
not fail to see that the pictures on the ceiling of the principal saloon 
are far inferior in execution to the so-called Oalatea in the neigh- 
bouring apartment. He will find nevertheless that both are such as 
will reward careful study with the highest gratification — a delight 
it must be a lasting desire to renew. 

The inaccessibility of the upper rooms of the Famesina, adorned 
by Bazzi of Siena (1477-1549; p. 24), commonly known as Sodoma, 
with his painting of the Nuptials of Alexander with Roxana, cannot 
be too much regretted. In the embodiment of sensuous grace and 
beauty, Raphael found in Sodoma a worthy rival. 

In the Sibyls of Raphael in S. Maria della Pace (1514) we find 
him competing — if the expression may be allowed — in another 
field. Here he trenches upon the domain of Michael Angelo ; not, 
however, that he is for a moment betrayed into disingenuousness by 
contact with a presence so overpowering, or that is he beguiled into 
assuming a style foreign to his genius. True to himself, he accepts the 
limits prescribed by his subject, and combines an air of pleasing sere- 
nity and infinite grace with the expression of prophetic inspiration. 

Around these three Art heroes, Bramante, Raphael, and Michael 
Angelo, is grouped a brilliant circle of pupils and dependents. The 
best works of the School of Raphael are undoubtedly those executed 



ROMAN ART. lxix 

in his lifetime and under his direction. Giulio Romano (1493-1546) 
and Francesco Penni (1488-1528) had a considerable share in the 
painting of the Hall of Constantine; the completion of the Loggia 
paintings was entrusted to them, Perin del Vaga (1499-1547), 
Baffaello dal Colle, and others. For the decorative ornamentation of 
the Loggie and the Farnesina the master engaged the services of 
Giovanni da Udine (1487-1564). Giulio Romano exhibits himself 
most clearly as a pupil of Raphael in the Villa Madama, less so in 
his Madonnas (Gal. Colonna and Borghese). 

The crowd of Architects, who appeared in Bramante's time, 
showed greater independence : Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1563; p. 24), 
who built the Farnesina and Pal. Massimi, Raphael himself and Oiu- 
lio Romano (Villa Madama), Antonio da Sangallo the younger, with 
whom originated the Pal. Farnese and a new plan for St. Peter's, 
and lastly Michael Angelo , whose influence, gradually deposing 
Bramante, irresistibly impelled the architecture of Rome into new 
courses. And just as in Plastic art he scornfully rejects the recognised 
forms and forces upon them a new construction , in like manner as 
Architect he concerns himself little about the accurate adjustment of 
subordinate parts, intent rather upon the effect to be produced by the 
structure as a whole — usually one of ponderous immensity. The 
colonnades in the Palazzo Farnese, the conversion of the Baths of 
Diocletian into the church of S. Maria degli Angeli — a work subse- 
quently spoiled — and the Porta Pia are among his chief works. His 
chief merit consists in his having reverted to the plans of Bramante 
for the completion of St. Peter's, which since 1546 had been under 
his superintendence. The Cupola at least was carried out according 
to his designs , but the ground-plan, to the injury of the building, 
was much altered, and the Latin substituted for the Greek Cross. 

As long as the 'divine' Michael Angelo lived, Rome was so dazzled 
by the splendour of his renown that no one suspected the Decline 
or Art was at hand. In fact, however, it had already declared itself 
at the death of Raphael. Rome once more captured and pillaged ; 
orthodoxy reinstated ; the church Tecoiling from the taint of Hu- 
manism : these were incisive events in the history of art, which now 
received a more distinctively ecclesiastical direction. The Foreign 
occupation of Rome expelled a vast number of her artists and laid a 
chasm in the traditions of her art. As she once more recovered herself 
and under the pontificate of Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti, 1585-90) was 
to all appearance again invested with her pristine grandeur, the en- 
couragement of art was revived, but in a spirit which presently pervaded 
and brought into subjection every phase of art. To Sixtus V. the 
Eternal City, which 'forthwith doubled itself, owesher present aspect. 
The Acqua Felice, the Spanish Staircase, the Via Sistina, the Piazza 
di S. Giovanni in Laterano , the Obelisk in the Piazza of St. Peter, 
the restoration of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius are his 
work. Domenico Fontana of Ticino was foremost in giving effect to 



lix ROMAN ART. 

this Pope's projects. The authors of the degenerated Renaissance 
known as Baroque were really Vignola (1507-73) and Fontana's 
nephew Carlo Maderna (1556-1639). In the Jesuit church of OesU 
(1568) the former furnished the type of the style which prevailed 
during the following century, especially in the numberless Jesuit 
churches then built. Maderna with Borromini and Carlo Fontana were 
the leaders of that band of Artists who conspired to rob architecture 
of its fitting repose, and by the introduction of figures posed in start- 
ling attitudes, aroused or convulsed by agency unseen, of curves in- 
stead of straight lines, of pillar piled upon pillar, substituted a tur- 
bulent unrest. Not that the style was without striking and artistic 
effect. An undoubted vigour in the disposition of detail, a feeling 
for vastness and pomp , together with an internal decoration which 
spared neither colour nor costly material to secure an effect of dazz- 
ling splendour : such are the distinguishing attributes of the Ba- 
roque style as in Rome it is to be seen on every hand, not only in an 
endless succession of churches (S. Ignazio, 8. Andrea della Valle, 
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, etc.), but in numerous palaces, 
the Barberini being a conspicuous example. The reader will, how- 
ever, scarcely dwell on these works longer than will suffice to give 
him a clear general impression of their character. 

A greater tenacity of life is, however, inherent in the art of 
Painting. An altogether deplorable interval now ensued, during 
which artistic talent was beguiled by Michael Angelo's overwhelm- 
ing ascendency into a slavish imitativeness, content with the least 
possible effort to crowd into a given space the greatest possible 
numberof unmeaning figures, not devoid, however, of a certain super- 
ficial charm sufficient to captivate the eye. After an interval thus 
occupied and identified with this supremacy of the Mannerist 
School (Arpino, Zucchero), painting once more, at the close of the 
16th century, was galvanised into a new life, destined to be of 
brief duration — Rome becomes a scene of conflict in which painters 
and their partisans are the combatants. During the reigns of the 
popes from Sixtus V. to Clement VIII. the fashionable artists were 
Circignani, surnamed Pomarancio, and his pupil Roncalli. It was 
not, however, till the accession of Paul V. (1605-21), a member of 
the Borghese family, that the interest in art became again widely 
spread. It was about this period that Rubens visited Rome, where 
he profited by a study of the best qualities of every school, without 
identifying himself with any. 

Caravaggio (1569-1609) was the chief of the Naturalist School. 
He was triumphant in the possession of popular favour. On the other 
hand it was objected that his drawing was bad, that he failed in the 
essential of grouping the figures in his larger compositions. Never- 
theless the mass is presented with such startling reality, and ani- 
mated with gesture so impassioned, that every figure fitly asserts it- 
self, while a corresponding force in colour conveys an impression 



ROMAN ART. lxxi 

powerfully suggestive of the turbulent licence then prevailing. — 
The Eclectics took an opposite direction. Trained in a regularly- 
constituted school of aTt, such as had been established at Bologna, 
initiated moreover in the art of Correggio and the Venetians, full 
of reverence for more Temote traditions, thoroughly versed in the 
rules of drawing and composition as well as familiar with the fresco 
painter's art — thus formidably equipped, Annibale Carracci, Do- 
menichino, Guido Reni, Quercino appeared amongst the rival aspi- 
rants to fame in Rome. They supplanted the Naturalists, appro- 
priating as much of the latters' method as appeared available, and 
finally monopolised the favour of the court and aristocracy. Nor 
was the struggle by any means confined to the palette and the 
brush. Personalities arose, and amongst themselves the partisans of 
Carracci were seldom at peace. Their contributions are in part, at 
any rate, of the highest excellence. Annibale Carracci' s frescoes in 
the Palazzo Farnese ; Ouido Rent's Aurora in the Casino Rospigliosi; 
the frescoes of Domenichino in S. Luigi dei Francesi, S. Andrea 
della Valle, at Grotta Ferrata near Rome are not mere master- 
pieces of technical skill, but are replete with artistic beauty and 
vitality. 

The Neapolitan sculptor Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) flourishes 
up to the close of the 17th century. His works occupy the concluding 
chapter in the history of Roman Art. It is superfluous to bid the be- 
holder beware of being led captive by art essentially flimsy and mere- 
tricious ; rather perhaps it is necessary, as a set off against the now 
prevailing depreciation of Bernini's works, to plead the important 
historical significance they posses amidst all their too conspicuous 
defects ; to bear in mind that throughout the course of nearly a 
century they were regarded as the most brilliant production of 
that period and were very generally imitated. 

Since the 17th century, Rome has not given birth to nor nur- 
tured auy distinctive art life, though the past has held artists of 
all nations spell-bound, compelling the conviction that Rome is still 
the true High School of Art, whose teaching is indispensable to 
every true artist. So late as the close of the 18th and the beginning 
of the present century, Rome continued to give proofs of the potency 
of her influence. Without the suggestions which Rome alone could 
furnish, David would never have received that classical impulse 
which he turned to such admirable account in France. Asmus 
Carstens, the father of the classical style of modern German art, 
also made his home in Rome. Amid the art-collections of Rome 
alone could Thorvaldsen, the 'Greek of the 19th century', have 
worthily perfected his talents. In the absence of such inspiration 
as the spectacle of Rome's master-pieces alone can afford, Cornelius 
and his associates would never have had the courage to attempt the 
revival of fresco-painting. 

Thus it was that Rome reacted on the destinies of modern art, 



lxxii ROMAN ART. 

though without an art life she could call her own. During the last 
fifty years , however, she has lost much of her importance even in 
this respect, through the altered tendencies of the artistic schools 
of France, Belgium, and Germany. Foreign painters and sculptors 
still visit Rome, but it has entirely ceased to dictate the tone of 
European art. In place of this, Rome may perhaps become the 
centre of a new Italian school of art, though the productions of 
modern Roman artists have hitherto scarcely warranted the suppo- 
sition. At the beginning of this century building wholly ceased at 
Rome, and the works of monumental painting , such as Podesti's 
frescoes in the Stanza dell' Incendio, prove that the traditions of 
the classic period had been utterly forgotten. Since , however, 
Rome has been the capital of a united Italy, increased activity has 
been manifested in the field of art , and the clever Roman stone- 
masons have had abundant opportunity to show their skill in the 
ornamentation of handsome modern edifices. The resuscitation of 
a truly elevated style of sculpture is hindered by the tendency to 
exaggerated realism and the undue value laid upon mere mechanical 
dexterity, which seem nowhere so much out of place as at Rome. 
In painting Rome has not yet outstripped the flourishing schools of 
North Italy. 



FIRST SECTION. 



S. TUSCANY. UMBEIA. THE MARCHES. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome, by the Maremme ... 2 

Piombino and Populonia, 2. — Rusellae, 3. — Monte 
Argentario, 4. — From Montalto to Vulci, 4. — From 
Corneto to Toscanella, 7. — From Civita Vecchia to La 
Tolfa, 7. 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Colle 8 

From Volterra to the boracic acid works on Monte Cer- 
boli, 8. From Volterra to S. Girolamo, 12. From Vol- 
terra to the copper-mines at Monte Catini, 12. 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 12 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi via Empoli .... 14 

From Poggibonsi to Colle. S. Gimignano, 15. — From As- 
ciano to Monte Oliveto Maggiore, 17. From Asciano to 
Grosseto. Monte Amiata, 18. — From Montepulciano to 
Pienza, 21. 

5. Siena 21 

Excursions from Siena :.Osservanza, S. Colomba, etc. 37. 

6. From Florence to Perugia via Arezzo and Terontola 

(Chiusi-Rome). Cortona 38 

From Arezzo to Stia and Pratovecchio, 43. — From Arezzo to 
Monte Sansavino, Fojano, and Betolle, 43. 

7. Perugia , 48 

From Perugia to Todi, 57. 

8. From Arezzo to Fossato. Borgo S. Sepolcro. Citta, di 

Castello. Gubbio 57 

9. From Florence to Rome via (Arezzo) Terontola and 

Chiusi. Orvieto. Bolsena 61 

From Chiusi to Citta della Pieve. Cetona, 62. — From 
Borghetto to Civita Caste liana. Falerii. Soracte, 69. 

10. From Attigliano to Viterbo 71 

Excursions from Viterbo: Ferento, Toscanella, Castel 

d'Asso, Vetralla, Norchia. Caprarola. Sutri. Nepi. Castel 
S. Elia, 74. 

11. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). Assisi. 

Spoleto. Waterfalls of Terni. Narni 77 

From Foligno to Bevagna and Montefalco, 83. 

12. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 90 

From Rimini to S. Marino, 97. 

From Pesaro to Urbino 99 

From Fano to Fossato via Fossombrone and Furlo Pass, 103. 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto 105 

From Porto Civitanova to Albacina and Fabriano, 110. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome) Ill 

From Fabriano to Sassoferrato and Arcevia, 111 112. 



Baedbkbb. Italy II. 11th Edition. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome 

by the Maremme. 

208 M. (from Pisa 2071/2 M.). Railway. Express in 6-7V2hrs., fares 41 fr. 
65, 29 fr. 15 c. (from Pisa 41 fr. 55, 29 fr. 10 c.) ; ordinary trains in 8i/a hrs., 
fares 37 fr. 90, 26 fr. 55, 17 fr. 10c. (or 37 fr. 75, 26 fr. fee 17 fr.). 

The Mabemme Railway coincides with the ancient ViaAureua. It rnns 
inland as far as Cecina, where it approaches the coast, commanding fine 
views of the sea with its promontories and islands. Views always on the 
right. — This is perhaps the least picturesque of the routes to Rome ; yet 
the traveller who desires to explore it may devote several days to the jour- 
ney, though, owing to the malaria, this is not practicable between the end 
of May and the end of October (comp. p. 3). 

Leghorn and Pisa, see Baedeker s Northern Italy. — The lines 
unite at Vicarelle, near the station Colle Salvetti, which is 10 M. 
distant from Leghorn and 9 l / 2 M. from Pisa. To the right we see 
the Monte Nero, a celebrated place of pious resort, with an ancient 
picture of the Virgin. 

13 M. (from Pisa) Fauglia; 18 M. Orciano; 2272 M. Santa 
Luce ; 24 M. Bosignano, the village of which name is situated on 
a hill to the right ; 28 M. Vada. The train crosses the Cecina, the 
ancient Caecina. The family of that name was once settled in this 
district, as is proved by numerous inscriptions. 

31i/ 2 M. Cecina (poor cafe" at the station), where a branch-line 
to Volterra diverges (see p. 8), is, like all the above-mentioned vil- 
lages, of modern origin. 

35y 2 M. Bibbona-Casale. The line now approaches the coast. 
The loftily-situated, ancient Etruscan Populonia (see below) becomes 
visible to the right, on a chain of hills projecting into the sea ; beyond 
it the island of Elba (p. 13). 

42 M. Castagneto; 47 M. S. Vincenzo, with a small harbour. 
5372 M. Campiglia Marittima; the smalltown (3500 inhab.) lies 
to the left on the height, with a ruined castle and Etruscan tombs of 
no great interest. 

From Campiglia to Piombino, 8V2 M., railway in 36 min. (fares 1 fr. 60, 
1 fr. 15, 75 c), via (3 M.) Poggio and (8 M.) Portovecchio. 

Piombino (Albergo delle Apt, unpretending, bargaining advisable), a 
small town with 2700 inhab.. originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a 
principality of the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and then by 
the family of Buoncompagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Ka- 
poleon in 1805 in favour of his brother-in-law, the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. 
In 1815 it was assigned to Tuscany. It lies at the S. end of a wooded pro- 
montory, bounded on the land side by a flat district. A weather-beaten 
tower on the harbour commands a grand view of the sea and the island 
of Elba (in front of which rise the cliffs of Cerboli and Palmajola), of 
Giglio and the coast, and Corsica in the distance. — Steamboat to Elba 
every afternoon, returning the following morning (p. 12). 

A forenoon suffices for a visit to (6 M.) the ancient Populonia, the 
Etruscan Pupluna, at the N. end of the peninsula. The shorter route 
through the woods requires a guide. The town with its mediaeval castle, 
situated on a lofty and precipitous hill, is conspicuous from all sides. Once 
a prosperous seaport, it suffered greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time 
of Strabo it had fallen to decay, and it is now a poor village. In ancient 
times the iron of Elba was smelted here. The old town-walls may still be 
distinctly traced, and are particularly well preserved on the side next the 



GROSSETO. 1. Route. 3 

sea; they consist of huge blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The 
views towards the land and the sea are striking and extensive. Several 
arches, erroneously said to belong to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may 
also be mentioned as relics of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in 
the vicinity are hardly worthy of a visit. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the Maremme : a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp, in summer poisoned by malaria. During the Etruscan 
period the Maremme possessed several considerable towns : Populo- 
nia, Vetulonia, Busellae; Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy 
and the conversion of the farms into pasture-land, the desolation of 
the coast-district made rapid progress. During the present century 
the first successful attempts to counteract the malaria were made by 
the drainage and filling up of swamps and the establishment of new 
farms (especially near the railway -stations); but the evil is still 
very great. Charcoal-burning and in winter cattle-grazing are the 
chief resources of the inhabitants. 

64 M. Follonica, near the sea, possesses considerable smelting- 
foundries for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea ; 
to the right the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the left the 
promontory of Castiglione with a lighthouse, and the small, grotesquely 
shaped island of Formica. On a hill to the left is Massa Marittima, 
one of the largest towns of the Maremme, with 3300 inhabitants. 
In the vicinity are extensive copper-mines. — The train again quits 
the coast and skirts the Promontory of Castiglione. 

73 M. Gavorrano, the station for the place of the same name, situ- 
ated higher up, to the right. Farther on, also to the right, on a hill, 
is Colonna ; and in the distance, at the mouth of the Bruna, the small 
fortified harbour of Castiglione della Pescaja is visible. Here wood 
and charcoal form the chief exports. 

82^2 M. Montepescal i, junction of a branch-line to Siena, which 
runs parallel to our line as far as Grosseto. The village is pictur- 
esquely situated on a hill to the left. 

90^2 M. Grosseto (*Rail. Restaurant; Stella d° Italia, with a 
good trattoria; Bella Toscana), the capital of the Maremme, a plea- 
sant town with 3900 inhabitants. The Cathedral, begun in 1294, 
was restored in 1855. The Munieipio contains a collection of Etrus- 
can urns, a room with vases and bronzes found in tombs at Vetulonia 
(see above), sarcophagi, and other antiquities. Near the Badia is a 
prehistoric tomb. Branch-line to Asciano (Siena), see p. 18. 

About 3V2 M. to the N.E. of Grosseto (carriage-road) lie the sulphur- 
eous Bagni di Rosette, whence the ruins of Busellae are reached in >/2 hr. 
(guide necessary). Rusellse , anciently one of the twelve capitals of the 
Etruscan confederation, has been deserted since the middle of the 12th cent, 
and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls, which are nearly 
2 M. in circumference, and in most places accessible, consist partly of 
horizontal courses, partly of polygonal blocks (6-8 ft. high, 6-12 ft. long). 

Around Grosseto, and to the W., in the direction of Castiglione, extends 
a considerable plain, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelim of Cicero), 
which gradually became shallower and productive of malaria (Pahtde di 

1* 



4 Route 1. ORBETELLO. From Leghorn or 

Castiglione and di Grosselo). By skilful drainage, and by conducting hither 
the deposits of the neighbouring rivers, the government has almost entirely 
filled up the morass and converted it into a valuable pasture, 12-15 M. long. 

Beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. 99 M. Albarese. The 
line skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone; towards the S. the 
imposing Monte Argentario (see below) is visible. 

At (105 M.) Talamone a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the end of the promontory and possesses an an- 
chorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the Mte. Argentario 
(steamer to Elba, p. 12). The creek has been much diminished by 
alluvial deposits. Here, in B.C. 225, the Roman legions landed 
and signally defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The train crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinid), at the mouth of which are salt-works. 
109 M. Albegna. 

1131/2 M. Orbetello (*Rail. Restaurant, dej. 2, D. 3-5 fr., both 
incl. wine). On the arrival of the train an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for 
(2 M.) Orbetello {Albergo Rosa, Albergo Nazionale, both unpretend- 
ing), with 3800 inhab., situated at the extremity of a promontory, 
near the foot of Monte Argentario, which rises immediately from 
the sea, and is connected with the mainland by two narrow tongues of 
land, whereby a large saltwater lagoon is formed, from the midst of 
which the town rises. The only object of interest is the polygonal 
wall on the sides next the sea, which testifies to the great antiquity 
of the town, although its ancient name is unknown. 

From Orbetello an embankment has been constructed across the shallow 
lake, which abounds in fish, to Mte. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the 
N. harbour, Porto S. Stefano (steamboat to Elba, every Friday at 5 a.m., see 
p. 12), and to PorC Ercole on the S. side. The Monte Argentario (2090 ft.) 
culminates in two peaks , on one of which is situated a monastery of the 
Fassionists. The ascent is very interesting (from Orbetello, 2-3 hrs. ; guide). 
The view embraces the coast of Tuscany as far as Mte. Amiata, the Roman 
Maremme, and the sea with its numerous rocky islands as far as Sardinia. 
If time is limited, the first and lower eminence, 3 /< hr. from Orbetello, 
with a picturesque view of the coast, should be visited. 

Orbetello is the most convenient starting-point for an excursion to the 
(41/2 M.) interesting ruins of the ancient Cosa, the present Ansedonia (car- 
riage there and back, including stay of 5 hrs., 8 fr.); and also for a visit 
to the ancient towns of Saturnia and Sovana, about 25 M. inland. Cosa is 
an old Etruscan town, deserted in the 5th century. The polygonal walls 
(1600 yds. in circumference) with their towers are admirably preserved. 
A beautiful prospect of the sea and coast is enjoyed hence. 

The train soon enters the former Papal territory, and traverses 
the Roman Maremma; scenery unattractive. 121 M. Capalbio; 
125V 2 M. Chiarone. It then crosses the Flora and reaches (135 M.) 
Montalto, a poor village. 

From Montalto the traveller may ascend by the Fiora to the ancient 
Ponte delta Badia and the site of Vulci, where thousands of Etruscan vases 
have been discovered since 1828. The ancient Etruscan city itself, the 
circumference of which is ascertained to have been 5 M., has disappeared 
with the exception of its tombs. 

Beyond Montalto the country is undulating. We cross the small 
rivers Arrone and Maria, the outlet of the Lake of Bolsena. On the 



Pisa to Rome. CORNETO. 1. Route. 5 

right bank of the Marta, near its mouth, are the ruins of Oravlscce, 
the port of Tarquinii (see below). 

1441/2 M. Corneto. On a hill (350 ft.J li/ 2 M. to the left of the 
station (seat in a carriage x j^ fr.) is the antiquated town of — 

Corneto (Alb. & Rist. Oiudizi, Via dell' Indipendenza, well 
spoken of; Alb. #• Trat. Orassi, fair), with numerous towers and a 
population of 5000. The town sprang up at the beginning of the 
middle ages near the town of Tarquinii (afterwards destroyed by the 
Saracens), to which factit owes its official name of Corneto Tarquinia. 

TaTquinii was anciently one of the twelve Etruscan capitals, 
and remarkable for the influence which it exercised on the deve- 
lopment of the national religion of Etruria. It participated in the 
war of the Etruscan confederation against Rome, but was compelled 
to surrender after the Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony, 
which continued to flourish during the empire. Its ancient necro- 
polis, discovered in 1823, is the chief object of interest at Corneto. 

The handsome but unfinished Gothic Palazzo Vitelleschi, in the 
main street, adjoining the gate, was erected by Cardinal Vitelleschi 
in 1437. — On the N. buttress of the plateau on which the town 
stands is the imposing Castello of Countess Matilda, containing the 
recently restored church of 8. Maria in Castello, begun in the 11th 
cent., with a facade dating from 1121. This interesting church 
(key in the Museo, see below) contains a tabernaculum of 1168 and 
a pulpit of 1209. — Adjacent is Scappini's Ceramic Factory. 

The smaller Romanesque churches of <S. Anastasia, 8. Salvatore, 
8. Martino, and S. Pancrazio have all been more or less restored. 
Adjoining the last is the old Palazzo Municipale, with three of its 
original eight towers. On a height above the town is the Gothic 
church of 8. Francesco. — A genealogical tree 'al fresco' in the 
new Palazzo Comunale, professing to trace the origin of the place to 
a remote mythical era, shows an amusing disregard for history. 

The lower story of the *Museo Municipale contains a number 
of sarcophagi, the most interesting of which is the so-called 'Sar- 
cofago del Magnate', embellished with reliefs (battles of Ama- 
zons) and with handsome polychrome figures on the lid. On the 
upper floor are smaller antiquities, vases, gold ornaments, weapons, 
etc. Among these are an antique set of false teeth (3rd room), 
and a fine painted bowl, which bears the names of Oltos and 
Euxitheos as the artists and represents the Arrival of Bacchus in 
Olympus, the types of the deities recalling the character of pre- 
Phidian art. The last rooms contain the products of the excavations 
carried on since 1881 in the oldest part of the Necropolis. The pot- 
tery is of the rudest description and was evidently produced without 
the aid of a wheel. Four cinerary urns in the form of huts give us 
an idea of the Italian dwelling of the period. The conical helmets, 
with bars at the top, were evidently imported ; their type seems 
to have served as a model for the 'Apices', or caps of the Roman 



6 Route 1. TARQUINII. From Leghorn or 

priests. Among the remaining contents are Carthaginian scarabsei 
and idols in fused glass. The keys of S. Maria in Castello and of 
the Museum are kept by Frangioni, the custodian of the Necropolis 
of Tarquinii (fee for a visit to the curiosities of the place, 5 fr.). 

The Palazzo Bruschi contains a very fine collection of Etruscan 
antiquities; and a few Etruscan and Roman relics are also pre- 
served in the Qiardino Bruschi, outside the town. — Corneto com- 
mands a fine view of the sea with Monte Argentario and the 
neighbouring islands, and also an interesting survey of the bleak 
environs. 

On tbe Turchina, a stony hill opposite, separated from Mon- 
tarozzi, the hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, a town 
with walls about 5 M. in circumference. Its last remains were 
totally destroyed by the inhabitants of Corneto in 1307. No ruins 
are now visible save scanty vestiges of walls and foundations. 

The ^Necropolis (key, see above) spreads over a great part of 
the hill upon which the town itself stands. The Tumuli which ex- 
ternally distinguished the tombs have in the lapse of ages been 
entirely destroyed; the subterranean chambers now alone remain. 
Even in ancient times the tombs were frequently plundered for the 
sake of the precious trinkets they contained, and modern excava- 
tions have despoiled them of every movable object that remained. 
A visit to them is nevertheless extremely interesting to those who 
desire to form an idea of the civilisation, art, and religion of the 
Etruscans, owing to their arrangement and the good preservation of 
their paintings. The decoration of the chambers is in a style that 
was prevalent chiefly in the towns of southern Etruria, and indi- 
cates a close relationship to Hellenic art. The following (especially 
Nos. 5, 11, 14, and 19) are the most interesting tombs: — 

No. 4. Grotla delta Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt), or Grotta Querciola. 
The faded paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 309) , represent a 
banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Opposite to this tomb — 

No. 5. Grolta del Convito Funebre, or del Triclinio, also with the re- 
presentation of a banquet. The admirable drawing bears witness to the in- 
fluence of the best period of archaic Greek art. The men here, as in the 
others, are coloured dark red, the women sketched in outline on the walls 
in whitish colours. 

No. 8. Grolta del Morto, small; mourning for the deceased, and dancers. 

No. 11. Grotla del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a 
pillar, on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in ser- 
pents. The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a proof 
that they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the wall 
are souls escorted by genii; under them is Charon with the hammer. 

No. 12. Grotta degli Scudi, with banqueting scenes. 

No. 13. Grotta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb of Tarquinii, 
supported by four pillars, opened last century ; colours almost entirely faded. 

No. 14. Grotta deW Oreo or del Poli/emo: in the anterior chamber, 
a banquet ; in the one beyond it a scene from the infernal regions , with 
Pluto, Proserpine, Geryon, Tiresias, Agamemnon, Memnon, and Theseus; 
in a niche is Ulysses blinding Polyphemus. — The paintings here exhibit 
unmistakable Greek influence. 

No. 15. Grolta dei Vasi Dipinti, and No. 16. Grotla del Veechio, with 
banquets and dances, both not later than the first half of tbe 5th cent. B. C. 



Pisa to Rome. CIVITA VECCHIA. l , Route. 7 

No. 18. Qrotta delle Iscrizioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan in- 
scriptions, with warlike trials of skill. 

No. 19. Qrotta del Barone, so called from the Hanoverian ambassa- 
dor Baron Kestner, by whom it was opened, contains warlike games, riders, 
etc., partly in the archaic style ; colours well preserved. 

No. 20. Qrotta delle Bighe , discovered in 1827 by Baron Stackelberg. 
A copy of the paintings (funereal games and dances) in the Vatican. 

No. 21. Qrotta del Mare, small, with sea-horses. 

No. 23. Qrotta degli Auguri (with funereal games ; a criminal with 
veiled head fighting with a large mastiff, hounded on by a figure in a 
mask), of the same date as Nos. 15 and 16. 

From Corneto to (16- M.) Toscanella (p. 74) a diligence runs thrice a 
week (carriage 8fr.). 

The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto , which remains 
visible for a long time. To the right , farther on , is the insigni- 
ficant Porto Clementino, which is entirely abandoned in summer on 
account of the malaria. The horizon is bounded inland by the moun- 
tains of Tolfa (see below), which yield an abundance of alum and 
sulphur. The line crosses the small river Mignone, at the mouth of 
which stands the Torre Bertaldo , where , according to a legend, an 
angel dispelled St. Augustine's doubts respecting the Trinity. 

157 M. Civita Vecchia. — Halt of 5-14 min.; "Railway Restaurant. 

Omnibus to the town (within a few minutes' walk) 25 c. ; one-horse 
carriage l /t fr., two-horse 1 fr. ; porter for a box 40 c. — Hotel de l'Eurofe, 
clean. — Steamboat to Sardinia daily, in 11 hrs.; see Baedeker's Southern 
Italy. — British Consular Agent, L. Sperandio; American, G. Mapsanich. 

Civita Vecchia, the seaport of Rome, with 9200 inhab., the 
ancient Centum Cellae founded by Trajan, and sometimes called 
Portus Trajani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 
the inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city 1 . The fortifications, 
built in the 16th and 17th cent., were recently restored by the 
French. The entrance to the harbour, in front of which lies a small 
fortified island with a lighthouse, is defended by two towers. The 
traveller may best spend a leisure hour in walking on the quay. 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa (2040 ft.) and the loftily -situated village of that name, in the 
vicinity of which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque, 
and the locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs, with the 
ruins of ancient baths (Aquae Tauri), lie about 3 M. from Civita Vecchia. 

From Civita, Vecchia to Rome. The best views are on the 
right till Rome is approached, and then on the left. The line 
traverses a dreary tract , running parallel with the ancient Via 
Aurelia near the sea-coast as far as Palo. On clear days the Alban 
and Volscian Mts. are visible , and still farther off the Monte Cir- 
cello (p. 388). 

163 M. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle. 

166 M. Santa Severa, a picturesque baronial castle, formerly the 
property of the Orsini family, and now of the S. Spirito Hospital at 
Rome. Here in ancient times lay Pyrgos or Pyrgi, the harbour of 
the once powerful Etruscan city Caere, now Cerveteri (p. 392), 
situated on a height, 6 M. to the left. 

171 M. Furlara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected in 
the 16th cent., for protection against the dreaded Turkish corsairs. 



8 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

177 M. Palo, with a chateau and villa of the Odescalchi, occu- 
pies the site of the ancient Alsium, where Pompey and Antoninus 
Pius possessed country-residences. Relics of antiquity now scarce. 
A short branch-line runs hence to the frequented sea-baths of La- 
dispoli, founded by Prince Odescalchi (fine beach; special trains 
from Rome on Sun. and Thurs.). 

181 M. Palidoro lies on the river of that name, which has its 
source on the heights near the Lago di Bracciano (p. 391). Comp. 
the map, p. 325. 

The line now approaches the plantations of (186 M.) Maccarese 
to the right, the ancient Fregenae, on the Arrone which issues from 
the Lago di Bracciano and enters the sea near this point. The Lago 
di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 

193 M. Ponte Oalera, whence a branch-line diverges to Porto 
and Fiumicino (p. 394). Near (201 M.) Magliana the Tiber becomes 
visible, and the line follows its course (comp. Map, p. 327). A 
freer view is now obtained of the extensive Campagna di Roma ; 
to the right , in the background , the Alban Mts. (p. 361 ; comp. 
panorama, p. 320) and to the left the Sabine Mts. ; in the foreground 
is S. Paolo Fuori le Mura (p. 350). 

202 M. Roma S. Paolo, outside the Porta Portese (change car- 
riages for Trastevere, comp. p. 115). The train crosses the Tiber by 
an iron bridge and skirts the S.E. walls of Rome. 

207i/ 2 M. Rome. — Arrival, see p. 115. 



2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Colle. 

A visit to Volterra, the antiquities of which are interesting, is best 
accomplished from Leghorn. Railway via Cecina to Volterra station, 
51 M. , in 3-3 3 /4 hrs. ; express to Cecina (no through-connection) 6 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 45 c; ordinary trains 5 fr. 95, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c; from Cecina to 
Volterra station 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 55 c. — Diligence from the station 
to Volterra in 2 hrs. (fare H/2 fr. ; one-horse carr. 10 fr.). Those who 
intend to continue their journey southwards by the Maremme line should 
leave their luggage at Cecina. — Diliqence to Colle twice a week only; 
one-horse carriage about 12 fr. 

Volterra may also be reached from Pontedera, a station on the Flor- 
ence and Pisa line, by driving up the valley of the Era (5-6 hrs.). 

Feom Leghorn to Voiteera. To (31 '/ 2 M.) Cecina, see p. 2. 
The branch-line to Volterra ascends hence on the right bank of the 
Cecina, traversing a district of great mineral wealth. — 5^2 M. 
Riparbella; 10'/ 2 M. Casino di Terra; 15 M. Ponte O-inori. 

19 M. Volterra. The station is situated at the foot of the lofty 
hill on which the town lies. The extensive salt-works (Le Saline) 
in the vicinity supply the whole of Tuscany with salt. 

The following excursion, for which a carriage may be hired at Volterra 
station, is interesting to geologists. We first drive to Pomarance, a pleasant 
town, famed in the Renaissance period for its earthenware, with a large 
chateau of Count Larderello, and in about 3 hrs. reach Larderello on the 
Monte Cerboli, the central point of the boracic acid works belonging to 
the Larderello family, which are politely shown to visitors. The ex- 



to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 9 

cursion may be extended towards the S., by Bagno a Morbo (with springs, 
good for gout, used perhaps by the Romans), Castelnuovo, Basso, and Monte- 
rotondo, to Massa Marittima (p. 3), a drive of 3 hrs. more. Near Sasso 
and Monterotondo in particular the country is covered with clouds of steam, 
and the hot surface of the earth with incrustations of sulphur, sulphate of 
iron, etc. Near Monterotondo is the hot Lago Zolforeo, a small lake strongly 
impregnated with boracic acid, which is obtained from it by evaporation 
by a French firm. Count Larderello's works yield about 1650 tons, and 
the other 500 tons annually, and the whole quantity is sent by contract to 
England, where it is chiefly used in the manufacture of glass and pottery. 
The lagoni, or pools through which the soffloni or jets of boracic acid 
in the form of steam bubble up, are all, with the exception of those of 
Travale, in the region of the Cecina and Cornia, and most probably have 
a common volcanic origin. 

The road from the station to (5 M.) Volterra ascends (diligence 
IY2 &•)• The country presents a peculiarly bleak appearance. The 
effect of the rain on the soft and spongy soil is most prejudicial to 
agriculture. 

Volterra. — 'Albergo Nazionale, R. 172-2 fr. ; Unione. — Gaffi 
Etrusco, in the market-place. 

The celebrated Alabaster Works of Volterra afford occupation to nearly 
two-thirds of the population, but most of the patterns are unfortunately 
in very bad taste. The ordinary kinds of alabaster are found in the vici- 
nity, the more valuable in the mines of La Castellina, to the S. of Leg, 
horn. The traveller should visit the interesting work-shops, where soul 
venirs may be purchased far more cheaply than at Florence or Leghorn 

Volterra (1805 ft.), chief town of an official district and one of 
the most ancient Etruscan cities , is an episcopal residence with 
5400 inhab., commanding in clear weather charming prospects as 
far as the heights of Pisa, the Apennines, and the sea with the is- 
lands of Gorgona, Elba , Capraja, and Corsica. 

VolterTa (the Etruscan Telathri, the Volaterrae of the Romans) was 
one of the twelve ancient confederate cities of Etruria, and was so strongly 
fortified that during the civil wars it withstood a siege by Sulla's troops 
for two years. It afterwards became a Roman municipium, but gradually 
fell to decay and was totally destroyed in the 10th century. It was re-erected 
under the Othos , but does not now cover one-third of its ancient area. 
In the middle ages it was a free town, and from this period date the 
best buildings ; but it became subject to Florence in 1361. The last revolt 
of the inhabitants against the Florentines terminated on 17th June, 1472, 
when the town was captured and ruthlessly pillaged. 

Among the antiquities the ancient *Town Walls , once up- 
wards of 4Y2 M. in circumference, and nearly three times as ex- 
tensive as those of Fiesole and Cortona, are especially worthy of 
notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. in height, 13 ft. in thickness) 
and construction of horizontal courses of sandstone blocks (pan- 
china) are best inspected outside the Porta Fiorentina and in 
the garden of the monastery of Santa Chiara. One of the ancient 
gateways, the *Pobta dell' Abco, 20 ft. in height, is also still in 
existence. The corbels are adorned with almost obliterated heads. 
The Porta di Diana ('HPortone' 1 ), another gateway, outside the Porta 
Fiorentina, has been much altered.. Outside the same gate, below 
the burying-ground, is situated the ancient Necropolis, about halfway 
up the hill, at the place now called £. Marmi. A number of the 



10 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

curiosities in the museum were found here, but all the tombs but 
one have been closed up again. 

The Piscina, outside the castle, a reservoir resting on six col- 
umns, is only shown by permission of the bishop , and is reached 
by a long ladder. The Thermae, near the Fonte S. Felice, are of 
Roman origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The Palazzo dei Peioei or Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 19) in the 
Piazza, a handsome edifice, begun in 1208 and completed in 1257, 
is unfortunately somewhat modernised; the exterior is adorned with 
mediaeval coats-of-arms. It contains a collection of pictures , of 
which the following are the most important : Luca Signorelli, Ma- 
donna with six saints and two angels, 1491 (much injured); Bom. 
Ohirlandajo, Christ in glory (ruined by restoration in 1874), and a 
Madonna, by the same. 

Adjoining, to the right, is the entrance to the *Cathedeal 
(PI. 8), consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calixtus II., and said to have 
been enlarged in the 13th cent, by Niccolb Pisano. The facade dates 
from 1254. 

Interior. Above and beside the entrance are reliefs from the life of 
St. Octavianus (14th cent.) ; the pulpit is adorned with sculptures of the end 
of the 12th century. The two angels with candelabra on the high-altar are 
by Mino da Fiesole. The sarcophagus of St. Octavianus is by Raffaele Cioli 
(1527); the elaborate roof by Fr. Cipriani (1570). — In the S. transept is a 
line wooden group (13th cent.) of the Descent from the Cross. The chapel 
of S. Carlo, opposite, contains on the left an 'Annunciation by Signorelli 
(1491), of rich colouring and attractive grace; above the altar, Mary 
Magdalen by Camillo Incontri (1634) ; on the right, Ben. di Giovanni, Nativ- 
ity, with predelle by Benozzo Gozzoli; and Pontormo, Descent from the 
Cross (unfinished). 

Opposite to the cathedral rises the baptistery of S. Giovanni 
(PI. 6), an octagonal church, supposed to date from the 7th cent., 
and occupying the site of an ancient temple of the sun. The por- 
tal dates from the 13th century. To the left of the entrance is an 
ancient sarcophagus, with a relief of Narcissus. The fine arch of the 
high-altar is by Balsimelli da Settignano (16th cent.), the octagonal 
font by Andrea Sansovino (1502) , and the ciborium by Mino da 
Fiesole (1471). 

S. Lino (PL 13), a church founded in 1480 by Raffaele Maffei, 
contains the tomb of that scholar, with a recumbent statue by Silvio 
da Fiesole. 

In the Via Ricciarelli is the house in which Daniele da Volterra, 
the celebrated pupil of Michael Angelo, was born in 1509 (he died 
at Paris in 1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, 
who possess a fine Elias, by the artist. 

S. Francesco (PI. 10), with the Gothic chapel of the Confra- 
ternith della Croce di Oiorno of 1315 , contains frescoes from the 
life of the Saviour and the legend of the Cross by Cienni di Fran- 
cesco di Ser Cienni of Florence, 1410. 

The most interesting object in Volterra is the *Museo Nazio- 
nale, a valuable collection of inscriptions, coins, bronzes, statues, 



to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 11 

and vases, now contained in the Palazzo Tagassi (PI. 20), Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele. Admission 1 fr., Sun. free. 

The museum, established in 1731, and greatly enriched by the collections 
of the erudite Mario Quarnacci in 1761, was in 1878 admirably arranged 
by Cavaliere Jf. Maffei. Seven rooms on the lower floor and as many on 
the upper are occupied by the collection of Cinerary Urns (upwards of 
400). These are generally about 3 ft. in length, and date from the latest 
period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. The subjects are 
more interesting than the execution, which is for the most part very 
mediocre. A few of them are composed of terracotta and sandstone , but 
most of them are of the alabaster of the environs. On the lid is the greatly 
reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased ; the sides are adorned with 
reliefs , and some of them bear traces of painting and gilding. The re- 
presentations on the urns are partly derived from the peculiar sphere of 
Etruscan life, partly from Greek mythology. From the former, parting 
scenes are the most frequent; the deceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted 
by a messenger who bears a long sack containing provisions for the jour- 
ney or is accompanied by Charon with the hammer. Sacrifices and funeral- 
processions occur frequently, as well as banquets , races, contests of skill, 
etc. Greek mythology has supplied an abundant selection of subjects, e.^. 
Ulysses with the Sirens and with Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of 
Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, the Seven against Thebes (the gate a 
copy of the Porta dell' Arco, p. 9), Polynices and Eteocles, CEdipus with 
the Sphinx, (Edipus slaying his father. There is a singular blending of 
luxuriance and melancholy in the subjects and treatment of these works, 
and the same peculiarity is often observed in the subsequent development 
of Etruscan art. — Five other rooms contain marble sculptures (archaic 
sandstone relief of a warrior), vases (mostly of a later style), coins, bronzes, 
utensils, gold ornaments, and fine glass vessels. — In the third story are 
the Archives and the Library, containing 13,000 vols., and a collection of 
coins and seals. On the staircase are a frieze in relief (9th cent.) from 
8. Giusto, an inscription of Gundibert, King of the Longobards, and other 
mediseval sculptures. 

The Citadel (Fortezza) consists of two parts , the Cassero or 
Bocca Vecchia, erected on the ancient town-walls in 1343 by Walter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocca Nuova, built by the 
Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison II Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders, where the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was confined 
as a suspected person by the Grand-Duke Cosimo III. for 11 years 
(1682-93). The citadel, now a house of correction, may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

The Palazzo Maffei- Quarnacci, opposite the church of S. Michael 
with its three towers, the oldest dating from the 13th cent., contains 
pictures and a valuable collection of letters of Salv. Rosa. 

The Gothic Palazzo Inghirami contains a small collection of 
pictures, comprising a *Portrait of the learned Fedra Inghirami, 
an original work of Raphael (replica in the Pitti Gallery at Florence). 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy, five years of 
age, probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who 
was born at Volaterrse in A.D. 34. 

Outside the Porta Pisana is the ruined Romanesque church of S. Sle- 
fano, near which are a fountain and a Roman marble portrait-statue, 
known as the Protomarzio, from a corruption of Prato Marzio, the ancient 
name of the place. — Farther from the town, between the churches of 
S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep ravine called Le Baize, which was 



12 Route 2. YOLTERRA. 

comparatively recently formed by the action of water and continues to 
increase. Several buildings have already been undermined and destroyed, 
and the celebrated Camaldulensian abbey of San Salvatore, founded in 
the 11th cent., is threatened with the same fate. 

In the valley to the E. is the convent of S. Girolanio, the vestibule 
chapels of which contain terracotta altar-pieces from the studio of the Delia 
Robbings, one representing St. Francis with SS. Clara and Louis, another 
the Last Judgment (1501). In the church is an Annunciation by Benvenuto, 
di Oiovanni. — - Farther on is the Villa Inghirami (fine view), with some 
Etruscan Tombs, in which the burial-urns are still in situ (the gardener 
supplies a light, */2 fr.). Hence the rock-caves named Le Buche de' Sara- 
ceni may be visited. 

A pleasant Excursion may be made to the copper - mines of La Cava 
di Caporciano, near Monte Catini, 10 M. from Volterra. The road leads 
across the hill of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Se- 
tagite, a mountain of volcanic origin. The square tower of the old castle 
commands an extensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the 
15th cent. , and the operations were very successful till within recent 
years. The present possessor is Count Butturlin. The mineral was found in 
pockets or clusters, between serpentine, known here as gabbro verde, and a 
peculiar species of red rock, gabbro rosso. The whole vicinity is extremely 
interesting for geologists. A number of peaks, such as Monte delf Abete,Poggio 
allaCroce, and Monte Massi, consist of gabbro rosso, which has been upheaved 
at a comparatively recent period through the surrounding sand and limestone. 
The view from Monte Massi (1910 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce P/2 hr. 
from Monte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Monte Amiata on the S., and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Yolterra to Colle, 15Y2 M. The high-road leads to- 
wards the E. through an undulating and attractive district. To the 
left is seen 8. Qimignano (p. 15), to which a good road (fine views) 
diverges after 7^2 M. (reaching it after 11 M. more; pedestrians 
may take a short-cut, diverging 1 M. farther on, via, Banza and S. 
Donato). To the right lies Pomarance (p. 8). Colle, see p. 14. 



3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, which is strongly recommended to the scientific traveller 
and the lover of nature, is accomplished either from Leghorn or from 
Piombino (p. 2). The steamer from Leghorn touches at Piombino and 
Portoferrajo, the capital of the island, and also at the small ports of Rio 
Marina and Portolongone. The steamer leaves Leghokn on Sun. at 11 a.m., 
Portoferrajo 5.30 p.m., Piombino 7.15 p.m., Rio Marina 8.15 p.m., arriv- 
ing at Portolongone at 8.30 a.m. ; returniug from Portolongone on Mon. 
at 4 p.m., Rio Marina 4.30 p.m., Piombino 6 p.m., Portoferrajo 9 p.m., 
reaching Leghorn at 1.30 a.m. — Another steamer leaving Piombino daily 
at 4 p.m., reaches Portoferrajo in I1/2 hr., returning at 9 a.m. (the Sun. 
steamer leaves Portoferrajo at 7 a.m., and touches at Rio Marina and 
Portolongone). — A steamer of the Linea Livorno-Porto S. Ste/ano makes 
a trip once weekly to the small neighbouring islands, leaving Leghorn on 
Wed. at 8 a.m. and returning from Porto Santo Stefano onFrid. at 5 a.m. 

About 4 M. to the "W. of Leghorn rises the cliff of Meloria, where 
the Pisans were so signally defeated by the Genoese in 1284, that 
they never regained their former supremacy. Farther to the W. 
(21 '/2 M - from Leghorn) is Oorgona, inhabited by fishermen, a 
sterile island, affording pasture to wild goats only. Between the 



ELBA. 3. Route. 1 3 

latter and Elba lies (40 M.) Capraja ('island of goats', so called by 
the ancients also), with 2000 inhab., where wine is produced. 

Elba, Lat. Ilva , Greek dlthalia , consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, lies 5y 2 M. to the S.W. of Piombino (p. 2), be- 
yond the islets of Palmajola and Cerboli. The vessel rounds the 
Capo della Vita and enters the beautiful bay of Portoferrajo (Albergo 
delle Api, fair), the capital (3700 inhab.), enclosed amphi- 
theatrically by mountains. The island was celebrated in ancient 
times for its iron ore; in the middle ages it was subject to the 
Pisans , then to Genoa , to Lucca , and to the Appiani of Piom- 
bino, and was finally presented by the Emp. Charles "V. to Duke 
Cosimo I. of Florence , who fortified the harbour of Portoferrajo 
in 1548. As the name of the town indicates, the mining and export 
of iron form the principal occupation of most of the islanders 
(22,000), others being supported by the tunny and sardine fisheries. 
Elba has acquired a modern celebrity as the retreat of the dethroned 
Napoleon, from 5th May, 1814, to 26th Feb., 1815. The Villa 
S. Martino , the house occupied by the emperor , is still shown at 
Portoferrajo, on the height above the harbour, between the forts 
Stella and Falcone, which were erected by Cosimo I., and com- 
mand a view of the bay in front, and of the sea in the direction 
of Piombino at the back. Below, adjoining the harbour, is the 
Bagno, or prison, in which several hundred galley- convicts are 
confined. — The island is about 18 M. long, 6 l / 2 M. broad, and 
90 sq. M. in area; it contains several fertile valleys, but lofty and 
precipitous mountains predominate. Monte Capanne, the highest 
point, near the village of Marciana, is 3300 ft. in height. The coast 
on the side next the mainland is less abrupt, and produces admirable 
wine and fruit, especially near Capoliveri. — An excursion to the 
iron-mines near Rio Marina is best made by taking the steamer 
(p. 12) to that port; it may also he made from Portoferrajo by tak- 
ing a boat to the Borgo dei Magazzini, and walking or riding thence 
(horse there and back 3 fr.) over the hill to Bio Castello and on to 
Rio Marina, where a guide to the mines (scarcely necessary) may 
be obtained. The ferriferous strata lie on the surface, and are re- 
cognised at a distance by the reddish-black appearance of the hills. 
On the coast, to the S. of Rio Castello, lies the picturesque strong- 
hold of Portolongone, founded by the Spaniards, another steamboat- 
station (p. 12). 

About 7'/s M. to the S.W. of Elba lies the island of Pianosa, the 
ancient Planasia, which, as its name indicates, is perfectly flat. To this 
island Agrippa Postumus, grandson of Augustus, was once banished, and 
to him are referred the considerable Roman remains which still exist here. 
— Farther to the S. (25 M. from Elba) rises Monte Cristo, consisting of 
granite rock, 6 M. in circumference. It contains numerous springs, and 
the ruins of a monastery destroyed by pirates in the 16th century. — Op- 
posite the Monte Argentario (p. 4) and about 6 M. from the mainland is 
Giglio, Lat. Igiliwm, a considerable island containing a village and ves- 
tiges of Roman palaces. The highest point is 1630 ft. above the sea-level 



14 
4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi via Empoli. 

114 M. Railway. To Siena, 591/a M., in 3-3'/ 2 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. SO, 7 fr. 
65, 4 fr. 95 c. — From Siena to Chiusi, 54'/2 M., in 23/4-4 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 
95, 6 fr. 95, 4 fr. 45 c. — No qnick trains. 

Florence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. — 6 M. 8. Donnino; 
the valley of the Arno expands. 7 M. Signa, with its grey pinnacles 
and towers , is famed for its straw-plaiting. The line crosses the 
Ombrone , which falls into the Arno, and enters the defile of the 
Oonfolina, which separates the middle from the lower valley of the 
Arno. Crossing the Arno, the train reaches (16 M.) Montelupo. 
Farther on we cross the small river Pesa. 

20 M. Empoli {Rail. Restaurant , unpretending), a small town 
with 6000 inhah. , with antiquated buildings and narrow streets, 
situated in a fertile district. Halt of 6-25 min. ; passengers to Siena 
have often to change carriages. The main line pursues a "W. di- 
rection towards Pisa and Leghorn ; see Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on the 
right bank of the stream. To the right, on the hill, S. Miniato dei 
Tedeschi, picturesquely situated, with a lofty mediaeval tower. 23 M. 
Ponte a Elsa; 26 M. Oranaiolo. 3072 M. Castel Fiorentino ; the town, 
on the height to the left, is the principal place in the Val d'Elsa. 

35Y2 M. Certaldo ; the town, on the hill to the left, was the na- 
tive place of Giovanni Boccaccio, who died here, 21st Dec, 1375, at 
the age of 62. His tomb in the church of 8. Michele e Giacomo (La 
Canonica), erected in 1503, was removed some time after 1783 and 
his bones scattered. The house of Boccaccio, now denoted by a 
tablet, was restored in 1823 by the Countess Carlotta Lenzoni-Me- 
dici, and fitted up in the mediaeval style. The remains of his mon- 
ument were also brought hither. 

43^2 M. Foggibonsi (Aquila, opposite the station , tolerably 
comfortable); the town (4000 inhab.) lies to the right. On the hill 
above it rise the old castle and the monastery of 8. Lucchese. In the 
church of the castle is an altar-piece and in the former refectory are 
frescoes by Gerino da Pistoja. 



Fhom Poggibonsi to Colle, 5 M., railway in 18 min. (70, 40 c). 

Colle (Alb. del Buon Soggiorno , tolerable), generally called 
Colle di Val d'Elsa to distinguish it from other places of the same 
name, is an old town with 1000 inhab. , frequently mentioned in the 
history of the Renaissance. It now consists of two parts, Colle Alto 
and Colle Basso. The first of these contains the palaces of the old, but 
now greatly impoverished aristocracy, including the Palazzo Cecce- 
relli, by Ant. da Sangallo the Younger (16th cent.) ; the house of 
the celebrated architect Arnolfo di Cambio ; and the Cathedral, dat- 
ing from the 13th cent., with a facade modernised in bad taste, a 
marble pulpit (of which the lower part belongs to the 13th cent., 
and the upper part, with reliefs of saints, to the 16th), and hand- 



S. GIMIGNANO. 4. Route. 15 

some carved choir- stalls and episcopal throne of the 17th century. 
At Colle Basso there are now important iron and glass -works. 

The interesting little town of 8. Qimignano may be conveniently 
visited from Poggibonsi or Colle, from each of which it is about 
6 M. distant. Carriages may be hired at the stations for 4 fr. 

S. Gimignano (1180 ft. ; Albergo Leon Bianco, Via S. Matteo, 
near the gate, R. l-2 l / 2 > pens. 4!/ 2 fr., clean), an ancient and loftily 
situated town, with 3200 inhab., was a prosperous and independent 
place in the 13th and 14th cent., but in 1353, after having suffered 
terribly in consequence of the dissensions of the leading families of 
the Salvucci (Ghlbellines) and Ardinghelli(Guelphs), it became sub- 
ject to Florence. Its walls, its towers (whence the name 'S. Gimig- 
nano delle belle torn'), and. its streets all carry us back to the middle 
ages. Perhaps no other town in Tuscany presents so faithful a picture 
of Dante's time. Architecture of the Gothic type prevails. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza della Collegiata, or 
del Duomo, with several important buildings. 

The Gothic *Palazzo Ptjbblico was erected in 1288-1323. 

The Sala del Consiglio , on the second floor, contains a "Madonna 
with saints and angels, and the kneeling donor Podesta Nello dei Tolo- 
mei (1317), a fresco by Lippo Memmi of Siena; also pictures from sup- 
pressed monasteries in the neighbourhood: 8,9. Mainardi, Madonnas; 13. 
Filippino Lippi, Annunciation (two round paintings) ; 16. Fra Paolino, Ma- 
donna; 18. Pinturicchio, Madonna with two saints (from Monte Oliveto; 
about 1504). — To the left of the exit into the court is the Cappella 
del Pretobe, or delle Carceri (now divided by a wall into two parts), 
containing a scene from the legend of St. Yvo, and allegorical figures of 
Truth, Prudence, and Falsehood, frescoes by Eodoma. There are also 
traces of frescoes in other rooms. 

The Torre del Comune (160 ft.) is the highest of the 13 towers 
which still exist out of the original number of 50. The largest of 
its three bells dates from 1328. 

Adjacent is the cathedral, usually called *La Collegiata, of 
the 12th cent., enlarged after 1466 by Oiuliano da Majano, and now 
entirely modernised. It contains frescoes of the 14-15th centuries. 

On the entrance-wall, "Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a fresco of colos- 
sal proportions by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1465 ; Annunciation, two wooden figures 
(14th cent.) by Martinus Bartolomaei of Siena. In the N. aisle, scenes from the 
Old Testament (some in bad preservation) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena, 1356 ; 
in the S. aisle, Life of Christ by Barna da Siena, 1380. In the nave, above 
the arch, the Last Judgment, Paradise, and the Inferno, by Taddeo di Bar- 
tolo, 1393. — The visitor should particularly notice the last side-chapel to 
the right, the "Cappella S. Fina, which contains the bones of this local 
saint, who died at the age of 15 years. The chapel was designed by 
Oiuliano da Majano (1468). Altar-piece (recently restored) by Benedetto 
da Majano (1475). The frescoes on the side-walls, representing the vision 
of the youthful saint and her burial, by Dom. Qhirlandajo, are among the 
finest works of that master, and combine a fresh and lifelike style with 
majestic gravity (restored in 1832). — In the choir, centre of the right 
wall, Coronation of the Virgin, an altar-piece by Piero del Pollajtiolo of 
Florence, 1483 ; to the right of this, Madonna and four saints, by Benozzo 
Gozzoli, 1466; on the left wall, same subject by Tine. Tamagni; adjacent, 
marquetry ('intarsia') choir-stalls of 1490. — The Oratoeio S. Giovanni 
contains an Annunciation by Bom. Ghirlandajo, 1482, of no great importance. 



16 Route 4. S. GIMIGNANO. From Florence 

Opposite the cathedral is the Palazzo del Podesta, with an 
imposing loggia (now a theatre). It is surmounted by the Torre 
della Rognosa or dell' Orologio, which indicates the height beyond 
which private individuals were prohihited from building. 

The Via S. Matteo descends from the Piazza , passing the two 
towers of the Salvucci , to an ancient gateway , which marked the 
limits of the town until the 13th century. Immediately to the right 
in this street is the Biblioteca Comunale (librarian, Preposto Ugo 
Nomi) , which contains 9000 vols, and 200 MSS. One of its 
treasures is a copy of AlciaWs Emblemata (Lyons, 1564), along with 
which are bound np several interesting autographs, including those 
of Luther and Melanchthon. Adjacent is a small Museum. — Far- 
ther on are 8. Bartolo (originally S. Matteo), a church of the 
Knights Templar , with a 12th cent, facade , and the Palazzo Pe- 
sciolini. — In the Via Nuova, which diverges to the right, are the 
church of 8. Chiara on the left , and farther on , on the right , the 
Hospital, with numerous majolica vases, and the church of 8. Giro- 
lamo (behind the high-altar, Madonna and saints by Vincenzo Ta- 
magni, 1522, with a glory by a later painter) , and finally, to the 
left of the gateway, the 12th cent, church of S. Oiaeomo , another 
church of the Templars , with frescoes by a Sienese master of the 
13th century. 

The Via delle Romite, diverging from the Via Nuova at S. Chiara, 
leads to *S. Agostino, begun in 1280 (chief entrance usually closed ; 
sagrestano, Via Nuova 17). 

This church owea its fame to the frescoes in the Choib hy Benozzo 
Gozzoli (1463-65), where the master has ponrtrayed the life of St. Augustine 
in 17 scenes, from his school-days to his death. Though not of uniform 
excellence, nor in equally good preservation, these pictures alone repay 
a visit to S. Gimignano (the finest are: St. Augustine as teacher of rhe- 
toric in Rome; Death of St. Monica; "St. Augustine on the hier). — The 
Cappella S. Guglielmo, to the right of the choir, contains a Nativity and 
Death of the Virgin, hy Bartolo di Fredi, in which several touches of real 
Italian life are traceable. — To the left, in the Cappella del S. Sagea- 
mento, are frescoes by Vincenzo Tamagni. — On the N. side of the 
church, St. Geminianus and three worshippers, a fresco by Seb. Mainardi, 
a pupil of Dom. Ghirlandajo ; farther on , St. Sebastian , the deliverer 
from the plague, the effects of which are symbolised by flashes of light- 
ning, hy Benozzo Oozzoli, 1464, of less importance than the frescoes in the 
choir. To the right of the principal entrance : fine altar-piece (St. Bartoldus), 
one of the chief works of Benedetto da Majano (well preserved), 1494; under 
the organ are frescoes hy Seb. Mainardi, representing saints in simple 
groups (1500). 

From S. Agostino we return to the market-place, which is ad- 
joined by the Piazza della Cisterna , distinguished by the two 
low towers of the Ardinghelli , on the right. The Via del Castello 
leads to the left to the church of 8. Lorenzo in Ponte, with a portico, 
now built up, of the 13th century. — The terracotta ornamentation 
of the windows of the buildings, many of which are in the form of 
a horseshoe, should be observed. 

From the Piazza della Cisterna the Contrada di San Giovanni 



to Siena. MONTE OLIVETO. d. Route. 17 

descends to the right to the Palazzo Pratellesi, in which the prin- 
cipal saloon of the upper floor contains a Betrothal of St. Catharine 
with saints, a fresco by Vine. Tamagni (1528). Farther on, to the 
left, are S. Giovanni Evangelista, a Johannite church of the 12th 
cent., and, in the street, a figure of the Madonna, by Mainardi. 

A private garden at the Fortezza , the highest part of the old 
fortifications (ascend to the right from La Collegiata), commands a 
fine view of the town and neighbourhood. 

We may drive in 3 /4 hr. to the venerable church of 8. Maria Assunla 
di Callori, or Cellole, situated outside the Porta Matteo, and dating from 
the 11th, or perhaps from the 10th cent., containing remarkable capitals 
and curious ornamentation in the apse. Fine view. 



Beyond Poggibonsi the Railway begins to ascend considerably. 
To the right, Staggia with a mediaeval chateau ; farther on, to the 
right, the ancient and picturesque chateau of Monte Riggioni. The 
train then passes through a long tunnel (3 min.). 

591/2 M. Siena, see p. 21. 

Siena is a terminal station. The train backs out, returns part of 
the way to Empoli, and then diverges at an acute angle towards the 
S.E. We traverse the hills which form the watershed between the 
Orribrone and the valley of the Chiana. Several tunnels. 65 M. Arbia. 

Arbia is the best starting-point for a visit to the neighbouring S. An- 
sano in Ddfana, the parish- church of which contains a Madonna by Bald. 
Peruzzi, to whom also is due the brick erection of the Martirio di S. An- 
sano (key at the parsonage). A pyramid surrounded by cypresses on the 
opposite ridge of hills marks the site of the castle of Monte Aperto, whence 
Farinata degli Uberti (p. 23) issued to the battle of 1260. 

69Y2 M. Castelnuovo Berardenga. This bleak district, with its 
chalk -hills and barren fissured mountains, is interesting to the 
palaeontologist only. 

79 M. Asciano; the pleasant little town [Alb. del Sole, clean; 
2100 inhab.), IV2 M. to the right of the railway, possesses fortifica- 
tions constructed by the Sienese in 1351, and. several handsome 
churches with pictures of the early Sienese school. 

Asciano is the most convenient starting-point for a visit to the 
famous, but now suppressed, Benedictine convent of *Monte Oliveto 
Maggiore (6M.; carriages at the Alb. del Sole, fare 10-12 fr. ; 
a drive of 2 hrs. by the high-road, or l 1 ^ hr. by the picturesque 
direct route suitable for light vehicles only). 

Visitors apply beforehand to the 'Ispettore' of the Istituto delle Belle 
Arti at Siena (p. 33) , from whom they receive a 'permesso' to present 
to the 'Sopraintendente' 1 at the monastery. Those who have not time to 
send this two days in advance should provide themselves with eatables 
for one day. Ordinary visitors are not allowed to stay more than two days 
at the convent ('pens'. 5 fr.). 

The convent, founded in 1320 by Bernardo Tolomei and afterwards 
greatly enriched by donations, still affords an excellent idea of a great 
establishment of the kind. The monks must have been wonderfully 
energetic to have been able to transform the sterile chalk-soil here into 
a smiling oasis. JEneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II. ; p. 29) gives an 
interesting description of the monastery in his 'Commentaria'. 

Babdekek. Italy II. 11th Edition. 2 



18 Route 4. MONTALCINO. From Florence 

The walla of the Monastery Court are adorned with celebrated 
frescoes by Luca Signorelli (1497) and Ant. Bazzi, called Sodoma (1505), 
representing scenes from the legend of St. Benedict, explained by in- 
scriptions beneath the paintings. The order of the pictures does not cor- 
respond with the date of their execution. The series begins with the 
first picture on the wall opposite the entrance (adjoining the entrance to 
the church), representing St. Benedict's departure from home, by Sodoma. 
The earliest part of the series are the frescoes on the entrance-wall, exe- 
cuted by Signorelli, eight in number: Totila kneeling to the saint; Sol- 
dier in disguise, attempting to deceive the saint ; Temptation of the fasting 
monk ; Punishment of two monks addicted to dainties ; Resuscitation of a 
dead man whom Satan has thrown from a wall ; Exorcism of Satan ; Over- 
throw of the idol; Punishment of Florentius. — The 'Sending forth of 
Missionaries' 1 , on the left of the corner to the right, is by Riccio, a pupil 
of Sodoma, but all the other pictures are by Sodoma, whose sense of beauty 
is everywhere apparent, though he is doubtless far inferior to Signorelli 
in depth and excellence of conception and execution. In the first pictures 
by Sodoma we can trace a resemblance to the frescoes of Pinturicchio 
in the Cathedral library at Siena, and, in the others, features that recall 
Leonardo da Vinci. — The Chubch (entrance to the left of the monastery 
court), which was modernised last century, contains little to detain us 
beyond the handsome choir-stalls and reading - desk, in inlaid work, by 
Fra Oiov. da Verona (1502-5). — In the Libreria are a door and a cabinet, 
also beautifully inlaid by the same master. — The extensive stables 
(much altered) at the back of the monastery contained different sections 
bearing tablets with the names of the chief towns of Italy. 

The Emperor Henry VII. died, Aug. 24th, 1313, at Buonconvento, & l fe M. 
t.o the S.W., on the Arbia. The churches contain a few ancient pictures 
of the Sienese school. 

From Asciano to Gbossbto, 59y 2 M., branch-line in about 3 hrs. (fares 
11 fr., 7 fr. 70, 4 fr. 95 c.) -8M.A Giovanni d'Asso (tolerable inn). The 
Canonica contains six small and ancient paintings of the Sienese school. Mte. 
Oliveto is reached hence in IV2 hr. (p. 17 ; a car with one horse may be 
obtained). — 14 M. Torrenieri, on the old road from Siena and Buoncon- 
vento (see above), via. S. Quirico, Radicofani, and Bolsena (p. 68), to Rome. 

— [About 572 M. to the S.W. of Torrenieri (omnibus 2 fr.) lies Mont- 
alcino (Albergo del Qiglio, tolerable), a town (2300 inhab.) which early in 
the middle ages belonged to the abbey of S. Antimo, and afterwards to 
Siena. In the Palazzo Municipale is the Cappella delle Carceri, which 
contains a small collection of pictures from suppressed monasteries, in- 
cluding a Descent from the Cross (1382) and a Coronation of the Virgin 
(1388) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena. The Cathedral was begun in 1818. 
The Franciscan Monastery is now a hospital. Over the chief entrance of 
the church belonging to it is a group of the Madonna, John the Baptist, 
SS. Peter and Sebastian, of the school of Delia Robbia (1507). A room adjoin- 
ing the sacristy is adorned with frescoes of the latter part of the 15th cent., 
and the monastery court contains others dating from 1438. Fine view from 
the modern church of the Madonna, on the E. side of the town. — The 
railway -station of Monte Amiata (p. 19) lies about 8 M. to the S.E. of 
Montalcino. To the N. of Castelnuovo delV Abate, within about 2'/2 M. of 
Monte Amiata, is S. Antimo, which was an independent abbey down to 
the 13th century. The handsome church was built of white alabaster and 
travertine in the 11th cent., and its rich portal dates from 1292. 

About 4 M. to the S.E. of Torrenieri (omnibus I1/2 fr.) lies S. Quirico 
(Albergo del Lepre, tolerable), which was the residence of an imperial 
governor during the Hohenstaufen regime and was fortified by Siena in 
1472. The handsome Collegiate Church in an elegant Transition style was 
founded in the 8th cent., but the present building dates from the 12th. 
Of the ornate porches the oldest is on the W. front, another on the right 
transept, bears the date 1298 ; and a third, specially fine, on the right aisle, 
is Gothic with Renaissance forms; interior disfigured in the 17th cent.- 
choir-stalls of the 16th century. The adjacent Misericordia church contains 



to Siena. MONTEPULCIANO.. 4. Route. 19 

a high-altar-piece by Scdoma. The Palazzo Chigi, erected in 1685-87, and 
the Orti Leonini, a neglected park of the 16th cent., deserve a visit (keys of 
both at the Fattoria Chigi). — From S. Quirico to Pienza (p. 21) 4'/ 2 M.] — 

21 M. Monte Amiata , the best starting-point for a visit to the moun- 
tain of that name, the highest in Tuscany, lies 2'/2 M. to the S.E. of 
Castelnuovo delFAbbate (p. 18) — [By omnibus in 3 hrs. to Castel del Piano 
(2'/2 fr. ; Locanda Amiatina, mediocre), where a guide maybe obtained at 
the Munieipio; thence on horseback in 3 3 /4 hrs., or on foot in 4'/2 hrs., to the 
summit of the 'Monte Amiata (5645 ft.), which affords an admirable survey 
of the whole country between the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Apennines, and the 
Ciminian Forest (p. 75). The rock-formation is volcanic and interesting to 
geologists. A pleasant return-route leads through beautiful woods to Vivo, 
a suppressed Camaldulensian monastery, now the property of Count Cer- 
vini. — From Vivo to stat. Monte Amiata 11 M., or to Torrenieri 17 M. The 
latter road leads via Castiglione d'Orcia, not far from the hot Baths o) 
Vignoni, much frequented in ancient times, but now neglected, and via 
S. Quirico (p. 18).] — 

28 M. S. Angelo and Cinigiano. The train follows the right bank of 
the Orcia, the S. affluent of the Ombrone, and crosses the latter. — 32'/2 M. 
Monte Antico. At Paganico the train quits the Ombrone and begins to 
thread its way among the hills. 42 M. Boccastrada, a village (1640 ft.) on 
the right ; then Sticciano. At (53 M.) Montepescali the line unites with the 
Maremme Railway, to the N. of Grosseto (p. 3). 

82y 2 M. Rapolano. The village, to the right, possesses baths. The 
country becomes more attractive. 

90 Y 2 M. Lucignano ; the mediaeval village lies on the hill to the 
left. The improving cultivation of the soil indicates the proximity of 
the charming valley of the Chiana. To the left, in the distance, the 
chain of the Apennines. — 94 M. Sinalunga; on the right the village, 
where Garibaldi was captured on his march to Rome, 24th Sept. 
1867. — 98 M. Torrita. Montepulciano becomes visible to the right. 

103 M. Montepulciano ; the lonely station is 6M. from the town 
(omnibus in l 1 ^ hr., meeting nearly every train, faTe 2 fr.). 



Montepulciano. — Albeego Makzocco, Via Garibaldi, clean, R. 
l-li/ s fr.; Alb. del Vico, Via Cavour. — The Wine of Montepulciano is 
justly celebrated. The red wine is strong and somewhat rough. ' Vino santo'' 
is a sweet white wine (2 fr. per bottle). Vermouth is a white wine flavoured 
with fragrant herbs and wormwood. 

Montepulciano, a picturesque town with 3000inhab. , surrounded 
by mediaeval walls, lies conspicuously on a mountain (2070 ft.). It 
was the birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Ambrogini (1454- 
94), surnamed Politianus after this his native place ('Eespublica 
Politiana'), the friend of Lorenzo il Magniflco and preceptor of his 
children. Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542-1621), the strenuous 
opponent of the Reformation and author of the Catechismus Romanus 
was also born here. The situation as well as the monuments of the 
place repay a visit. The sights may be inspected in 4-5 hours. 

At the beginning of the main street, the Via Garibaldi, where 
the omnibus stops, is a column bearing a heraldic lion (Marzocco). 
No. 32, on the left, is the Palazzo Tarugi, built by Vignola. Oppo- 
site, Nos. 35-37, Palazzo Avignanesi, dating from the latter half of 
the 16th century. Then, also on the right, No. 29, the Palazzo 

2* 



20 Route 4. MONTEPULCIANO. 

Buecelli, with Etruscan urn-reliefs and inscriptions built into the 
walls, and S. Agostino, distinguished by a fine Renaissance facade 
(finished in 1508), with curious touches of Gothic. In the tym- 
panum above the main portal is a relief of the Madonna with John 
the Baptist and St. Augustine. — The street now assumes the name 
Via Cavour. On the right is the *Mercato (market-halls) by Vig- 
nola, and on the left the round Chiesa del Oesii , with florid bar- 
oque ornamentation (1714) and an unfinished facade. — The con- 
tinuation of the street is called Via Poliziano; on the left, No. 1, 
is the house in which Angelo Poliziano was born, a brick building of 
the 14th cent., with several inscriptions. 

We next reach the Piazzetta di S. Mama, with the small 
church of S. Maria (handsome portal of the 13th cent.), which 
commands an admirable view. — A road hence descends to the 
left in 12 min. to the — 

Madonna di S. Biagio, in the valley, designed by Antonio da 
Sangallo the Elder and begun in 1518 on the site of an old church 
of St. Blasius. The church consists of an imposing central edifice, 
showing the influence of Bramante's design for St. Peter's , with 
detached towers. The maTble decoration of the high-altar, by Qio- 
vanozzo and Lisandro Albertini, dates from 1584. 

In the square beside the church is Sangallo's House (1518), 
with a loggia of two stories. A street to the right of the house leads 
back to the town in about l /^ hr. ; to the left, near the gate (en- 
trance in the Via Poggiolo) is the Oratorio della Miserieordia, which 
contains a God the Father with angels, above the high-altar, and an 
Annunciation of the school of the Della Robbia. 

The Via Ricci (on the left the Palazzo Bombagli, a Gothic brick 
building) ascends hence to the right to the Piazza Grande, in which 
rises the cathedral and several sumptuous mansions. To the left is 
the Palazzo Nobile-Tarugi, probably designed by Franc, da San- 
gallo, and adjoining is the Palazzo Contucci del Monte, by Ant. da 
Sangallo the Elder. Opposite the side-facade of the former is a 
handsome fountain of 1520. 

The Pal. Municipale, of the 14th cent., contains a few pictures. 

Ante-chamber of first floor : Madonna, John the Baptist, and saints, of 
the school of Delia Robbia. — Picture Gallery on the second floor. 
I. Boom : Malleo da Siena (?), Madonna. II. Room : 9. Seb. del Piombo (?), 
Pope Paul III. (or more probably Rob. Bellarmino); 80. Pacchiarotto, Ma- 
donna ; 86. Umbrian School (ascribed to Raphael), Fine portrait of a lady. 

On the W. of the piazza is the Cathedral (restored in 1888), 
with an unfinished facade. 

In the Interior, over the principal entrance, are the Death, Assumption, 
and Coronation of the Madonna by Taddeo di Bartolo. The chnrch was 
once adorned with an imposing monument to Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secre- 
tary of Pope Martin V., erected in 1427-29 by the famous architect Miche- 
lozzo, with the assistance of Donatello. It was taken down however, 
during last century, when several parts of it were lost and others were 
placed in different parts of the church : thus, to the left of the principal 
entrance, the recumbent statue of the deceased; by the two first pillars, 




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SIENA. 5. Route. 21 

two allegorical reliefs; in the right transept, Christ bestowing a blessing; 
by the high-altar, marble group of cherubs with garlands, forming the 
base of the monument. A drawing in the Palazzo Municipale shows the 
original form of the monument. 

From Montepulciano to Pienza, about 9M. (2 hrs' drive), one-horse 
carr. there and back 10, two-horse 20 fr. Comp. p. 19. 

Pienza (Albergo Franci, poor), a small town with about 1000 inhab., 
was originally called Corsignano, but subsequently named the 'town of Pius'' 
after Pius II. (.apneas Sylvius Piccolomini, p. 29), who was born here on 
18th Oct. 1405, and who adorned the town with very handsome buildings, 
chiefly designed by the Florentine Bernardo Rossellino and the Sienese 
Francesco (Cecco) di Giorgio (1439-1602). As all these buildings date 
from about the same period (1460) and are situated in the same piazza 
(del Duomo), they afford a more compact survey of early-Renaissance 
architecture than is to be obtained in most Italian towns. The chief 
edifices are the Cathedral (closed at present but apply to the sagrestano) ; 
to the right of it the Vescovado or episcopal palace; opposite the cathedral 
the Palazzo Pubblico, with a colonnade; to the right the finest of all, 
the Palazzo Piccolomini, which like the Palazzo Bucellai at Florence 
exhibits the rustica style in combination with pilasters (handsome court 
and colonnade and interesting traces of old frescoes); in front of the 
palace is a charming Fountain of 1462. — The right transept of the cathe- 
dral contains a Madonna with four saints by Matteo da Siena; the choir- 
stalls, carved in the Gothic style, date from 1462; in the chapel to the 
left of the high-altar is an Assumption of the Virgin by Vecchietta; in 
the left transept a Madonna and four saints by Sano di Pietro. The Opera 
del Duomo, to the left of the cathedral, contains the ecclesiastical vest- 
ments, including those of Pius II., one of which is of Flemish, the other 
of Italian workmanship. — The Cathedral Treasury (Museo degli Arredi 
Sacri; apply to the sagrestano, 1 fr.) is now in the Palazzo Piccolomini 
(see above; entrance to the left in the court). Among other works of 
art it contains a crozier in gilded and embossed silver, a Paxvobiscum, a 
silver censer in the Gothic style, interesting mitre of Pius II. decorated 
with pearls and jewels, reliquary of St. Andrew of Salerno, crucifix with 
rich filigree-work, etc. 



Continuation op Journey. To the right we soon observe the 
Monti di Cetona, which are connected with the Monte Amiata 
(p. 19). To the left stretches the long Lake of Montepulciano, 
beyond which is the Lake of Chiusi , connected with the other by 
a canal. The lakes exhale unhealthy malaria in summer. 

IO872 M. Chianciano. — 114 M. Chiusi, see p. 61. 

5. Siena. 

Hotels. "Grand Hotel Eotal de Sienne (PI. a; E, 3), Via Cavour, with 
its back to the Lizza (p. 36), E. from 2-3, L. & A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3 l /2, D- 5, 
wine from 2*/2, omn. IV2 fr.; 'Grand Hotel Continental (PI. b; E, 4), 
Via Cavour 15, opposite the post-office, E. 2-4, L. & A. 1, B. Ufa, dej, 2'/2, 

D. 4V2, pens. 8-11 (L. extra), omn. 1 fr.; Aqcila Nera, Via Cavour 3, in 
the Italian style, R., L., & A. 3-5, dej. 2'/ 2 , D. 3V2, pens. 6-8 (all incl, 
wine), omn. % f r . _ Scala (PI. d; D, 4), Piazza S. Giovanni, opposite 
the Baptistery (p. 27) unpretending, but with good rooms (i'/2 fr.), well 
spoken of; Tke Mori (PI. F, 3), Via Garibaldi, near the station, for mo- 
derate requirements, E. IV2 fr.; Alb. & Eist. La Patria, Via Eicasoli 3, 

E. l'/ 4 fr. — Pensions. Chiusarelli, Via S. Domenico, near the Protestant 
church, pens. (L. extra) 6, for a long s<ay5fr.; L. Gatli, Palazzo Bianchi, 
Via de' Servi 1, pens. 5 fr.; Masini, Via Cavour 12; Francesco Tognazzi, 



22 Route 5. 



SIENA. 



Cals. 



Via Sallustio Bandini 19; Mme. Marion, Via Ricasoli 37; Pasquini, Via 
delle Belle Arti 19. Sarlini, same street No. 15 (also R. without board). 

Trattorie. Aquila Nera, see above; Scala, Sasso, see above; La Tos- 
cana, Via del Re 4, with rooms (1-2 fr.), unpretending. — Wine and fine 
view in the Osteria, Via delle Belle Arti 31, and at the Fiaschetteria il 
Confortabile, Via del Castoro, near the Piazza d-^1 Duomo (sometimes 
open in the evening only). — Beer at Bader^s, on the Lizza (p. 36). 

Caffe Greco, near the Casino de' Nobili (p. 26). 



Gab Tariff: 

In the town : to or from the sta- 
tion 

— first half-hour .... 

— each additional '/a hr. 
Beyond the town, as far as 2 M., 

for one hour . . 

— each additional hour . . 
Box above 22 lbs. 30 c. 
Vetturini. Via Cavour 23 



By Day 



one- 


horse 


lfr 








80 


— 


50 


2 





1 


50 



two-horse 

1 fr. 50 
1 - 
- 60 



50 



At Night 



one-horse 

1 fr. 50 

1 - 

- 60 



50 



two -horse 

lfr. 80 
1 30 
- 70 

4 — 
3 — 



and 25; carriage per day 25 fr., half-day 
71/2 fr., half-day 5 fr. 
Via Cavour 16, in the Pal. Spannocchi 



Post and Telegraph Office , 
(PI. 25). 

Baths. Swimming-bath near the Fontebranda (p. 36; poor; water cold); 
warm baths at Mazzei's, Via Dupre 45. 

English Church Service at the Grand Hotel Continental, from March 
to May. 

Good Photographs at Cav. Paolo Lombardi's, Alia Costarella No. 8, near 
the Caffe Greco. — Carved Wood (comp. p. 24) : Gosi, Guidi, <fc Querci, 
Via Belle Arti 31, near S. Domenico; Carlo Cambi, Via del Capitano 5, 
near the cathedral. 

Principal Attractions. Piazza del Campo (Vittorio Emanuele; p. 24), 
Duomo and Opera del Duomo (pp. 27, 29); walk through the town. To 
the town and its treasures of art the traveller should devote 2>/2-3 days at 
least. On 2nd July and 15th August (sometimes transferred to other dates), 
picturesque processions march through the streets, and horse-races, called 
il Palio, take place in the Piazza del Campo, presenting a very attractive 
scene (seat on grand-stand 2-10 fr.). 

Siena (1330 ft.), the capital of the province of that name, with 
23,400 inhab., the seat of a university which was in high repute as 
early as the 14th cent., and the residence of an archbishop, is pic- 
turesquely situated 25 M. due S. of Florence, on three connected 
hills (the clayey soil of which is called 'Terra di Siena'). It is now 
a busy trading and manufacturing place ; it also is one of the plea- 
santest towns in Tuscany, suitable for a stay of some duration. The 
climate is healthy, the atmosphere in summer being tempered by 
the lofty situation ; the language and manners of the inhabitants 
are pleasing and prepossessing. Most of the streets are narrow and 
crooked , but they contain many palaoes and handsome churches. 
Next to Rome, Florence, and Venice, Siena is the most important 
town in Italy for the study of the art of the 13-16th centuries. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Julia, or Colonia Julia Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and converted into a Roman colony 
by Augustus, whence it derives its arms, the she-wolf and the twins. 
The only Etruscan antiquities here are a few tombs which were discovered 
in 1864 near the Porta Camollia. The town attained to the height of its 
prosperity in the middle ages. After the death of the Countess Matilda 
(1115) her extensive dominions were dismembered, and the citizens of 
Siena, as well as those of Pisa, Lucca, and Florence, succeeded in estab- 



History of Art. SIENA. Route. 5. 23 

lishing their independence. The government then fell into the hands 
of the nobility, but was wrested from them by the people in 1133. The 
ensuing conflicts, however, terminated in favour of the nobles, and Siena 
became the leader of the Ghibelline party in Central Italy, while Florence 
was the stronghold of the Guelph faction. Farinata degll Uberti and the 
Ghibellines from Florence were welcomed in Siena, and on 4th Sept., 1260, 
a great victory over the Guelphs, the bloodiest recorded in the annals of 
Tuscany, was gained near Monte Aperto, on the Arbia (6 M. distant; p. 17), 
with the aid of the German troops of King Manfred of Naples. Ten years 
later Charles of Anjou succeeded in gaining possession of Siena and in 
making it a member of the Tuscan-Guelph confederation of towns ; but 
the city kept a jealous watch over its privileges, and, notwithstanding 
several attempts on the part of the nobility to re-assert their influence, its 
constitution remained unchanged. In the 14th and 15th centuries Siena 
numbered nearly 100,000 inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and 
love of art. At length the supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as 
(about 1487) Pandolfo Petrucci, surnamed II Magnifico, whom Machiavelli 
represents as a pattern of a despot. In 1493, when Charles VIII. of France 
arrived in Italy, Siena concluded an alliance with him, and during the 
troubles of the first half of the 16th cent, the citizens for the most part 
sided with the French, by whom the town was usually garrisoned. On 
22nd April, 1555, the French garrison was compelled by famine to capit- 
ulate to the Spanish besiegers, by whose aid Duke Cosimo I. of Tuscany 
succeeded in gaining permanent mastery of the place. 

History of Art. The bitter political fate which overtook Siena , and 
converted the mighty rival of Florence into a quiet provincial town, will 
strike the antiquarian as a very fortunate circumstance ; for here are still 
preserved many monuments and reminiscences of mediaeval life compara- 
tively unaffected by the vicissitudes and the progress of subsequent ages. 
The conservative character of Siena has not, however, been produced, as 
in the case of Bruges, by the withdrawal of the stream of history ; for even 
when at the height of its power, particularly as compared with Florence, 
it manifested a preference for old established rules and a dislike for inno- 
vations. In the province of Art, despite the abundant supply of artists at 
their disposal, the citizens never seem to have taken the initiative , but 
adhered with remarkable tenacity to the earlier style. The best period of 
Sienese art still belongs to the middle ages, when the towns of Italy had 
begun to pride themselves on their practice of art, but before the pedantic 
element had given way to the pure sense of the beautiful. There is no town 
in Italy which presents such instructive examples of the Italian Gothic 
Architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries as Siena, where we find magni- 
ficent stone buildings vying with graceful structures in brick. If the Ca- 
thedral had been built according to the intentions of the citizens, it would 
have been one of the largest and most imposing churches in existence, 
and even in its reduced proportions it is one of the finest in Italy. In 
the secular buildings (of which perhaps the Palazzo Buonsignori is the 
finest example) the pointed style predominates; the windows are gene- 
rally divided by small columns, and the whole edifice is crowned with 
pinnacles. In the 15th cent., when the motive of the castellated mansion 
was clothed with Renaissance forms , Siena was not slow to imitate the 
example of Florence. It is, however, uncertain whether Bernakdo Ros- 
bellino and Fkancesco di Giorgio have been correctly designated as the 
architects of the Piccolomini, Spannocchi , and Nerucci palaces. The most 
interesting of the Renaissance churches is the small round church degli 
Innocenti, adjoining the Spedale della Scala. 

Siena has produced no independent school of Sculpture, though a 
liberal patron of foreign masters. As throughout the rest of Tuscany, 
the development of art did not progress rapidly here till the beginning of 
the 13th century. Niccolo Pisano, the most famous sculptor of the 13th 
cent., and his son Giovanni were employed at Siena; and the sculptures 
on the font of S. Giovanni and on the Fonte Gaja are admirable works 
by Jacopo della Qcercia (1374-1438), a native of Siena and one of the 
earliest representatives of the Renaissance style. 



24 Route 5. SIENA. Piaeza del Campo. 

Painting was the favourite art of the early Sienese. As early as the 
beginning of the 13th cent, they could boast of Dcccio di Booninsegna, a 
painter whose works far surpass those of Cimabue in beauty and graceful- 
ness. On his completion in 1310 of the 'Majestas', or Triumphant Ma- 
donna, for the high-altar of the cathedral of Siena, the picture was carried to 
the church in solemn procession (p. 29). An equally important master was 
Simone Mabtini (1283-1344), who has been immortalised by a sonnet of 
Petrarch, and who, like Ms contemporary Giotto, practised his art and 
exercised his influence far beyond the limits of his native city. Works by 
his hand are, or were, to be found at Naples, Orvieto, Assisi, and Avignon, 
as well as in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. So famous indeed was his 
name that it was usual to attribute to him all the best works of his 
period. His compositions are of a very primitive character, but he certainly 
possessed great skill in his rendering of tender sentiment. Closely akin to 
these two masters was Lippo Memmi, who executed large frescoes with 
the same elaborate care as miniatures in missals. Several painters of the 
14th cent, followed in Sintone's footsteps, such as Baena or Bekna, Luca di 
Tomme, and Lippo Vanni, without however exhibiting much individuality. 
The easy narrative style and the imaginative allegory were cultivated 
by the brothers Pieteo and Ambbogio Lobenzetti (both of whom pro- 
bably died of the plague in 1348), and the approach of the Sienese 
school to that of Giotto was thus accomplished. A little later, however, 
the works of Baetolo di Feedi (1330-1410) fell short of those of his 
predecessors, and this was still more the case with those of Taddeo di 
Baktolo (1362-1422), who was far inferior to his Florentine contem- 
poraries. For a time all artistic progress at Siena seemed to be at an 
end, and throughout the 15th cent, the city did not give birth to a single 
master of note. The painters Domenico di Baetolo , Loeenzo di Pietko 
(nicknamed Vecchietta), Benvenuto and Matteo di Giovanni, and others 
of this period adhered tenaciously to the limited methods of their prede- 
cessors, from whose influence they were unable to emancipate themselves. 
At the close of the century, owing to contact with neighbouring schools, 
whose representatives were frequently invited to Siena, and to the intro- 
duction of the study of Florentine, Umbrian, and Lombard masters, the 
tide of progress at length began to set in. The most distinguished Sie- 
nese masters of this period, far surpassing their contemporaries Fungai- 
Pacchia , Pacchiarotto , and others , were Baldassaee Peeuzzi and Gio- 
vanantonio Bazzi , surnamed II Sodoma. Peruzzi (1481-1537), who was 
associated with Raphael at Borne, was endowed with an admirable per- 
ception of beauty of proportion, and was famous both as an architect and 
a decorative painter, but Siena now possesses none of his works. Sodoma 
(c. 1473-1549), on the other hand, may be thoroughly studied at Siena. A 
Lombard by birth, he brought to Siena some traces of Leonardo's style, 
but instead of cultivating this, he seems to have trusted to his own nat- 
ural ability, and with such success that in one respect he vies with Ra- 
phael himself. In the delineation of beautiful and youthful figures he is 
unsurpassed, and his technical skill in fresco painting and his fertility 
are marvellous ; but, in spite of his strong sense of the beautiful, his 
works are apt to pall upon the taste owing to the superficiality of their 
composition. With Dom. Beccafomi (1486-1551), who frequently altered his 
style, begins the final period of decline from which Siena never recovered. 
In the art of Wood Carving Siena has always taken the lead among 
the towns of Italy. In the 15th and 16th cent, the Barili family (particu- 
larly Antonio, d. 1516, and Giovanni, d. 1529) distinguished themselves 
in this branch, and their modern representative is Oiusti, whose pupils 
Gosi, Guidi, and Querci are mentioned at p. 22. 

In the centre of the town , at the union of the three hills on 
which it stands, is the picturesque *Piazza del Campo, now offi- 
cially called Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), which has been men- 
tioned by Dante (Purg. xi. 134). It is semicircular in form, and 
depressed towards the centre, resembling an ancient theatre. The 



Palazzo Pubblico. SIENA. 5. Route. 25 

popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient republic took place 
here, and it is here that the Palio horse-races (p. 22) are now 
held. — The piazza is enclosed by pinnacled palaces. On the dia- 
meter of the semicircle rises the — 

Talazzo Pubblico ("PI. 22; D, 5), a huge brick edifice of four 
stories, erected in 1289-1309, with pointed windows divided by 
small columns, and wings lower than the central part of the build- 
ing. (The wings of the second floor are of a later date ; comp. 
p. 28.) Adjacent rises the slender tower del Mangia, begun in 
1325 , and finished about 1345 , so named after the stone figure of 
a man which used to strike the hours (a popular figure somewhat 
resembling the Roman Pasquino, p. 189) : fine view from the top. 
At the foot of the tower is the Cappella di Piazza, in the form of 
a loggia , begun after the cessation of the great plague of 1348 
which carried off 30,000 persons, and completed in 1376, with 
damaged frescoes by Sodoma. The upper story was added in 1460 
by Federighi. The she-wolf on the column in front of the right wing, 
the arms of Siena (p. 22), dates from 1429. 

The Interior (custodian V2-I fr. ; best time 10-2) is embellished with 
numerous frescoes of the Sienese school. Among those on the Ground 
Floor are a Coronation of the Virgin, by Sano di Pietro, 1445; a Ma- 
donna with SS. Ansano and Galgano, and another with St. Leonard, both 
by Sodoma; Madonna with saints, by Vecchietta; a Risen Christ, by So- 
doma, 1535 (?), in the room of the Sindaco. 

On the Fikst Flook, the custodian first shows the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio (or del Mappamondo, or delle Balestre) , adorned with large 
frescoes : Madonna anil Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
Martini, 1315, a composition with numerous figures, somewhat stiff, but 
with beautiful details ; opposite, Equestrian portrait of Guidoriccio Fo- 
gliani de Ricci by Simone Martini (1328; freely restored) ; beneath, Madonna 
by Ouido da Siena, the date of which, 1221, appears to be spurious (prob. 
1281 ; formerly in S. Domenico) ; then, to the right ;md left. S. Ansano and 
S. Vittorio, and, on the other wall to the right, S. Bernardo Tolomei, all by 
Sodoma; then S. Bernardino by Sano di Pietro and S. Catarina by Vecchietta. 
— The vestibule of this hall is adorned with frescoes by Taddeo di Bartolo, 
representing ancient heroes, Judas Maccabseus, and St. Christopher and 
other saints (1441). The vault of the archway is occupied by a curious 
view of Rome. — A beautiful iron railing (1435-45), adjoined on the right 
by a font by Turini, separates this vestibule from the Council Chapel, 
which is embellished (left) with frescoes of the Death and Assumption 
of the Virgin by Taddeo di Bartolo, and contains handsome benches carved 
by Domenico di Niccolb (1429). The altar-piece is a Holy Family by So- 
doma; on the right is an organ by A. Pifferio (1519). — To the right of the 
Sala del Consiglio is the Sala della Pace , or dei Nove , with frescoes 
by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, painted in 1337-43, representing 'Good and Bad 
Government' , three pictures which are indispensable to those who 
desire an insight into the disposition of the proud citizens of Siena 
in the middle ages. The allegories and allusions of a more or less ob- 
scure character which they contain are at least interesting as being of a 
much more homely kind than those customary in modern times. One of 
these mural paintings represents the ideal of a state, under the guidance 
of wisdom, justice, and other virtues, while the two others pourtray in 
a realistic style the consequences of good and bad government. The 
preservation is imperfect, but the spectator will not fail to admire the heads 
of Peace, Justice, and Concord in the first of the series. — Adjoining 
is a room with portraits of the eight popes and thirty-eight cardinals t<> 
whom Siena has given birth. — Another Room contains some frescoes 



26 Route 5. SIENA. Casino At' Nobili. 

recently transferred from other buildings, a Madonna by Matteo da Siena, 
1484, and S. Bernardino preaching in the Campo (p. 24), by Sano di Pietro, 
interesting for its representation of the piazza at that period. — The ad- 
joining Sala di Balia, or de 1 Pketoki, is adorned with ostentatious frescoes 
from the history of Pope Alexander III. by Spinello Aretino (1408; includ- 
ing a naval victory of the Venetians, and the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa 
and the Doge leading the Pope's horse). In the centre of the room are two 
coffers, one finely carved by Barili, the other adorned with paintings said to 
be by Fra Angelico. — The last room is the Sala del Concistoko, with 
ceiling - paintings by Beccafumi , a fine marble doorway by Jacopo della 
Quercia (above which is the Judgment of Solomon by Luca Giordano), 
Florentine tapestry (partly of the 16th cent.) on the walls, and modern 
busts of statesmen and other illustrious citizens of Siena. 

The rear of the palace, abutting on the Piazza del Mercato (PI. D, 
5, 6), or vegetable market, is also very picturesque. The piazza com- 
mands a good view of the environs. 

At the E. end of the Piazza del Campo is the Palazzo del Go- 
verno (p. 31 ; facade towards the Via Ricasoli). • — In the centre of 
the piazza, opposite the Palazzo Pubblico, rises the marble Fonte 
Gaja, a modern reproduction (1868) by Tito Sarroechi of the original 
fountain of 1343. The beautiful bas-reliefs of the Christian vir- 
tues and of the Creation of Adam (left) and the Expulsion from 
Eden (right) were executed by Jacopo della Querela in 1409-19 
(originals, in a very damaged condition, now preserved in the Opera 
del Duomo , p. 29). A subterranean conduit, 18 M. in length, 
supplies the fountain with delicious water. 

Ascending by steps through one of the passages beyond the 
Fonte Gaja, we reach the beginning of the Via. di Citta, which 
presents a busy scene, especially in the evening. 

The Gothic Loggia of the Casino de' Nobili (PI. 2 ; D, 5), once 
the seat of the commercial tribunal, was built in imitation of the 
Loggia de' Lanzi of Florence in 1417, but the upper story is later. 
The sculptures are by Sienese masters of the 15th cent., such as 
Ant. Federighi (who executed the figures of S. Ansano, S. Savino, 
and S. Vittore, and the stone bench on the right), Marinna (stone 
bench on the left), and Vecchietta (figures of SS. Paul and Peter). 
— The N. prolongation of this street towards the Porta Camollia 
is the Via Cavour (p. 36). — A little to the N. of the Loggia is 
the Piazza dell' Indipendenza, with a Statue of Italia by Sarroechi, 
in memory of Sienese patriots who fell in the struggle for the union 
of Italy (near PI. 27; D, 5). 

Proceeding to the left, past the Caff e Greco, and then ascending 
the Via dei Pellegrini , a side-street to the right , we reach the 
small Piazza S. Giovanni. Here, in the corner to the left, is 
situated the Palazzo del Magnifico (PI. 18; D, 5), erected in 1508 
for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci (p. 23), from designs by Giacomo 
Cozzarelli. The bronze ornaments and flag-brackets on the outside 
are in admirable keeping with the style. One room is embellished 
with frescoes by Pinturicchio, discovered in 1882. 

In a straight direction we obtain a fine survey of the choir of 
the loftily situated cathedral, under which is the old baptistery, 



Cathedral. SIENA. 5. Route. 27 

forming a kind of crypt, now the church of *S. Giovanni (PI. 5), 
with a fine, but unfinished Gothic facade (after 1317). 

Interior. The chief adornment here is the marble Font, designed by 
Jacopo della Quercia (1416) , who also executed the statuettes of John the 
Baptist and the four prophets, and one of the six beautiful bronze-gilt 
reliefs from the history of John the Baptist (Zacharias led out of the Temple, 
1430). The others are by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Baptism of Christ and John the 
Baptist brought before Herod, 1427), Donatello (Head of John the Baptist 
brought before Herod and his guest's, 1427), and Turino di Sano and his son 
Giovanni di Turino. The last also executed the figures of Charity, Justice, 
and Prudence ; those of Faith and Hope are by Donatello. — The frescoes 
by Sienese painters of the 15th cent, are of inferior value. — Over the 
high-altar is a Baptism of Christ by And. and Raf. Puccinelli of Brescia. 

From the Piazza 8. Giovanni we may either follow the street to 
the right, past the Palazzo Arcivescovile (PI. 13), or we may ascend 
the steps to the left. By either way we reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The **Cathedral, or Chiesa Metropolitana (PI. C, 4, 5), occupy- 
ing the highest ground in the town, is said to stand on the site of a 
temple of Minerva, which was succeeded by a churoh of S. Maria 
Assunta. The present building was begun early in the 13th cent. ; 
the dome was completed in 1264; and about 1317 the choir was 
prolonged to the E. over the church of S. Giovanni (see above). 
Owing to certain structural defects, to which the present irregu- 
larity of the edifice is still perhaps partly due, it was resolved in 
1339 to erect a huge nave, of which the present cathedral was to 
form the transept only , according to a plan preserved in the 
Opera del Duomo (p. 29). Parts of this building, designed in a 
beautiful style, still exist on the S. side of the cathedral in the 
form of a ruin. After the plague of 1348 this ambitious plan was 
abandoned, and the original structure was then completed. (Length 
97 yds., width 26y 2 yds., length of transept 55 yds.) The *Fa- 
cade, constructed in 1284-1380 from a design by Giovanni Pisano, 
which, like that of Orvieto cathedral (p. 64), has three gables, is 
composed of red, black, and white marble, and richly decorated with 
sculptures representing prophets and angels by different masters ; 
the mosaics were added in 1878 by Mussini and Franchi. On each 
side of the entrance is a oolumn bearing the wolf of Siena. The cam- 
panile , consisting of six stories , does not taper towards the top. 

The 'Interior consists of a nave and aisles extending to the choir 
and intersected by a double transept, with an irregular hexagonal dome 
over the centre. The horizontal bands of colour, the continuous rows of 
busts of popes (in terracotta; about 1400) over the arches, and the pillars 
with the half-columns will at first produce an unfavourable impression on 
northern travellers, but they will find that the pleasing ornamentation in 
marble compensates to a great extent for organic defects. 

The stained glass in the large circular window in the wall of the en- 
trance was designed by Perin del Vaga, 1549. Over the. entrance is a 
graceful tribune of 1483, borne by two columns. The fine basins for holy 
water are by Ant. Federighi, a pupil of Jac. della Quercia, 1462-63. 

The marble "Pavement is quite unique, being covered with 'Graffito' 
representations from designs by eminent artists : scenes from Old Testament 
history, Moses, Samson, Judas Maccabseus, Solomon, and Joshua by Do- 
menico di Niccold (1423) ; Abraham's sacrifice, Adam and Eve, Moses on Mt. 
Sinai, etc., by Beccafumi; the symbols of Siena and the towns allied with 



28 Route 5. SIENA. Cathedral. 

it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and Crates, the Sibyls, and other figures 
by masters of less note. The execution varies. The oldest scenes ate 
simple outlines engraved on the white marble and filled with black stucco. 
Shading was then introduced by the use of grey and also of coloured 
marble, so that the graffito gradually developed into an elaborate mosaic. 
The pavement is generally covered by wax-cloth, which is, however, remov- 
ed for a few weeks after Aug. 15th (Feast of the Assumption). Most of 
the original works are now in the Opera del Duomo (p. 29), where also 
a reduced copy of the whole is shown. 

Left Aisle : At the entrance-wall , statue of Pope Marcellus II., by 
D. Cafaggi. — 4th Altar (of the Piccolomini), with sculptures by Andrea 
Bregno (1485) and statues of SS. Peter, Pius, Gregory, and James, by 
Michael Angela , and St. Francis , begun by Torrigiani and completed by 
Michael Angela (about 1501-4). — The entrance-wall of the Libreria is 
embellished with fine sculptures in marble, by Marinna (1497). Over the 
door: Coronation of Pius III. (Piccolomini; 1503), who reigned 27 days 
only, by Ber.Pinturicchia, who also painted the frescoes in the library (p. 29). 
— To the left of the entrance is the Monument of Bandino Bandini, with 
the Risen Christ and angels, attributed to Michael Angela (?). 

The 4 Pdlpit , octagonal in form and constructed of white marble, 
borne by nine columns, some of which rest on lions, and adorned with 
admirable reliefs from the New Testament, is by Niccolb Pisano, his son 
Giovanni , and his pupils Arnolfo, Lapo y and Donate- (1266-68). The flight 
of steps was designed by Bernardino di Oiacomo (1543). 

The Left Teansept contains the Cappella S. Giovanni, with a portal by 
Marinna. In the interior are a bronze *Statue of John the Baptist by Bona- 
tello, 1457; statues of SS. Catharine and Ansanus, by Neroccio (1487) and 
Giov. di Stefano, respectively; a font, perhaps by Jacopo delta Querela; 
stucco enrichments on the walls by Peruzzi; and five small frescoes by 
Pinturicchio , three being scenes from the life of Alberto Arringhieri, the 
donor. — Farther on in the same transept are statues of Popes Pius III. 
and Pius II. by P. Balestra and G. Mazzuoli respectively. — The chapel 
to the left of the choir contains a relief of the 12th cent., representing 
the Annunciation , the Nativity, and the Adoration of the Magi, removed 
hither from the old church of Ponte alio Spino (p. 38). The bronze relief 
in the pavement in front of this work is by Bonatello, and marks the 
tomb of Bishop Giovanni Pecci (d. 1426). 

The Choie contains a high-altar executed from a model by Baldassare 
Peruzzi (1532); and behind it richly carved choir-stalls, reading-desk, etc., 
by Barlolo Jferoni, surnamed Riccio (1567), and inlaid work (intarsia) by 
Fra Giovanni da Verona (1472). The fine bronze canopy is by Vecchietla 
(1465-72); the angels, acting as candelabra, are by Giovanni di Stefano and 
Francesco di Giorgio (1489), the front row of stalls and the reading-desk 
by Raffaello da Brescia (1520). The frescoes , originally by Beccafumi 
(1544), were entirely renewed and altered at the beginning of the present 
century. — By the pillars of the dome are two flagstaffs from the standard- 
waggon of the Florentines (il carrocav), captured at Monte Aperto in 
1260 (p. 23), or, according to some authorities, those of the victorious 
waggon of the Sienese. Over a neighbouring altar is the crucifix which 
the Sienese carried with them on that occasion. — To the left of the 
high-altar is an organ-loft by the two Barili (1511) above the entrance 
to the sacristy, which contains (to the left) a font by Turini. In the 
sacristy is a 15th cent, painting, perhaps by Sano di Pietro, with a view 
of the original Palazzo Pubblico (p. 25). 

In the chapel to the right of the choir are reliefs of the Evangelists 
and St. Paul, by Francesco da Jmola and Giov. Turini. 

The Right Transept contains statues of Popes Alexander VII. {by 
E. Ferrata) and Alexander III. (by A. Ruggi). — The tomb of Bishop 
Tommaso Piccolomini (d. 1483) is by Neroccio. — The Cappella del Voto, 
belonging to the Cttir/i, built by Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi of Siena, 
papal nuncio at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, pope in 1665-67) in 1661, 
is richly adorned with lapis lazuli, marble, and gilding, and contains 
statues of St. Jerome and Mary Magdalen (said originally to have been 



Opera del Duomo. SIENA. 5. Route 29 

an Andromeda) by Bernini. At the end of the right aisle is a statue of 
Pope Paul V., by F. Signorini. 

The S. side-entrance of the cathedral is surmounted by a relief of the 
Madonna attributed to Michelozzo. 

In the left aisle, as already mentioned, is the entrance to the cele- 
brated "Library of the Cathedral (Libreria; fee V2 fr.)i formerly the Sala 
Piccolominea, erected by order of Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, afterwards 
Pope Pius III., in 1495, and adorned in 1505-7 with ten frescoes by Pin- 
luricchio, representing scenes from the life of jEneas Sylvius Piccolomini of 
Pienza (p. 21), afterwards Pope Pius II. (1458-64) : (1) Departure of jEneas 
Sylvius for the Council of Basle ; (2) ./Eneas Sylvius in presence of King 
James of Scotland, to whom he had been sent by the Council; (3) His 
coronation as a poet by Emperor Frederick III. at Frankfort in 1445; (4) 
iEneas Sylvius doing homage to Pope Eugene IV. in the name of the 
Emperor ; (5) Betrothal of Emperor Frederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal 
at Siena by .ffineas Sylvius ; (6) ./Eneas Sylvius created a cardinal by Pope 
Calixtus III. ; (7) iEneas Sylvius elected Pope Pius II. ; (8) Pius II. at the 
diet of princes in Mantua; (9) Canonisation of Catharine of Siena; (10) 
Death of Pius II. at Ancona, while preaching a crusade against the Turks. 
Some of these pictures, which are connected by beautiful figures of nude 
or semi-nude children, are admirably preserved. Vasari attributes the 
designs for these frescoes to Raphael ; but the drawings which have been 
preserved are entirely in the style of Pinturicchio, and it is very impro- 
bable that Raphael had any such share in the compositions of the much 
older master. Designs for these frescoes are now preserved in the Ufflzi 
(that of No. 1),' in the Brera at Milan (No. 3), by the Duke of Devonshire 
at Chatsworth (No. 4), and by Sign. Baldeschi at Perugia (No. 5 ; p. 50). — 
The missals, embellished with beautiful miniatures , also deserve attention 
(No. 5 and No. 9 by Liberate da Verona, No. 12 by Qirolamo da Cremona, 
No. 11 by Sana di Pietro). 

Opposite the S. side of the cathedral , in the corner where the 
steps ascending from S. Giovanni terminate under the arches of the 
uncompleted nave (p. 27), is the *Opera del Duomo {della Metro- 
politana ; PI. 12; C,5), which contains several interesting works of art. 

In the entrance-passage is the custodian's bell 0/2 fr.). 

The hall on the Ground Floor contains a famous antique "Group of 
the Graces, found at Rome about 1460 in the reign of Pius II. and pre- 
sented by him to the cathedral library. From this work Raphael is said 
to have made his first studies from the antique (drawing at Venice). The 
superb Renaissance pedestal is also interesting. The Sculptures from the 
Fonte Gaja (p. 26) by Jacopo della Querela, representing a Madonna, the 
Virtues, the Creation of Man, and the Expulsion from Paradise, which 
are among the master's finest works, are unfortunately much damaged. 
Ornamentation of an organ-screen, representing the Transfiguration, by 
Sodoma. Sculptures from the Gappella di Piazza (p. 25), and others from 
the facade of the cathedral before its restoration. — Antique sarcophagus 
with sea-gods. — "Graffiti of the Cathedral Pavement (comp. p. 27). — On 
the Second Floor several interesting plans and architectural designs ; 
handsome embroideries ; crosiers ; ring of Pius II. Also several early Sienese 
paintings, the chief of which is the large "Picture by Duccio di Buoninsegna : 
on the left the Triumphant Madonna with the Child and saints, the once 
highly revered 'Majestas', which was placed over the high-altar in 1310 
(p. 24), with the inscription : Mater Sancta Dei, sis caussa Senis requiei, sis 
Ducio vita, te quia pinxit ita. On the left is the Life of Christ, in 25 sec- 
tions, originally forming a background to the Majestas. Also four saints 
by Ambr. Lorenzetti; a Byzantine Madonna of the 12th cent. ; a Credo by 
Taddeo di Bartolo; a Nativity of the Virgin by Pietro Lorenzetti (1342), in 
a life-like genre style. 

Adjoining the Opera is the Palazzo Reale (PI. 23), erected by 
Bern. Buontalenti in the 16th cent., now the seat of the prefecture. 



30 Route 5. SIENA. S. Maria della Scala. 

— Farther on, in the Via del Capitano (see below) which diverges 
here, is the Palazzo Pecci (PI. 20), a Gothic brick building of' the 
13th century. About 1360 it was appointed the official residence 
of the Capitano di Giustizia, or chief judicial functionary of Siena; 
in 1457 it was acquired by the jurist Tom. Pecci ; and it is now the 
property of Sign. E. Grotanelli di Santi , who has had it (since 
1854) restored without and within by Sienese artists. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral are the church and hospital 
of S. Maria della Scala (PI. C, 5), of the 13th century. Over the 
high-altar of the church is a Risen Christ , a statue in bronze by 
Vecchietta. The choir-stalls are by Ventura, the organ by B. 
Peruzzi. Adjoining the handsome entrance-hall of the hospital is 
a large sick-room called 'II Pellegrinajo', adorned with frescoes from 
the history of the monastery by Domenico di Bartolo (1440-43) 
and other masters. Pleasing view from the windows (fee Y2 &•)■ — 
Descending to the left at the N. angle of the Piazza del Duomo by 
steps and under several arches, we reach the church Degli Innocenti 
(PI. C, 4; knock at No. 58), externally a very rude edifice, but 
with a charming interior in the form of a Greek cross. 

The above-mentioned Via. del Capitano leads to the quarters 
of the town situated on the S. and S.W. hills. It soon crosses the 
small Piazza Postierla, with the Palazzo Chigi, now Piccolomini 
(PI. 16; C, 5), on the right, which contains two saloons adorned 
with frescoes by Bernhard van Orley, a Fleming who joined Raphael's 
school. The column with the wolf in the piazza dates from 1487. — 
Not far off, in the Via di Citta, which diverges here to the left, is the 
Palazzo Piccolomini , now Nerucci (PI. 19; C, D, 5), erected by 
Bernardo Rossellino in 1463 for Catharine, the sister of Pius II. 
Beyond it is the Palazzo Saracini, the vaulting in the court of which 
is tastefully painted. — In the Via di Stalloreggi, diverging from 
the Piazza Postierla to the right, is the Casa Bambagini - Oalletti, 
on the facade of which is a fresco by Sodoma ('Madonna del Corvo'). 

On the left, in the'ViA S. Pietbo, the continuation of the Via 
del Capitano, is the *Palazzo Buonsignori (PL 15; C, 5), a hand- 
some Gothic edifice of the 14th cent., in brick, with a rich facade, 
restored in 1848. The vestibule, court, and staircase are in the early 
Renaissance style. — At the church of S. Pietro alle Scale (PI. 9 ; 
C, 6), which contains paintings by Salimbeni and Rutilio Manetti 
(16th cent.), the street bends to the right. — Following the main 
street and passing under an aTchway, we enter the Piazza S. Agos- 
tino (PI. C, 6), with the R. Collegio Tolomei, formerly a monas- 
tery and now a much frequented grammar-school (Liceo), and the 
church of — 

S. Agostino (PI. C, 6) , Temodelled by Vanvitelli in 1755 , the 
entrance to which is in the Liceo, to the left. 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Crucifixion by Pietro Perugino. 
Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo da Siena (1482) , in a chapel on the 
right. Statue of Pius II. by Dupri. Altar-piece, an Adoration of the Magi by 



Palazzo del Governo. SIENA. 5. Route. 31 

Sodoma. At the back of the choir, on the left, the Legend of S. Agostino 
Novello in three sections, by Lippo Memmi (more probably by Simone 
Martini?). Also pictures by Salimbeni, Butilio Manetti, and others. 

About 250 paces beyond the Porta Tun" (PI. B, 7) is the Cimi- 
tero delta Misericordia , containing among its monuments a good 
Pieta by Dupre and several statues by Sarrocchi (fee 30-50 c). — 
Following the Via della Cerchia (where the small Palazzo Finetti 
should be noticed) to the W. of S. Agostino , and bending to the 
right, we enter the Via Baldassare Peruzzi, on the left side of which 
are the suppressed monastery (now a barrack) and the church of — 

S. Maria del Carmine (PI. B, 5), a handsome brick edifice, with 
campanile and cloisters, by Baldassare Peruzzi (open 7-9 a.m. only). 
On the right is the Cappella del Sagramento with a Nativity of Mary 
by Sodoma; 5th altar on the left, St. Michael by Beccafumi. 

Opposite is the Palazzo Pollini , formerly Celsi (PI. 21 ; B, 5), 
attributed to Peruzzi. — "We may now proceed straight on through 
the Via delle Fosse di S. Ansano (with the B. Istituto Toscano dei 
Sordo-Muti , or Deaf and Dumb Asylum) either to the Piazza del 
Duomo, or, by turning a little to the left towards the end of the 
way, we may reach the Porta Fontebranda (see p. 36). 

Outside the Porta 8. Marco (PI. A, 5) there is a fine view. 

The E. angle of the Piazza del Campo is occupied by the *Pa- 
lazzo del Governo (PL 17; D, E, 5), one of the most imposing pri- 
vate edifices at Siena, erected for Oiacomo Piccolomini in 1469-1500, 
probably from a design by Bernardo Rossellino. The principal facade 
with its tasteful decorations in wrought iron (horses' heads, etc.) 
looks towards the Via Ricasoli. The palace now contains the exten- 
sive Archives (director, Sign. Lisini), one of the most important 
collections of the kind in Italy. 

Parchment Charters, 52,000 in number, the oldest dating from 736. 
Under glass are a number of interesting specimens of these documents, 
Autographs of celebrated men (Pius II., Leo X.), Miniatures, etc. There 
is also a valuable collection of the Covers of the old Treasury Registers 
(Biccherne), in chronological order, painted with scenes from sacred and 
profane history, and affording an admirable survey of the development of 
Sienese art. They include works by Dietisalvi, Duccio, and the Lorenzetti. 

In the vicinity is the University (see p. 32). — The elegant 
Loggia del Papa (PI. 11 ; E, 5), in the Piazza Piccolomini, oppo- 
site the Pal. del Governo, was erected in 1460-63 by the Sienese 
Antonio Federighi by order of Pius II. (^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini), 
and dedicated by the pope 'gentilibus suis'. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Martino (PI. 8; E, 5, 6). 
Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Presentation in the Temple by 
Ouido Reni. On each side of the 3rd altar are ornamental sculptures in 
marble by Marinna (1522); on the left: Nativity of Christ by Beccafumi. 
The choir contains gilded wooden statues of the Madonna and four saints, 
attributed to Jacopo della Quercia. 

The Via Ricasoli , which passes the Loggia del Papa , tra- 
verses the crest of the S.E. hill and leads to Porta Pispini and 
Porta Eomana, the two S.E. gates. — Immediately to the right in 



32 Route 5. SIENA. S. Spirito. 

this street is the Fonte di Pantaneto, dating from 1352, recently 
restored. To the left, a little farther on, the Via di Follonica 
descends to the Fonte di Follonica, constructed in 1239 and situated 
in a garden far below. — After 5 min. more, a few paces beyond 
the church of S. Giorgio (PI. E, 6), the Via de' Pispini diverges to 
the left, in which we first reach the church of — 

S. Spirito (PI. E, 6,7), with a dome dating from 1508, and a 
portal from 1519, the latter designed by Ba.ldas3a.re Peruzzi. 

The 1st chapel on the right (Cappelladegli Spagnuoli) contains, above 
a St. Kosa by Viterbo, the following admirable paintings by Sodoma (1530) : 
Madonna presenting the gown of the Order of the Dominicans to St. 
Alfonso, in the presence of SS. Octavia and Lucia; to the right and left 
SS. Sebastian and Anthony the Abbot ; in the lunette, St. James on horse- 
back (fresco). To the right is a Nativity of Christ in terracotta by Am- 
brogio delta Robbia (1504). — Over the door leading to the sacristy, Cruci- 
fixion, by Sano di Pietro. — Over the 3rd altar to the left, Coronation 
of the Virgin by Petechia. — In the Cloisters (sagrestano 20-30 c.) : Cru- 
cifixion by Fra Paolino (1516). 

The Fonte de' Pispini dates from 1534. The neighbouring Porta 
Pispini is adorned with a damaged fresco (Nativity) by Sodoma, 
from 1531. 

Opposite S. Spirito we enter the Vicolo del Sasso, follow to 
the right the broad Via S. Girolamo, and passing the column with 
the wolf, reach 8. Girolamo (PL D, 7), belonging to a nunnery (3rd 
altar to the left : Madonna by Matteo da Siena, framed in marble 
by Marinna). On the left we next reach the church of — 

SS. Concezione, or Servi di Maria (PI. D, 8) , erected in 1458- 
1533, with a beautiful interior attributed to Bald. Peruzzi (?) 

First altar to the right: Madonna, by Coppo di Marcovaldo, 1261. 
Fourth altar to the right: Massacre of the Innocents, by Matteo da Siena, 
1491; above, Adoration of the Shepherds, by Taddeo di Bartolo. — In 
the right transept, above the first door leading to the sacristy: 'La Vergine 
del Popolo', by Lippo Memmi, a fine fresco. — At the back of the high- 
altar, 'Madonna del Manto' , ascribed to Giovanni di Pietro, 1436. The 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Fungai (1500 ?) , is one of his earlier works. 

The Porta Romana (PI. D, 8) is adorned with a fresco (Cor- 
onation of the Virgin) begun by Taddeo di Bartolo and finished 
by Sano di Pietro. — About 1/3 M. beyond the gate is the church 
of Madonna degli Angeli, the choir of which contains a Madonna 
with saints, by Raffaello da Firenze, 1502. 



Opposite the N. side of the Palazzo del Governo (p. 31) the Via 
S. Vigilio leads to the E. to the church of the same name and to 
the University (PI. 28; E, 5). The entrance to the latter is in the 
corner to the right ; in the corridor is the monument of the cele- 
brated jurist Niccolb Arringhieri (d. 1374), with a bas-relief re- 
presenting the professor in the midst of his audience. 

The neighbouring church of S. Maria di Provenzano (PI. 7; 
E, 5) dates from 1594. — Traversing several streets to the E. we 
reaeh the Piazza di S. Francesco (PL F, 5) , in which rise the 
church of S. Francesco and the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. 



Oratorio di 8. Bernardino. SIENA. 5. Route. 33 

The Gothic church of S. Francesco, now undergoing restoration 
but open to visitors, has two fine Renaissance cloisters, in one of 
which, adjoining the side-entrance to the church, are architectural 
sculptures from tombs of nobles dating from the 14th century. To 
the left of the entrance to the seminary is a relief of the Madonna 
by Giac. Cozzarelli. The chapel contains a Madonna nourishing 
the Child, by Ambr. Lorenzetti, and a Madonna and saints by Barna 
(left wall). The choir contains a large stained-glass window (from 
Munich; 1888) representing St. Francis and Pope Honorius III., 
and two portrait-medallions of the parents of Pius II. Farther on 
in the second cloister (1518) are some relics of a fresco of the Ma- 
donna of the school of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 

The "Oratorio di S. Bernardino (PI. F, 5) possesses admirable 
pictures, especially by Sodoma. Afternoon light best. The 'custode' 
lives at No. 6, adjoining (fee i/ 2 fr.). 

Lowek Oratorio: Scenes from the life of St. Bernardino, of the close 
of the 16th century. — Upper Oratorio (much more important paint- 
ings): Presentation in the Temple, Salutation, Assumption, and Corona- 
tion of the Virgin; SS. Anthony, Bernardino, Louis, and Francis, by So- 
doma, 1518-32, the single figures of saints being of great beauty. Betrothal 
and Death of the Virgin, by Beccafumi, 1518. Nativity of the Virgin, and 
Annunciation, by Oirol. del Petechia, 1185. The visitor should observe the 
admirable enrichments of the ceiling, the frieze, etc. , which are among 
the most tasteful of early-Renaissance works, executed by Giuliano Tura- 
pilli after 1496. Altar-piece by Beccafumi, 1537. 

The Via dei Rossi leads straight to the Via. Cavouk, which 
extends from the Casino de' Nobili (p. 26) to the Porta Camollia, 
a distance of nearly 1 M. Approaching from the Casino de' Nobili, 
we first reach a small piazza, named after the Palazzo Tolomei 
(PI. 26; E, 4), a Gothic edifice of 1205, on the left, and also 
adorned with a wolf. Farther on are the Palazzi Palmieri (1540), 
BicM (1520), with a fine loggia with modern paintings, Gori (1677), 
and Spannocchi (PI. 25 ; E, 4), built in 1470 by a Florentine master, 
with a bold colonnaded court, and recently thoroughly restored. 
The last now contains the Post and Telegraph Office. — In the 
vicinity is the Piazza Salimbeni, with a statue of Sallustio Ban- 
dini (1677-1766), the drainer of the Sienese Maremme , by Tito 
Sarrocchi, erected in 1880. 

To the left diverges the Via dblle Belle Ami, which contains 
the Art Institution and the Library and leads straight to the church 
of S. Domenico (p. 36). 

The *Istituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 10 ; D, E, 4) contains a valu- 
able collection of pictures, principally of the older Sienese school, 
formed at the beginning of the present century of works procured 
from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
gradually extended since that period. Adm. 9-3 daily (1 fr.), ex- 
cept on Sundays and holidays (bell below, to the right). 

The numbering of the pictures is as nearly as possible chronological, 
though a few of the most important canvases have been transferred out 
of order to the better light of the cabinets. There is no catalogue, but 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. 3 



34 Route 5. 



SIENA. 



Istituto delle Belle Arti. 



the names of the artists, so far as known, are attached to the frames. The 
most valuable paintings are those by Sodoma and Pacchiarotto in the 
large room ; Domenichino's landscape in Room xn. is also fine. 

At the entrance, Reliefs of little value. — I. Coeeidoe : 1-15. Pictures 
of the 13th cent., still in the Byzantine style; 16. Margaritone oVArezzo, 
St. Francis; 17. Guido da Siena, Madonna; 22-24. Duceio di Buoninsegna, 
Madonnas ; 39. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Annunciation (1344) ; 55,58. Works by 
Pielro Lorenzetti ; 59. Lippo Memmi; 62. Niccolb di Segna, Crucifixion; 604. 
P. Lorenzetti, Madonna and saints (1329) ; 86. Lippo Memmi, Madonna and 
four saints. — II. Coeeidoe: 404-410. Beccafumi, Cartoons for the pavement 
of the cathedral; 394. Ascribed to Alb. Dttrer, Portrait of an old man; 3S5. 
Moroni, Portrait; 495. Sleenwyck, St. Jerome. >— III. Coeeidoe: Pictures 
by Taddeo di Bavtolo, Giovanni di Paolo, Sano di Pielro (the 'Sienese Fra 
Angelico 1 ), Neroccio di Bartolommeo, etc. 188. Pietro di Giovanni, St. Bernar- 
dino. IV. Cabinet : 265. Sano di Pietro, Madonna and St. Calixtus; 374. 

Sodoma, Scourging of Christ (fresco); 375, 376. Girolamo Genga, Flight of 
iEneas, Ransoming prisoners. Wooden pilaster by A. Barili. — V. Cabinet: 
269-280. Paintings by Sano di Pietro; 152-155. Andrea Vanni, Triumphs. 

We next traverse Room VI. and enter Room VII., which contains prize- 
works by pupils of the Academy. In the middle is a Madonna and saints 
by Pietro Lorenzetti (1329), transferred from panel to canvas. — VIII. Cabinet : 
122. Taddeo Gaddi, Madonna; 123, 124. Spinello Aretino, Death and Coro- 
nation of the Virgin. 345. Antique sarcophagus with Nereids. — IX. Cab- 
inet: 132. Lippo Memmi, SS. Michael, Jerome, and John the Baptist; 162. 
Sano di Pietro , Coronation of the Virgin. — X. Cabinet : 176, 178 . Two 
large altar-pieces by Sano di Pietro, Madonnas and saints; 170. Taddeo di 




Bartolo, Annunciation ; 138. Luca di Tomme, Madonna (1367). — We now 
return to the door and enter the — 

XI. Laege Hall. To the right and left of the entrance, 362, 363. 
Sodoma, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, Christ in Purgatory, two frescoes 
brought from S. Croce. To the left: 307. Francesco di Giorgio, Nativity; 
361. Fungai, Madonna and saints; 371. Pinluricchio, Holy Family; 355. So- 
doma, Judith; Pacchiarotto, 366. Annunciation and saints, 347. Madonna 
and SS. Onuphrius and Erasmus; 345. Beccafumi, Fall of the angels; 310. 
Francesco di Giorgio, Coronation of the Virgin; 344. Gir. del Pacchia, An- 
nunciation and Visitation (after the picture by Albertinelli in the Uffizi); 
*343. Sodoma, Descent from the Cross; 342. Beccafumi, Christ in Purgatory; 
326. Fungai, Madonna and saints; 331. Pinluricchio, Holy Family; 329. 
Pacchiarotto, Ascension; 314. Francesco di Giorgio, Crucifixion. — XII. 
Room: 459. Domenichino, Landscape; 454. Jan Brueghel, Sea-piece; 412. 
Palma Giovcme, Brazen Serpent; 414. Old copy of EaphaeVs Madonna della 
Perla (in Madrid); 478. Caravaggio, Mora-players; 419. Palma Veechio, Ma- 
donna; 422. Pinluricchio, Holy Family; 425. Lucas Cranach, Lucretia; 427. 



BibliotecaComunale. SIENA. 5. Route, 35 

Copy of Amberger, Charles V. ; 429. Moroni, Portrait ; 430. Beccafumi, St. 
Catharine ; 436. AUdorfer, Martyrdom of St. Christina of Bolsena ; 437. 
Bart, de Bruyn , Portrait ; Sodoma, 444. Holy Family, 440. Body of Christ 
and two angels, 441, 442. Madonnas, 439. St. Catharine, 443. Two guild- 
brothers worshipping the Cross ; 447. Paris Bordone, Annunciation ; 445, 
451. Fra Bartolommeo, Two saints. 

Two rooms on the first floor accommodate the Galleria delle Stampe, 
the bulk of which consists of old Italian engravings, though there is also 
a number of Diirer's wood-engravings. The second room contains the 
bust of Count Gori Tannilini (1880), the donor of the collection; to the 
left is an engraved Pieta from a drawing by Michael Angelo (1547). In 
other rooms are plaster-casts and modern paintings. 

Travellers who desire to visit the Monte Oliveto Maggiore (p. 17) 
must obtain a 'permesso' from the 'Ispettore' of the Istituto delle Belle 
Arte, which they should forward to the 'Sopraintendente' at the convent. 

The BibliotecaComunale (PI. 1 ; D, 4), containing 60,000 vols, 
and 5000 MSS., was founded in 1663 (open daily, 10-2, and 5 or 
6 to 8). In the 17th cent. Siena possessed sixteen libraries, and in 
1654 even one for women. 

The chief objects of interest are: the Greek Gospels, formerly in the 
chapel of the imperial palace at Constantinople, of the 11th cent., originally 
bound in silk, with pictures in enamel mounted at a later period in 
silver-gilt; Treatise on architecture by Francesco di Giorgio, with sketches 
and drawings by the author; Sketch-books of Baldassare Peruzzi and 
Giuliano da Sangallo; letters of St. Catharine. 

Beyond the library, to the left, we descend the Via Costa S. An- 
tonio , and enter the first side-street to the right , which leads 
straight to the upper entrance of the House of St. Catharine (PI. 3; 
D 4) : 'Sponsse Christi Katherine domus'. Visitors knock at the door 
to the left (Y2 fr-)- St. Catharine of Siena, the daughter of a dyer 
named Benincasa, was born in 1347, took the veil at the age of 
eight , and having become celebrated for visions, she prevailed on 
Pope Gregory VI. to retransfer the papal throne from Avignon to 
Rome (1377). She died in the year 1380, and was canonised in 1461. 
The best-known vision is that of her betrothal with the Infant Christ, 
a favourite theme with painters. Her festival is on 29th April. 

The different rooms in the building have been converted into small 
chapels or Oratories, which belong to the Confraternita di S. Caterina. 
Above the altar in one of the Upper Oratories , once a kitchen , is a 
portrait of the saint, by Fungai; the other pictures are by Salimbeni and 
Fr. Vanni; attention should also be paid to the beautiful ceiling, the pil- 
asters, and the pavement of glazed tiles in the Renaissance style of the 
15th century. — The pretty little court is attributed to Bald. Peruzzi. — 
The Oratorio del Crocifisso contains the wonder-working Crucifixion, a 
painting by Qiunta Pisano (?), from which St. Catharine, according to the 
legend, received the stigmata. — Below is the Church (key kept by another 
custodian), containing the following paintings : Girol. del Pacchia, St. Catha- 
rine healing Matteo di Cenni from the plague ; St. Catharine rescuing 
Dominicans from murderers ; The dead body of St. Agnes of Montepulciano 
stretching out her foot to be kissed by St. Catharine. The fourth picture, 
representing the saint being attacked by Florentine soldiers , is by Sa- 
limbeni, 1604; over the altar, fine statue of St. Catharine by Neroccio, 1465; 
above, Angel by Sodoma. 

On leaving the church we come to the Via Benincasa (formerly 
dei Tintori; PI. D, 4), which is still inhabited, as in ancient days, 
by dyers and fullers. Over the door of the house on the left is a 

3* 



36 Route 5. SIENA. S. Domenico. 

bust of St. Catharine by Cozzarelli. Not far off is the celebrated foun- 
tain of Fontebranda (PL C, D, 4), picturesquely situated at the base 
of the hill of S. Domenico, mentioned as early as 1081, renovated in 
1198, covered with a colonnade of three arches in 1242, and praised 
by Dante (Inf. 30, 78 : 'Per Fontebranda non darei la vista'). Close 
by is a bathing establishment. — The "Via di Fontebranda ascends 
to the Campo (left) , and to the cathedral (right). — ■ Passing the 
fountain, and ascending to the right, we reach — 

S. Domenico (PI. D, 3, 4), a lofty brick edifice in the Gothic 
style (1220-1465), the massive substructures of which rest on the 
slope of the hill, with a campanile dating from 1340. 

The Interioh is destitute of aisles, and has a transept and open roof. 
At the entrance, to the right, is the Cappella delle Volte (closed), con- 
taining an altar-piece of St. Catharine by Andrea Vanni. — Farther on, to 
the right: Monument of the mathematician Gius. Pianigiani (d. 1850), by 
Becheroni. — Third altar: St. Peter the Martyr, by Salimbeni, 1579. — The 
"Chapel of St. Catharine, in which the head of the saint is preserved 
in a silver reliquary enclosed in a shrine dating from 1466, is adorned 
with admirable frescoes by Sodoma (best light about midday). On the 
wall near the altar, St. Catharine in ecstasy, supported by two sisters (the 
so-called 'Svenimento', or swoon), and an angel bringing her the host; on 
the wall to the left , The prayer of the saint saving the soul of a decap- 
itated culprit; to the right, Healing of the possessed, by Francesco Vanni, 
1593. The two saints on the right and left of the entrance are by the same 
master; the ceiling was executed by Sodoma. — The pavement of the chapel 
is richly decorated with graffito representations on marble. — Last altar 
to the right: Nativity of Christ by Franc, di Giorgio, executed under the 
influence of Luca Signorelli, to whom the work was formerly attributed ; 
the upper part is probably by Matteo da Siena, the foreground by Fungai. 

Choie. The beautiful marble Ciborium at the high-altar, hitherto 
ascribed by the Sienese to Michael Angelo, is the work of Benedetto da 
Majano. — A beautiful view of the lofty and imposing Cathedral may be 
obtained from the door at the back of the high-altar. — The 2nd Chapel 
to the left of the high-altar contains to the right: SS. Barbara, Mary 
Magdalen, and Catharine by Matteo da Siena, 1479; in the arch above, 
a Pieta by Girol. di Benvenuto; the Madonna with saints to the left is by 
the same master, 1508; the lunette representing the Adoration of the 
Magi is by Matteo da Siena. — The 2nd Chapel to the right of the high- 
altar formerly belonged to the 'German Nation' of students at the univer- 
sity and contains numerous tombstones of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

We now return by the Via del Paradiso and the small Piazza 
Giuseppe Pianigiani, in which stands the little church of 8. Maria 
delle Nevi (PL 6 ; E, 4), with a charming Renaissance facade (to- 
wards the Via Cavour), and a picture by Matteo da Siena (Madonna 
with numerous saints, 1477), to the Via Cavour (p. 26), which 
farther on contains the Pal. Mocenni, Pal. Ciaia, and others. 

"We next come to the small Piazza S. Petronilla (PL E, F, 3), 
on the right, whence the Via Garibaldi leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo 
and the railway-station. — The streets to the left of Via Cavour 
open into the Lizza (PL E, 2, 3), a small promenade which was laid 
out in 1779 on the site of a former fortress erected by Charles V., 
commanding good views of S. Domenico and the Cathedral. An 
equestrian statue of Garibaldi, by Raff. Romanelli, is to be placed 
here. These walks extend as far as the entrance to Fort St. Bar- 



Excursions. SIENA. 5. Route. 37 

beta, built by Duke Cosimo I. in 1560, open to the public and com- 
manding a fine view. 

Farther on, the Via Cavour takes the name of Via di Camollia 
(PI. F, 1, 2). We diverge to the right to the old monastery di Cam- 
pansi, now the poor-house (PI. F, 2; ring); the cloisters are adorned 
with a fresco by Matteo Balducei. Handsome baroque church. 

We follow the Via Camollia for some minutes more ; opposite a 
small piazza we turn to the left under an archway, and descending 
the Via Fontegiusta, arrive at the little church of — 

Fontegiusta (PI. F, 2), belonging to a brotherhood (if closed, 
ring the bell to the right), and built by Francesco Fedeli and Qia- 
como di Giovanni of Como in 1479. The vaulting, borne by four 
marble columns, dates from 1482; the N. Portal from 1489. Beau- 
tiful *High-altar by Marinna (1517), one of the finest existing 
sculptures of the period. The bronze holy-water basin is by Oiov. 
delle Bombarde (1430). The 2nd altar to the right is adorned with 
a Madonna by L. Vanni, with a view of Siena and its towers (1590) ; 
the 3rd altar on the same side has a Coronation of the Madonna 
by Fungai- the 2nd to the left a fine fresco by B. Peruzzi, the 
Sibyl announcing to Augustus the Nativity of Christ. Over the 
entrance are a sword, helmet, shield, and some bones of a whale, 
presented by Columbus. Above the side-entrance (outside) is a 
relief of the Madonna by Neroccio di Bartolommeo (1489). 

Farther on in the Via Camollia, to the right, No. 48, opposite 
the small Templar church of S. Pietro della Magione, is the house 
of Baldassare Peruzzi (p. 24), indicated by an inscription but of no 
architectural importance. 

A pleasant Walk may be taken by a road skirting the town- 
walls to the right, outside the Porta Camollia (PI. F, 1), with fine 
views of the Tuscan hills. On a height opposite, beyond the railway- 
station, lies the monastery of Osservanza (see below) ; in the valley 
below, outside the Porta Ovile (PI. F, 4), is the picturesque Fonte 
Ovile. In about Y2 nr - we reach the Porta Pispini (PI. F, 8; p. 32). 
— About Y2 M. beyond the Porta Camollia, on the road to Colle, 
stands the Palazzo del Turco , generally known as the Pal. dei 
Diavoli, a fine brick building of the close of the 15th century. 

Excursions (most of them best made by carriage). — About 2Va M. 
to the N.E. of Siena, beyond the railway-station, is situated the suppress- 
ed Franciscan monastery of l'Osservanza, erected in 1423 and enlarged in 
1485 by Cozzarelli. The N. aisle of the church contains a fine Coronation 
of the Virgin, by Andrea della Eobbia; at the back of the high-altar, in 
which is preserved the silver reliquary of S. Bernardino, by Ant. Fed- 
erighi, are two statues , Mary and the Archangel Gabriel , of the same 
school. Pandolfo Petrucci is interred in this church (d. 1512; p. 23). In 
the sacristy is a Pieta in terracotta, by Cozzarelli. 

S. Colomba, Gelsa, and Marmoraja are most conveniently visited on 
horseback; there and back, with stay, 5y 2 hrs. ; horse 5 fr. ; one-horse 
carriage (carrozzino) 6 fr. For larger carriages the road is only good as 
far as S. Colomba. — Leaving the Porta Camollia, we follow the high-road 
for 2'/ 2 M. and then diverge to the left by the road descending between 



38 Route 5. SIENA. 

two cypresses into the valley. This road leads us to the villa S. Colomba 
(4'/ 2 11.), designed by Bald. Peruzzi, now the property of the Collegio To- 
lomei (p. 30), with handsome staircase, and fine view from the balcony. — 
After descending from S. Colomba we continue to follow the road by 
which we arrived, which leads through beautiful woods to Celsa (33/4 M. 
from Colomba), a castellated villa, also designed by Bald. Peruzzi, where 
Mino Celsi, a defender of the doctrines of Luther, lived at the begin- 
ning of the 16th century. View from the highest story (refreshments sold 
by the fattore of the villa). — About 2Vi M. beyond Celsa is Marmoraja, 
where on 7th Sept., 1187, peace was concluded between the Republic of 
Siena and Bishop Hugo of Volterra. The piazza in front of the church 
affords a fine view of Volterra, Colle d'Elsa, S. Gimignano, etc. 

The Certosa di Pontignano, 5 M. from the Porta Ovile, was founded 
in 1343, fortified in 1383, and suppressed in 1810. The church was mod- 
ernised in the 17th century. View from beside the Parocchia. 

The Abbazia di S. Eugenio, l'/4 M. to the S. of the Porta S. Marco, 
commonly known as /( Monistero, is an ancient Benedictine monastery 
said to have been founded by Warnfried, a Longobard, in 750, fortified in 
1553 by Pietro Strozzi, and secularised last century. The buildings are thor- 
oughly modernised. The church contains several early Sienese pictures, 
some of which have been ruined by restoration. View from the garden. 

The high-road next leads to the. Osleria delta Volte, about 5 M. beyond 
the Porta S. Marco, whence a road diverges to the right to (4 M.) Cetinale, 
a villa erected by Flavio Chigi, a nephew of Pope Alexander VII., from 
designs by Carlo Fontana in 1680. With the villa is connected the 
'Thebais' park, profusely embellished with sculptures and containing fine 
old timber. View from the hill ('Romitorio') above the villa. Permessi 
in the Palazzo Chigi at Siena, Via di Citta. 

About l!/2 M. beyond the Osteria della Volte lies the venerable 
church of JS. Giovanni di Ponte alio Spina, dating from the beginning of 
the 11th century. About 3 M. further is Rosia, the church of which con- 
tains a holy-water basin of 1332. We may then proceed to (2 M.) Torri 
or S. Mustiola a Torri in Val-di-Merse, an old monastery belonging to the 
Vallombrosians , possessing a church, consecrated in 1189, and a fine 
Romanesque monastery-court, now used as farm-buildings. 

About 'J M. to the S. of Rosia (along the road to Massa Marittima, 
and then to the left) lie the interesting ruins of the Cistercian monastery 
of S. Galgano, founded in 1201 by Ildebrando Pannocehieschi, Bishop of 
Volterra. The abbey-church, a building of travertine and brick, erected 
in 1240-68, is imposing even in its ruins. The only relics of the original 
architecture in the secular buildings, now used as a farm, consist of a few 
windows. The monks were distributed among other monasteries in 1652, 
and in 1781 the church, which had been injured by lightning, was closed. 

The chateau of Belcaro , to the W. of Porta Fontebranda , reached 
by carriage in 11/2 hr., commands a splendid view of Siena and its envi- 
rons. On the ground-floor is a ceiling -painting by Bald. Peruzzi: Judg- 
ment of Paris. The frescoes in the chapel, by the same master, were 
sadly injured by restoration in 1870. 

6. From Florence to Perugia via, Arezzo and Teron- 
tola (Chiusi, Rome). 

103 M. Railway. Express in 4 hrs. , fares 20 fr. 10, 14 fr. 5 c.j 
ordinary trains in 6-8 hrs., fares 18 fr. 70, 13 fr. 25, 8 fr. 40 c. — To 
Arezzo, 541/2 M., in li/a-4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 85 c, 7 fr. 55 c, or 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 85, 
4 fr. 45 c. ; thence to Cortona, 17'/ 2 M., in 1/2- 3 /, hr. ; fares 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 
45 c, or 3 fr. 16, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 40 c. — Those who wish to see Arezzo and 
Cortona and arrive at Perugia in one day, had better leave Florence in 
the afternoon or evening and sleep at Arezzo. 

The ExpitEsa xo Rome quits the Perugia line at Terontola (see R. 9), 
where passengers for Perugia generally change carriages. 



AREZZO. 6. Route. 39 

Florence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. The train describes a 
curve round the town to (3 M.) Porta Croce. It then runs along the 
N. bank of the Arno. Fiesole on the height to the left long remains 
visible. 7y 2 M. Compiobbi. To the left rises the mountain-chain of 
the Pratomagno. 10!/ 2 M. Sieci. 13 M. Pontassieve, at the influx 
of the Sieve into the Arno ; to the left a beautiful glimpse of the 
valley of the Sieve. The train passes through a short tunnel, and 
then crosses to the left bank of the Arno. From (18 M.) Bignano a 
pleasant excursion (a drive of 3 / 4 hr.) may be made to the fine Villa 
Sanmezzano, belonging to Marchese Panciatichi of Florence. The 
train passes through another tunnel and reaches (22^ M.) Incisa, 
with a conspicuous castle. The river forces its way here through the 
limestone rock, whence the name of the village. 25y 2 M. Figline. 
The valley of the Arno near Figline, and farther on , near Monte- 
varchi and Arezzo, is very interesting to palaeontologists owing to 
the numerous fossil bones of the elephant, rhinoceros , mastodon^ 
hippopotamus, hyeena, tiger, bear, etc. , which have been found here. 
This basin seems to have once been filled with a fresh-water lake. 

30 M. S. Giovanni, a small town to the left, the birthplace of 
the famous painter Masaccio (in 1401) and of Oiov. da S. Qiovanni, 
surnamed Manozzi (1590-1636). The Cathedral contains pictures 
by the latter : Beheading of John the Baptist , Annunciation , etc. 
The sacristy of S. Maria delle Orazie, on the old town-wall , con- 
tains a Madonna, once ascribed to Masaccio, and other old paintings. 

33!/2 M. Montevarchi (Loe. d'ltalia, in the main street), with 
3600 inhabitants. The loggia of the principal church in the piazza 
is embellished with an elaborate relief by Delia Robbia ; opposite is 
the house of Benedetto Varchi (d. 1555), the Florentine historian and 
independent favourite of Duke Cosimo I. The Accademia di Val 
d'Arnese contains a valuable collection of fossil bones (see above). 

"Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, passing 
through four tunnels, to (38 M.) Bueine, a village close to the line 
on a hill to the right. Four more tunnels. 41 M. Laterina ; 44V2 M. 
Ponticino. The train now gradually ascends to (54*/ 2 ) M. Arezzo. 



Arezzo. — Hotels. Inghilteeea, Vittoeia, E. & L. 3 fr., opposite 
each other in the Via Cavour, both tolerable ; La Stella, Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele 67, with a good trattoria. — Ristor. d 1 Italia, Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele 15. — Gaffe dei Coslanti, Piazza Umberto. 

Theatres. Teatro Petrarca (Pi. 16), near the Piazza Umberto ; Poli- 
teama Aretino (PI. 15), near the station. — Photographs at Cartas. 

Arezzo (780 ft.), the ancient Arretium, the seat of a bishop and 
a prefect, is a clean and pleasant town with 12,000 inhab., situated 
on the slope of a hill, in a beautiful and fertile district, abounding 
in historical reminiscences . A rapid visit to the sights occupies y 2 day. 
Comp. the Plan at p. 42. 

Arretium was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of B.C. 310, after which it continued to be an ally of 



40 Route 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

Rome. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius constructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretium to Bononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishable. In 
the civil war Arretium was destroyed by Sulla, but was subsequently colon- 
ised (Colonia Fidens Julia Arretium), and again prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases, of superior quality, and weapons. — In the 
middle ages the town suffered greatly from the Goths and the Longobards, 
and at a later date from the party-struggles of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
in which it generally took the part of the latter against the Guelphs of 
Florence. In the 14th cent, it was for a time subject to the rule of the 
Tarlati , and in 1337 temporarily , and in the 16th cent, under the Grand- 
duke Cosimo I. finally to that of Florence. 

Arezzo is the birthplace of many distinguished men , of whom may 
be mentioned: ft Cilnius Maecenas (d. 9 A.D.), the friend of Augustus 
and patron of Virgil and Horace; the Benedictine monk Guido Aretino 
or Guido Monaco (about 1000-1050), the inventor of our present system of 
musical notation ; Francesco Petrarca, the greatest lyric poet of Italy, born of 
Florentine parents in 1304 (d. 1374); Pietro Aretino, the satirist (1492-1557), 
several members of the noble family of the Accolli, jurists and historians; 
in the 15-17th cent.; A. Cesalpini, the botanist and physician (1519-1603), 
Franc. Redi, the physician and humourist (d. 1698). — Arezzo has also pro- 
duced several artists : Margaritone (about 1236) , a painter and sculptor of 
no great importance; Spinello Aretino (1318-1410), an able pupil of Giotto, 
whose style he steadily followed and rendered popular (his best works 
are in S. Miniato near Florence, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, and in the 
Palazzo Comunale in Siena); at a later period Giorgio Vasari (1512-74); 
the painter, architect, and biographer of artists. The town, however, 
never possessed a school of its own. Its requirements in the province 
of art, which were at their height in the 13-14th cent., were fulfilled by 
Florentine and Sienese masters, and Giotto, Lippo Memmi, Pietro Loren- 
zetti, and others were employed here. 

Leaving the station, we follow the Via Guido Monaco, which 
leads straight into the heait of the town. In the Piazza Guido Mo- 
naco is a statue of Ouido Monaco (see above), by Salvini, erected 
in 1882. In the Piazza del Popolo, to the left, is a column, erected 
in 1880 to commemorate the Italian struggles for independence. 

A little farther on the Via Guido Monaco ends in the Via 
Cavour. Here, in the small Piazza Umbbbto, is a Monument to Count 
Fossombroni (b. at Arezzo 1754, d. 1844; PI. 1; p. 44). 

The church of S. Francesco (PL 2), founded in 1322, at the 
corner of the piazza, contains fine frescoes of the 15th century. 

On the entrance-wall is a fresco representing Christ at table with Mary 
Magdalen, by Spinello Aretino. The wheel -window, by Guillaume de 
Marseille (c. 1500) represents St. Francis receiving the rules for his order. 
— The Left Aisle contains frescoes by Spinello Aretino, sadly injured ; the 
best in the restored chapel of St. Anthony of Padua. At the end is the 
tomb of Antonio Roselli (d. 1467), by a Florentine artist. — At the end of 
the wall on the right is an Annunciation by Spinello Aretino (c. 1385). 

In the Choir: 'Frescoes (some much damaged) by Piero delta Fran- 
cesca, the master of Luca Signorelli (best light about midday and in the 
evening). They narrate the legend of the Holy Cross, according to which 
a seed of the tree of knowledge, planted upon Adam's grave, grew up to 
he a tree. Solomon caused the tree to be felled and a bridge to be con- 
structed of the wood , of which the Queen of Sheba afterwards discovered 
the origin. At a later period it was used for making the Holy Cross. 
The Emp. Heraclius rescued the cross in a battle with the Persians, and 
it was afterwards re-discovered by St. Helena. All these scenes, from the 
death of Adam down to the finding of the Cross, are pourtrayed by Piero 
with great technical skill, in which respect, as well as in his appreciation 
of the nude, he surpassed all his contemporaries. His pictures, however, 



to Perugia. AREZZO. 6. Route. 41 

are stiff and destitute of gracefulness. — The Evangelists on the ceiling 
have been attributed to Bicci di Lorenzo. — The chamber at the bottom 
of the tower, entered from the choir, also contains important frescoes by 
Spinello Aretino : Madonna enthroned, St. Michael overcoming the dragon, 
and St. Michael appearing to Gregory the Great above the tomb of Hadrian 
(castle of S. Angelo) during the plague at Rome ; opposite, Gregory distri- 
buting alms, St. ^Egidius hunting, the Mass of St. Gregory. 

The Via Cavour forms a right angle -with the Cokso Vittobio 
Emanuele, the principal street of the town. Ascending this street, 
to the left, we observe on the right the interesting church of — 

S. Maria della Pieve (PI. 3), founded at the beginning of the 
11th cent., which retains the original choir (restored), seen from the 
Piazza Vasari ; the tower and facade were added by Marchionne in 
1216, but the latter was left unfinished till 1330. Above the main 
portal are a Madonna between angels, and figures of the months ; 
and at the door to the right is a Baptism of Christ, of 1221. The in- 
terior consists of a nave and aisles with a broad apse, a crypt, and 
an open wooden roof above the crossing, all restored in the ancient 
style. On the entrance-wall is an alto-relief of the Adoration of the 
Child (11th cent.); and behind the high-altar are a fine Madonna 
and saints, Annunciation, and other works by Pietro Lorenzetti of 
Siena (1320). The font in front is perhaps of the same date. 

At the back of the church is the picturesque Piazza Vasari, 
with a fountain and a Monument of Qrand-duke Ferdinand III. 
(PI. 4), erected in 1822. On the N. side are the Loggie (PI. 5) built 
by Vasari in 1573. — Adjoining the choir of S. Maria della Pieve 
is the building of the Fraternith della Misericordia (PI. 6), now 
occupied by the law courts, with a handsome Gothic facade, begun 
by Florentine aTtists in 1375, and completed and adorned with 
figures in 1434 by Bernardo Rossellino. 

Passing under Vasari's Loggie we now return to the Cortso, 
which*we reach just opposite the Palazzo Pubblieo (PI. 7). This 
edifice, built in 1322, and adorned with armorial bearings of the 
ancient Podesta, is now used as a prison. In the Via degli Albergotti, 
diverging to the left, is Cav. Vine. Funghini's interesting Museum of 
porcelain, majolica etc. (adm. on application courteously granted). 

A little farther on the Via dell' Orto diverges also to the left, 
near the entrance to which, No. 22, a long inscription indicates 
the house (PI. 8) in which Francesco Petrarca was born (p. 40). 
A monument to the poet is to be erected here. Adjacent rises the 
cathedral, on the E. side of which is the Passeggio del Prato, com- 
manding an attractive view of the Arno valley and the mountains. 

The *Cathedral is a fine specimen of Italian Gothic , begun in 
1277, with later additions ; facade unfinished. 

The Interior, which has no transept and is of handsome and spacious 
proportions, contains stained-glass windows, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent., by Guittaume de Marseille; the middle window in the 
choir is modern. G. de Marseille also painted the first three arches of 
the nave, the others being by Salvi Castelucci (1668). In the Right Aisle 
is the Tomb of Gregory X., by Margaritone (?). This indefatigable pope 



42 Route 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

expired at Arezzo, 10th Jan., 1276, on his return from France to Rome, 
after having proclaimed a new crusade. Adjacent, an early Christian sar- 
cophagus (lid modern). Ahove are a Gothic tabernacle and a fresco of the 
Crucifixion by Bama da Siena (c. 1380). — On the High Altae, admirable 
marble sculptures by Giovanni di Francesco of Arezzo and Betto di Fran- 
cesco of Florence, executed in 1369-1375: Madonna with SS. Donatus and 
Gregory, and bas-reliefs from their lives. — In the Left Aisle, at the E. 
end, is the tomb of Gnido Tarlati di Pietramala, the warlike bishop 
of Arezzo , the work of Agoslino and Agnolo da Siena, about 1330, from 
the design of Giotto, as Vasari conjectures, in 16 sections, representing 
the life of this ambitions and energetic prelate, who, having been elected 
governor of the town in 1321, soon distinguished himself as a conqueror, 
and afterwards crowned the Emperor Louis the Bavarian in the church 
of S. Ambrogio at Milan (d. 1327). — Close to the door of the sacristy is 
a St. Magdalen , al fresco by Piero delta Francesco. The large Chapel 
of the Madonna, erected in 1796 , contains five excellent terracottas by 
Andrea delict Robbia (that of the Trinity is the finest). 

The Marble Statue of Ferdinand de' Medici in front of the cathe- 
dral was erected by Pietro Francavilla in 1595. In the piazza 
fNo. 1) is the Palazzo Comunale (PI. 9), with old armorial bearings. 
The Sala del Consiglio contains a portrait (damaged) of Pietro Are- 
tino (p. 40), by Seb. del Piombo. 

We now follow the Via Ricasoli, and turn to the right into 
the Via Sassoverde , at No. 12 in which, the Palazzo Cappelo di 
Ferro, is the small municipal Pinacoteca Bartolini (open 10-3; 
30-50 c), containing ancient frescoes, old and modern oil-paint- 
ings, and engravings, but little that is particularly striking. In the 
chief room (No. IV.) : No. 8. Luca Signorelli , a large altarpiece 
with the Madonna, David, and St. Jerome, and the kneeling donor, 
the jurist Niccolo Gamurrini (painted about 1520). There are also 
some portraits, a St. Rochus, and drawings by Vasari. 

Above the door of S. Vomenico (PL 10) is a Madonna 'al fresco' 
by Angelo di Lorentino (c. 1480). The church contains a Crucifixion 
by Parri Spinello, and, on the right, a painted Gothic tabernacle, 
with coats-of-arms, by Giovanni di Francesco of Florence. 

In the Borgo di S. Vito, on the right, is the Bouse of Giorgio 
Vasari (No. 27; PI. 11), containing works by the master. 

The municipal Museum stands at the comer of the Via Gari- 
baldi and the Via S. Lorentino (adm. daily 9-4; fee i/j fr.). 

Room I. Black Etruscan vases, with reliefs; glass; stone-weapons; in 
the middle, Greek vases, with representations of the battles of the Ama- 
zons and the Abduction of Hippodamia. — RR. II., III. Cinerary urns, 
fragments of vases of red glazed clay ( Vasa Arretina, p. 40), and numerous 
moulds. — R. IV. Near the windows, bronze statuettes; to the right, 
mediaeval articles; in the first cabinet on the adjoining wall, ivory ar- 
ticles (37. Carved ivory casket of the 7th cent.); in the other cabinets, 
Majolicas, some with designs after Raphael; in the middle, seals; above, 
Renaissance figure from a fountain. — R. V. Weapons, sculptures, archi- 
tectural fragments, etc.; in the middle, bronze statuettes and a bronze 
reliquary by Forzore (1488). — R. VI. Antique urns and reliefs (opposite 
the entrance, 62. Lady at her toilet). — RR. VII-XI. : Natural History 
collections. R. VII. and VIII. contain a palaeontological collection, chiefly 
from the Val di Chiana (p. 44). 

The same building also contains the Town Libkakv, which comprises 
a few MSS. (open 9-12 and 2-5). 




i S.U.deneCr? 



to Perugia. BIBBIENA. 6. Route. 43 

In a small piazza adjoining the Via Cavour stands the church of 
SS. Annunziata (PI. 12), a handsome Renaissance structure chiefly 
by Antonio da Sangallo the Elder; the ""Interior, with its barrel 
and dome vaulting, is very picturesque; at the last altar on the 
right, Madonna in clouds 'with St. Francis, by Pietro da Cortona; 
stained glass by Ouillaume de Marseille (1525). 

We cross the square diagonally and enter the Via Cavour to the 
right. In this street is the Badia di S. Fiore (PI. 13), also situated 
in a small piazza, which is now the seat of the Accademia Aretina 
di Scienze, Lettere, ed Arti. The library , formerly the refectory, 
contains the Feast of Ahasuerus by Vasari, 1548. 

At the lower end of the Corso, near the Porta S. Spirito or 
Porta Romana, the Via dell' Anfiteatro (to the left) leads to the 
church of S. Bernardo (PI. 14) ; the frescoes in the anterior quad- 
rangle (God the Father and the four Evangelists) were painted 
by Vasari in his youth (1529); below is the Madonna appearing to 
St. Bernardino, by Bartolommeo della Oatta (?). — The cloisters 
to the left contain some indifferent frescoes in monochrome (life 
of Guido Monaco and St. Bernardino) and a view of mediaeval 
Rome. In the garden are the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. 

About % M. from the Porta S. Spirito (outside which we take the 
avenue to the left, and then at the corner, after 3 min., the road to the 
right) is situated the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, with an elegant 
early-Renaissance porch borne by columns , by Benedetto da Majano (?), 
and a handsome marble altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

Railway from Arezzo to Fossato, see R. 8. 

FromAeezzo to Sua and Pkatovecohio, 28 M., railway in l 3 /4-2 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 30 c). — At (5 M.) Oiovi, the first station, the 
line enters the valley of the Arno, which it thenceforwards ascends. — 
9 M. Sttbbiano; l2'/2 M. Santa Mama; 15 M. Rassina. 

19'/2 M. Bibbiena (Albergo Amorosi; carriage from the station to the 
town i/ 2 fr.), pleasantly situated on a hill above the Arno, was the birth- 
place of Cardinal Bernardo Dovizi, surnamed Bibbiena (1470-1520), the 
patron of Raphael. A little to the N. of the town is the former monastery- 
church of Madonna del Sasso, a domed structure in which the axis of the 
choir forms a slight angle with that of the nave. It contains some interest- 
ing terracotta work and a good altar-piece. — Bibbiena is the starting- 
point for a visit to the convent of La Verna (about 71/2 M. ; carriage 8fr.); 
comp. Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

22Va M. Poppi, on a hill (1425 ft.) on the left bank of the Arno. 23i/ 2 M. 
Porrena. 

23 M. Pratovecchio-Stia. The station lies between Pratovecchio (1410 ft. ; 
Alb. Bastieri) and Stia (1460 ft.; Alb. della Stazione Alpina, well spoken 
of), two pleasant little towns, with about 1200 inhab., well-adapted as 
starting-points for expeditions to Camaldoli (guide 3-4 fr. per day and food) 
and other points in the Casenlino or upper valley of the Arno. Stia has 
an old and partly Romanesque church (La Pieve). — About l'/a M. to 
the S.W. of Pratovecchio is the large ruined castle of Romena, mentioned 
by Dante in the Inferno (xxx). For farther details see Baedekers Nor- 
thern Italy. 

Feom Akezzo to Monte Sansavino, 12'/2 M., diligence daily, in 2 hrs. 
The small town (1500 inhab.) of — 

Monte Sansavino (Alb. del Sole, by the Porta Fiorentina, tolerable) 
was the birthplace of the famous sculptor Andrea (Contucci da) Sanso- 



44 Route 6. VAL DI CHIANA. From Florence 

vino (1460-1529). — The church of S. Chiara , in the principal piazza, 
contains (left) a statue of St. Anthony by the Robbia and a *Madonna 
and Christ with four saints, by Sansovino (?); on the right SS. Sebastian, 
Lawrence, and Eochus, by Sansovino; "Adoration of the Shepherds by the 
Robbia's; on the central pillars Sienese paintings of the 15th cent.; to the 
right and left of the high-altar are prophets by Vasari. In the 'Ruga 
Maestra\ or principal street, on the right, is the Pal. Municipale, erected 
about 1517, and attributed to Ant. da Sangallo the Elder; the Sala del 
Consiglio contains a fine carved door of the 16th century. Opposite the 
town-hall is a Loggia by Ant. da Sangallo the Elder. On the right, farther 
on, is the church of the Misericordia , containing a monument of 1498. 
On the right we next observe S. Agostino, with a facade of the 14th cent.; 
it contains an Assumption by Vasari ; the monastery-court is by Ant. da 
Sangallo the Younger. The Pal. Filippi, on the left, No. 17, has fine bal- 
cony-railings and lantern-holders in wrought iron, of the loth century. 

From Monte Sansavino to Sinalunga (p. 19), 9'/2 M. ; or a pleasant 
round may be made by Fojano and Betolle to Torrita, another railway- 
station (p. 19; one-horse carr. 8-10 fr.). — Fojano (Alb. delta Viltoria, 
tolerable) is 8 M. from Monte Sansavino. On the right, near the entrance 
to the town, is jS. Francesco, with a fine loggia, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent.; in the interior are several Delia Robbia's. S. Domenico 
and the Collegiata in the town also contain Itobbia's ; the latter possesses 
a Coronation of Mary by Luca Signorelli (?). — At Betolle is the Villa of 
Count Passerini, containing a valuable collection of Etruscan antiquities 
(golden bracelet with rams' heads, huge dish with contests of the giants 
and Bacchic scenes, etc.). One-horse carr. to Torrita ( 3 /4 hr.) 2'/2-3 fr. 



On leaving Arezzo we obtain a beautiful retrospect of the town. 
To the left is the chain of hills which separates the valleys of the 
Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Beyond a tun- 
nel the train runs straight across the plain to (62 M.) Frassinetto 
and (66 M.) Castiglione Fiorentino, the latter on a hill. Farther on, 
to the left, the dilapidated fortress of Montecchio. The high-lying 
Cortona next becomes visible to the left in the distance. 

The luxuriant Valley of the Chiana, which was anciently a lake, 
was a noisome swamp down to the middle of last century. The level 
was raised and carefully drained, the brooks being so directed as to 
deposit their alluvial soil in the bottom of the valley. This judi- 
cious system was originated by Torricelli and Viviani , celebrated 
mathematicians of the school of Galileo, and carried out by Count 
Fossombroni (p. 40). The Chiana, Lat. Clanis, which once flowed 
into the Tiber, now discharges most of its waters into the Arno 
by means of the Canal Maestro ; only one arm , which joins the 
Paglia at Orvieto (p. 63), reaches the Tiber. 

72 M. Cortona. The station lies at the foot of the hill on 
which the town itself is situated, near the village of Camuscia. 

A carriage-road (3/ 4 hr. ; omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to Cortona, 
passing S. Spirito on the right. Pedestrians cut off the final wind- 
ings by following the old road, which passes the *Madonna del 
Calcinajo (a small early-Renaissance building by Francesco di Gior- 
gio of Siena, 1485-1514, with a handsome altar of 1519) and the 
Borgo 8. Vincenzo or S. suburb, and leads to the low-lying S.W. 
gate of the town (p. 45). 



to Perugia. CORTONA. 6. Route. 45 

Cortona. — Albergo d'Eukopa, near S. Domenico and the public 
promenade ; Alb. Nazionale, farther up in the Via Nazionale, R., L., & A. 
2-5, pens. 6-9 fr.; both clean and good. — Comp. the Plan at p. 43. 

Cortona (2170 ft.), a small, loftily-situated town with 3600 in- 
hat>., lying above the valley of the Chiana, and not far from the 
Trasimene Lake , is one of the most ancient cities in Italy. Its 
situation and views , its Etruscan antiquities , and several good 
pictures of the 15th cent., render it well worthy of a visit. 

It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of tire Po, 
wrested the place from the' Umbrians , and constituted it their principal 
stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests in Etruria. 
Cortona was one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria , and with 
them shared the fate of being converted into a Roman colony. After var- 
ious vicissitudes and struggles it came under the dominion of Florence 
in 1410. 

Luca Signokelli., one of the most distinguished painters of the 15th 
cent., was born at Cortona in 1441. He has justly been called a precursor 
of Michael Angelo. Like his master Piero della Francesca (pp. 40, 58), he 
was a zealous student of anatomy ; in the embodiment of the nude, in the 
conception of movement and foreshortening he surpasses all his contem- 
poraries. On the other hand, his deficiency of refined pictorial sentiment 
forbids the full development of plastic vigour in his pictures. He there- 
fore prefers extensive fresco-paintings to easel-pictures as a suitable field 
for his abilities. Frescoes of this kind he has executed in the Sixtine 
Chapel at Rome (p. 280), at Monte Oliveto (p. 18), and at Orvieto (his prin- 
cipal work, p. 65). His native town, where he held several municipal 
appointments and lived almost constantly for the last twenty years of his life 
(d. 1523), still contains a number of his works, none of which, however, 
are of much importance. — Cortona was also the birthplace of Pietro 
Berettini, surnamed Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669), the painter and decorator, 
who was chiefly employed at Rome and Florence. 

The carriage road from the station ends at the promenades of the 
Oiardino or Passeggio Publico. At the entrance of the town proper 
is the Piazza Garibaldi (PL 2) , a semicircular terrace on the left, 
commanding an unimpeded view of part of the Trasimene Lake and 
the surrounding heights. An obelisk with a relief-portrait of Gari- 
baldi, by Ett. Ferrari, is to be erected here. On the right is the 
church of — 

*S. Domenico, dating from the beginning of the 13th cent., with 
some admirable paintings : on the high-altar an Assumption by 
Bart, della Qatta (?); on the right, Madonna with St. Peter Martyr 
and a Dominican monk, by L. Signorelli (1515) ; on the left, Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, by Lor. di Niccolb (1440), presented by Cosimo 
and Lorenzo de' Medici; on the right, Madonna with saints and 
angels, an early work of Fra Angelico. 

The Via Nazionale leads hence straight to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuelb (PL 1), where the Municipio is situated. Here, to the 
left, diverges the Via Guelfl, in which are situated, to the right, a 
beautiful palazzo of the 16th cent., and lower down the church of 
S. Agostino, with a Madonna and saints by Pietro da Cortona (be- 
yond this the street leads to the S.W. gate, Porta S. Agostino, p. 44). 

Turning to the right from the Piazza Vitt. Em., we immediately 
reach the small Piazza Signorelli (PL 3), where we observe, op- 



46 Route 6. CORTONA. From Florence 

posite to us, the Palazzo Pretorio, and on the left an ancient Mar- 
zooco (lion). 

The Palazzo Pretorio, with numerous armorial bearings of old 
magistrates, is now occupied by various public offices, and contains 
the Aceademia Etrusca, founded in 1726, which possesses a*Mt/SEUM 
op Etruscan Antiquities, well worth visiting. (Fee l / 2 -i fr. to 
the custodian, who lives close by.) 

The gem of the collection is a circular Etruscan Candelabrum (lam- 
padario), made to hold 16 lights ; on the lower side in the centre a Gorgon's 
head, surrounded with a combat of wild beasts; then wave-like orna- 
mentation; and finally eight ithyphallic satyrs, with dolphins below them, 
alternately with eight sirens ; between each pair of lamps a head of 
Bacchus. An encaustic painting on slate, representing '■Polyhymnia' 1 , is 
said to be ancient. Remarkable Etruscan Bronzes, a Votive Hand with 
numerous symbols, Vases, Urns, Inscriptions, etc. — The Ponbdni Library, 
in the same building, possesses a fine MS. of Dante. 

The Via Casali descends from the Palazzo Pretorio to the — 

Cathedral, a handsome basilica, ascribed to Antonio da San- 
gallo , altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Aless. Oalilei. 

In the interior are a Madonna with the Child by P. Lorenzetti, and 
(in the choir) two paintings by Luca Signorelli: an Institution of the Last 
Supper, a very quaint composition (1512), and a Pieta (1502). To the left 
of the choir, an ancient sarcophagus, representing the contest of Dionysus 
against the Amazons, erroneously supposed to be the tomb of the Consul 
Flaminius (p. 47). In the sacristy is a Madonna by L. Signorelli (studio-piece). 

Opposite the cathedral is the * Baptistery, formerly a Jesuit church, 
containing three fine pictures by Fra Angelica da Fiesole: the An- 
nunciation and two predelle , representing scenes from the life of 
the Virgin and S. Domenico. 

Passing the colonnades of the theatre in the Piazza Signorelli, 
we follow the Via Dardano straight to the Porta Colonia, where we 
obtain the best survey of the * Ancient Etruscan Town Walls, 
constructed of huge blocks, and for the most part well preserved, 
which surround the town in a circumference of about 2860 yds., 
and along the outside of which we may descend. Even the gateways 
are still recognizable. 

Ascending the Via S. Margherita from S. Domenico, we reach 
(20 min.) the hill commanding the town, on which are situated the 
church of S. Margherita, and a dilapidated fortress (see below). — 
About halfway up, the Via delle Santucce diverges to the left, and 
leads in a few minutes to the church of S. Niccolb, with a small 
entrance-court planted with cypresses. 

The interior (>/2 fr.) contains a freely-restored fresco and a good altar- 
piece, painted on both sides (in front the Body of Christ borne by angels 
and surrounded by saints ; at the back, Madonna della Seggiola with SS. 
Peter and Paul), by Luca Signorelli. — The sacristan will point out a 
direct route, ascending hence by steps to S. Margherita. 

The church of S. Margherita, a Gothic building by Niccolb 
and Giovanni Pisano, possesses a handsome rose-window, which 
has of late been partly renewed and enlarged. In the high-altar 
is the tomb of the saint (14th cent.); the silver front with the 
golden crown was presented by Pietro da Cortona. The platform of 



to Perugia. TERONTOLA. 6. Route. 47 

the Campanile commands a splendid view. — The visitor should 
not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the old *Fortezza, 2165 ft. 
in height (trifling fee; custodian sometimes difficult to find), from 
the walls of which the noble prospect is entirely uninterrupted, ex- 
cept at the back, where it is bounded by the mountain-chain {Alto 
diS. Egidio, 3430 ft. J. 

Besides the town-walls, there are several less interesting antiquities : 
an ancient vault beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near S. Margherita, remains 
of Roman Baths, erroneously called a 'Temple of Bacchus*; outside the gate 
of St. Agostino, an Etruscan tomb, the 'Grotla di Pitagora". 

The visitor may (by presenting a visiting-card) possibly obtain access 
to the private collection of Sig. Golonnese in the Palazzo Madama, Via 
Nazionale 5: beautiful half-length picture of St. Stephen and a Nativity 
by Luca Signorelli. 

76 M. Terontola, an unimportant place near the N.W. angle of 
the Trasimene Lake, is the junction of the lines to Chiusi, Orte, 
and Rome (see R. 9), and to Perugia and Foligno. Passengers in 
the latter direction change carriages here. 

The Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus (845 ft.), 
is 30 M. in circumference, and 8-14 M. across, and is surrounded 
by wooded and olive-clad slopes , which as they recede rise to a 
considerable height. The lake contains three small islands , the 
hola Maggiore with a monastery, the Isola Minore near Passignano, 
and the Isola Polvese towards the S. ; on the W. side an eminence 
abuts on the lake , bearing the small town Castiglione del Lago 
(p. 61). Its shores abound with wild-fowl , and its waters with 
eels, carp, and other fish. The brooks which discharge themselves 
into the lake gradually raise its bed. The greatest depth, formerly 
30-40 ft., is now 20 ft. only. About 1420 Fieravante Fieravanti of 
Bologna, at the instance of Braccio Fortebraccio (p. 49), constructed 
a drain (emissarium), which conducted the water into a tributary 
of the Tiber. In ancient times the area of the lake appears to have 
been smaller. A project for draining it entirely, formed by Na- 
poleon I. , is still frequently canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which Hannibal gained 
here over the Roman consul C. Flaminius on June 23rd (i.e. the begin- 
ning of May), B.C. 217, imparts a tinge of sadness to this lovely land- 
scape. It is not difficult to reconcile the descriptions of Polybius (3 , 83 
et seq.) and Livy (22 , 4 et seq.) with the present appearance of the lake. 
In the spring of 217 Hannibal quitted his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina, 
crossed the Apennines , marched across the plains of the Arno , notwith- 
standing an inundation, devastating the country far and wide in his progress, 
and directed his course towards the S. , passing the Roman army stationed 
at Arezzo. The brave and able consul followed incautiously. Hannibal then 
occupied the heights which surround the defile extending on the N. side 
of the lake from Borghetto to Passignano, upwards of 5 SI. in length. The 
entrance at Borghetto, as well as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. 
Upon a hill in the centre (site of the present Torre) his principal force was 
posted. A dense fog covered the lake and plain, when in the early morn- 
ing the consul , ignorant of the plan of his enemy, whom he believed to 
be marching against Rome, entered the fatal defile. When he discovered 
his error, it was too late : his entire left flank was exposed, whilst his rear 
was attacked by the hostile cavalry from Borghetto. No course remained 



48 Route 7. PERUGIA. 

to him but to force a passage by Passignano, and the vanguard of 6000 men 
succeeded in effecting their egress (but on the following day were compelled 
to surrender). The death of the consul rendered the defeat still more disas- 
trous. The Romans lost 15,000 men, while the remaining half of the army 
was effectually dispersed ; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. 
The slaughter continued for three hours. From the Gualandro two small 
brooks fall into the lake. One of these, crossed by the road, has been 
named Sanguinetto in reminiscence of the streams of blood with which it 
was once discoloured. 

The line skirts the lake and passes through a tunnel. oU M. 
Tuoro; 83 M. Passignano. Two tunnels. 89 M. Magione, with an 
old watch-tower of the time of Fortebraccio and Sforza ; 97 M. Ellera. 

103 M. Perugia, picturesquely situated on the hill to the left. 



7. Perugia. 

Arrival. Omnibus to the town (1 fr., in 1/2 nr -> down 2° min ) in 
great request, so that no time should be lost in taking a seat (rarely cabs). 
(Before the first bend of the road to the left, a good path to the right as- 
cends to the town in 20 min.) 

Hotels. "Grand Hotel Perugia, well situated at the entrance to the 
town near the Prefettura, first class, with corresponding charges (D. 5 fr.) ; 
English landlady ; rooms not always obtainable unless previously ordered. 
— Second class : Grande Bretagne or Posta, at the beginning of the 
Corso Vannucci, R. from 2, L. & A. 1 fr. — Aleergo & Rest. Belle Arti, 
Via Danzetta, a side-street of the Corso, R., L., & A. lV2fr., unpretending but 
clean; Alb. & Rest. Belvedere, Via Sette, another side-street of the Corso. 
Restaurants. Progresso, Via Mazzini 31 (PI. B, C, 4), near the Piazza 
Sopramuro. — Beer at Via Baglioni 39a. 

Cafes. "Baduel, Trasimeno, both in the Corso ; Melinelli, in the Piazza 
S. Lorenzo, opposite the cathedral-fountain. 

Post Office (PI. B, 4, 5), Via Baglioni 33. — Telegraph Office at the 
Prefettura, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. — Diligence Office, Corso 38; 
to Umbertide (p. 59), daily at 7 a.m. and 4 p.m., 3 fr. ; to Todi (p. 57), 
daily at 5.30 a.m., 5 fr. 

English Church Service at the Grand Hotel. 

Perugia is well adapted for a summer-resort , and apartments are not 
expensive. — At least a day or a day and a half should be devoted to 
the town. Guides are not indispensable, and dilettanti are cautioned 
against purchasing their 'antiquities'. — A drive to Assist is recommended. 

Perugia , the capital of the province of Umbria, with 17,400 in- 
hab., the residence of the prefect, of a military commandant, and a 
bishop , and the seat of a university, lies on a group of hills about 
1300 ft. above the valley of the Tiber (1705 ft. above the sea). The 
town is built in an antiquated style, partly on the top of the hill, 
and partly on its slope. Numerous buildings of the 14-15th cent, 
(when the town was at its zenith), the paintings of the Umbrian 
school, and the fine views of the peculiar scenery, make Perugia one 
of the most interesting places in Italy. 

Perusia was one of the twelve Etruscan confederate cities, and not less 
ancient than Cortona, with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
Romans, B. C. 310. It subsequently became a municipium. In the war 
between Octavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and after an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (bellum Perusinum), the town suffered severely , and was finally re- 







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PERUGIA. 7. Route. 49 

duced to ashes. It was afterwards rebuilt and became a Roman colony 
under the name of Augusta Perusia. In the 6th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Goth Totila after a siege of seven years. In the wars of the Longobards, 
Guelphs, and Ghibellines it also suffered greatly, in the 14th cent, it acquired 
the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed , owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose, until at length Giovanni Paolo 
Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Rome in 1520. In 1540 Paul III. erected the citadel , 'ad coercendam 
Perusinorum audaciam\ as fhe inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
31st May 1849 by the Austrians, and in 1860 by the Piedmontese. 

Umbrian School of Painting. As early as the time of Dante an Urn- 
brian artist, the miniature painter Odeeisio of Gubbio, was celebrated, 
and art was practised in Gubbio, Fabriano, Perugia, etc. The neigh- 
bouring Siena doubtless exercised an influence on the prevailing style 
of art, which was confirmed by the situation of the towns, the character 
of their inhabitants, and the religious atmosphere diffused by Assisi and 
Loreto. Neither dramatic power , nor wealth of imagination is to be 
found in the Umbrian style, its characteristic features being reverie, 
tranquillity, and gentleness of sentiment. The men pourtrayed often ap- 
pear destitute of individuality and vigour, the female figures, on the other 
hand, excite our admiration owing to their winning and devout expres- 
sions. Technical improvements seem to have been introduced but slowly, 
but the old style was thoroughly cultivated and rendered more attractive 
by frequent use of decorative adjuncts. 

Setting aside the painters of the 14th cent., who were dispersed among 
various small towns , we find that Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (15th cent.) 
was the first able representative of this school. Works by this master 
are preserved both at his native town and at Foligno. Nelli was, how- 
ever, eclipsed by Gentile da Fabriano (b. about 1370), who probably 
had studied the Sienese masters in his youth, and who afterwards un- 
dertook long journeys {e.g. to Venice and Rome), thus establishing his 
reputation throughout Italy. His style not unfrequently resembles the 
Flemish. Besides Gubbio and Fabriano, other Umbrian towns possessed 
local schools of painting , such as Camerino and Foligno. The latter, 
about the middle of the 15th cent., gave birth to Niccolb di Liberalore, 
surnamed Alunno , a man of limited ability, which , however , he cul- 
tivated to the utmost. His prevailing theme is the Madonna, to whose 
features he imparts beauty in happy combination with reverie ; and in this 
department he may be regarded as the precursor of Perugino and Raphael. 

Meanwhile Perdgia, the largest city in this district, by no means 
remained idle. In this wider and more enterprising field the old con- 
ventional styles were soon abandoned as unsatisfactory, and the necessity 
of adopting the Florentine style was urgently felt. In the latter half of 
the 15th cent. Benedetto Bonfigli was the first who strove to throw aside 
the local style of painting , and the same effort was made by Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo, a younger master and perhaps a pupil of Benedetto. 

This improved style was brought to maturity by Pietko Vannucci of 
Citta della Pieve (1446-1524) , surnamed Peeugino , after the chief scene 
of his labours, a master to whom the Umbrian school is chiefly indebted 
for its fame. Perugia was, however, by no means the only sphere of his 
activity. He repeatedly spent years together in Florence, and was em- 
ployed for a considerable time in Rome. His endeavours to overcome 
the defects of his native school were crowned with success. In Ver- 
rocchio's studio in Florence he was initiated into the secrets of perspec- 
tive and the new mode of colouring, and in both respects attained con- 
summate skill. Down to the beginning of the 16th cent, his excellence 
continued unimpaired , as his frescoes in the Cambio, and several works 
in the Gallery at Perugia sufficiently prove. During the last twenty years 
of his life, however, his works show a falling off, occasioned, doubtless, 

Baedekek. Tt " 1 " TT 11th ™'«<"< 4 



50 Route 7, PERUGIA. Corso Vannucci. 

by his accepting more orders than he could conscientiously execute, 
whereby his art was degraded to a mere handicraft. He seems , indeed, 
to have had more studios than one at the same time, as for example in 
1502-5 both at Florence and Perugia , in the latter of which the young 
Raphael was employed. 

Another great master of the Umbrian school , vying with Perugino, 
is Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pintukicchio (1454-1513). Although he 
exercised no considerable influence on the progress of Italian art, and 
remained unaffected by the striking improvements introduced by Leonardo 
and others, yet he thoroughly understood how to utilise the traditional 
style and the current forms , and was marvellously prolific as a fresco 
painter. The Vatican and Roman churches, the Cathedral Library at 
Siena, and the Collegiate Church at Spello, are the chief scenes of his 
activity. — Amongst the younger contemporaries of Perugino we must 
next mention Giovanni di Pietro, surnamed Lo Spagna after his native 
country, whose paintings are hardly inferior to the early works of Raphael, 
and who , in common with all the Umbrian masters, exhibits great ease 
of execution. 

Other assistants of Perugino , but of inferior merit , were Giannicola 
di Paolo Manni (d. 1544) and Eusebio di S. Giorgio. The latter was so 
successful in imitating Raphael in superficial respects , that several of 
his pictures, amongst Others the Adoration of theM;igi in the picture-gal- 
lery at Perugia (Sala del Pinturicchio, No. 23, p. 52), have been attri- 
buted to Raphael himself. Of Sinibaldo Ibi and Tiberio d' Assist, who 
flourished during the first twenty years of the 16th cent., little is known, 
and their works are rare. Gerino of Pistoja seems to have been a good 
painter of the average class , and the works of Domenico di Paris Alfani 
(1483- c. 1536), a friend of Raphael, possess considerable attraction. These 
last masters, however, show little individuality, and before the middle of 
the 16th century the Umbrian school was completely merged in those of 
Rome and Florence. 

At the entrance to the upper part of the town, on the site of the 
citadel, which was removed in 1860, extends the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. B, 5) , in which rises the Prefettura, a simple and 
handsome modern building , adorned with arcades on the ground- 
floor. In the centre of the piazza is a bronze equestrian Statue of 
Victor Emmanuel II., by Tadolini(1890). The garden-terrace affords 
a superb *View of the Umbrian valley with Assisi, Spello, Foligno, 
Trevi, and numerous other villages , enclosed by the principal chain 
of the Apennines extending from Gubbio onwards ; the Tiber and 
part of the lower quarters of Perugia are also visible. (A band plays 
here two evenings a week.} 

Northwards from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele runs the Corso 
Vannucci to the left, leading to the cathedral-square ; and the Via 
Baglioni to the right , leading to the Piazza del Sopramuro (p. 55). 

We follow the CorsoVannucci, the busiest and handsomest street 
in the town. On the right (No. 8) is the Palazzo Baldeschi (PI. 21 ; 
B, 4) ; on the 2nd floor is preserved a drawing by Raphael (Pintu- 
ricchio ?) for the 5th fresco in the library of Siena Cathedral (p. 29 ; 
fee 1/2 fr.). 

On the left, farther on, is the *Collegio del Cambio (PI. 31; 
B, 4), the old chamber of commerce, with theUDiENZA dbl Cambio, 
containing celebrated frescoes of the cardinal virtues by Perugino, 
dating from his best period, 1500. (Adm. 7-12 and 3-5 ; in winter 
10-2; custodian 72 **• 5 best light between 11 and 12.) 



Palazzo Pubblieo. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 51 

On the wall to the left of the door. 1st Arch: to the left, Fabius Maxi- 
mus, Socrates, and Numa Pompilius, with Prudence above ; to the right, 
Furius Camillus , Pittacus, and Trajan , with Justice above. 2nd Arch : 
to the left, Lucius Sieinius, Leonidas, and Horatius Codes, with Fortitude; 
to the right, Scipio, Pericles, and Cincinnatus, with Temperance. On the 
pillar between the arches is a portrait of Perugino. — Opposite the en- 
trance: to the left, the Transfiguration as the fulfilment of faith; to the 
right , 'Adoration of the Magi , as a revelation of love. — Bight wall. 
1st Arch: to the left, Prophets, to the right Sibyls, as the heralds of 
hope; above, Jehovah. The 2nd Arch is occupied by the finely-carved 
judicial throne and the money-changers' bench. — On the ceiling are me- 
dallions of the seven planets , surrounded by admirable arabesques. Ra- 
phael is said to have been one of Perugino's assistants in the execution 
of these frescoes; his style is traceable in the Madonna of the Nativity. 
Perugino received 350 ducats for his work from the guild of merchants. 
The exquisite carved and inlaid work ('tarsia') of the judicial benches, 
doors, etc., by Dom. del Tasso (1490-93) of Florence and Antonio di Merca- 
iello (1501), which are amongst the finest Eenaissance works of the kind, 
also deserve notice. — The adjacent Chapel contains an altarpiece and 
frescoes by Oiannicola Nanni. 

Immediately adjoining the Collegio is the *Palazzo Pubblieo 
(or Comunale, PI. 22 ; B, 4), a huge edifice of 1281 and 1333, re- 
cently skilfully restored, with its principal facade towards the 
Corso and a second towards the Piazza del Duomo. It is adorned 
with fine windows , a handsome portal , and Gothic sculptures (the 
armorial hearings of the allied towns, saints, etc.). Over the portal 
in the Piazza del Duomo are a griffin and a lion in bronze (14th 
cent.) ; below are chains and bars of gates , commemorating the 
victory gained by the Perugians in 1358 over the Sienese. The chief 
entrance is in the Corso. On the 2nd floor is the Sala della Statis- 
tica, with a fine Renaissance door, in a lunette above which is a Ma- 
donna by Fior. di Lorenzo. On the same floor is the Sala del Capi- 
tano del Popolo, an apartment of noble dimensions. On the 3rd floor 
is the municipal *Picture Gallee.y (Pinacoteca Vannucci), formed 
since 1863 of works collected from suppressed churches and monaster- 
ies , and of great value to the student of Umbrian art. (Adm. 9-3 ; 
tickets 1 fr., in the Tesoreria on the 1st floor.) Catalogues provided. 

The Vestibule contains a few unimportant pictures and also works 
of art for sale. Adjoining it is the Sala dei Cimelii (A; old paintings): 
1. Meo da Siena, Madonna and saints. No. 2. Two saints, and No. 3. The 
Apostles (the latter as predelle) evidently belong to the same work. 12. 
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Madonna and four saints ; 26. Margaritone d^Arezzo (1272), 
Large crucifixion ; 22-24, perhaps by the same master. — Sala B (formerly 
the Cappella dei Decemviri) , with frescoes by Benedetto Bonflgli. To the 
right of the windows and on the entrance-wall are scenes from the life of 
St. Louis of Toulouse. Opposite the windows are the Burial of that saint 
and the Martyrdom of St. Herculanus on the occasion of the capture of 
Perngia by Totila. On the adjacent wall is the Burial of St. Herculanus. 
— Sala dei Stacchi (D) : Frescoes of the Umbrian School (14th and 15th 
cent.), transferred to canvas. The glass-cases contain codices and choir- 
books with miniatures. — Sala di Taddeo Bartoli (E): Sienese pic- 
tures of the 15th cent., most of them valuable. Taddeo Bartoli (1403): 
9. Madonna with angels and saints; 10. Descent of the Holy Ghost. Tom. 
d'Arcangelo of Cortona: Exploits of the condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio 
(frieze). — Sala del Fka Angelico (F): "1-20. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, 
Fragments of a large altar-piece (Madonna with angels, Annunciation, 
Saints Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari); 21. Piero delta Francesco, Madonna 

4* 



52 Route 7. PERUGIA. Cathedral. 

and four saints, with the Annunciation ahove. — Sala del Bonfigli (G). 
Bonfigli: 7. Annunciation, with St. Mark; 10. Adoration of the Magi; 13. Ma- 
donna with angels playing on instruments. Giovanni Boecati da Camerino, 
16, 19. Madonna and angels. — Sala di Bernardino di Mariotto (H). Ber, 
nardmo: 1. Marriage of St. Catharine; 2. Madonna and saints. 10. Bonfigli, 
'Gonfalone' (sacred tanner) of the Fraternity of S. Bernardino di Siena 
(Christ blessing the saints , below which are believers burning objects of 
luxury). 12. Caporali , Christ and the Madonna in glory, (fresco). 14. Mc- 
colb da Foligno, Gonfalone of the Brotherhood of the Annnnziata (1466). — 
Sala di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (J): 4. Fiorenzo, Adoration of the Magi 
(among whose followers is the young Perugino to the left); 24. Perugino, 
Coronation of the Madonna. — Gabinetto di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (L): 
2-9. Fiorenzo, Miracles of S. Bernardino (2-6, masterpieces; 7-9, in the 
same style, but inferior); 16. Fiorenzo (?), Bust of the Madonna in a 
garland, with angels' heads below. — Sala del Perugino (M). Ca- 
raltoli, Marble bust of Perugino. Perugino: 11. Baptism of Christ; 20. 
Nativity; 21, 16, 12, 7. Predelle; 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 22, 23. Saints; all 
being fragments of a large altar-piece. Below No. 4. (St. James, by 
Perugino) is an autograph letter of the master to the Prior of S. Agos- 
tino. — We now traverse the Sala di Giannicola Manni e di Berto (0) 
to the "Sala del Pinturicchio (N), which contains the gems of the col- 
lection: Perugino: 2. Transfiguration; 3-5. Predelle; 6. Madonna and 
saints. 7. Spagna, Madonna and saints. 10. Pinturicchio: Large altar- 
piece in its original frame, the Madonna with the infant Child and St. 
John; on the wings, SS. Augustine and Jerome; above, the Annunciation ; 
in the pediment, a Pieta; in the predelle, scenes from the lives of SS. 
Augustine and Jerome (1496) ; 12. Gonfalone with St. Augustine (on silk). 
Perugino : 14. Madonna , worshippers , SS. Francis and Bernardino ; 15. 
Madonna and saints ; 16. John the Baptist with saints. Raphael : 17. Strip 
of decorative painting; 24. God the Father with angels (both belonging to 
the Entombment, p. 332). EuseMo di San Giorgio: 18. Madonna with saints; 
23. Adoration of the Magi. 20. Pupil of Raphael (?), Madonna, resembling 
the Conestabile Madonna, formerly in Perugia. — We return through 
Sala O to the Sala della Scuola di Perugino (P) : 36. Domenico di Paris 
Alfani, Holy Family, designed by Raphael. — The following rooms are 
the Sala Domenico Alfani, Sala della Torre, and Sala Okazio Alfani. 
The Biblioteca Puhblica, which is also in this Palazzo, contains about 
30,000 vols. , and some fine MSS. of the ll-15th cent., with miniatures. 

In the Piazza del Municipio rises the *Fonte Maggiore , dat- 
ing from 1277, and one of the finest fountains of that period in 
Italy. It consists of three admirably-constructed basins, adorned 
with numerous biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Niccolb and Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo di Cambio (1280; two 
of the statuettes are modern substitutes). — The W. side of the 
piazza is occupied by the Episcopal Palace (PI. 30), behind which 
is the so-called Maesth delle Volte (PL 32), a relic of the Palazzo 
del Podesta, which was burned down in 1329 and again in 1534. 

The Cathedral of 8. Lorenzo (PI. 11 ; B, 4), dating from the 15th 
cent., is externally unfinished. Adjoining the entrance from the 
Piazza del Municipio is a pulpit. 

The interior, consisting of nave and aisles with a short transept, is of 
spacious but heavy dimensions. — On the left of the entrance is the 
tomb of Bishop Baglioni by Agoslino aV Antonio di Duccio, beyond which is 
the Cappella S. Bernardino, with a Descent from the Cross, the master- 
piece of Baroccio (1569) ; the painted window representing the Preaching 
of St. Bernardino of Siena is by Costantino di Rosato and Arrigo Fiam- 
mlngo of Malines (1565; restored in 1863). — Opposite, in the left aisle, 
is the Cappella dell' Anello, which down to 1797 contained the cele- 



University, PERUGIA. 7. Route. 53 

brated Sposalizio by Perugino , now at Caen in Normandy. The beauti- 
fully carved stalls were begun by Giulio da Majano and finished by Do- 
menico del Tasso in 1491 ; the elegant tabernaculum was executed by the 
goldsmith Gesarino del Eoscetto, in 1519. — Farther on in the nave is a 
Pieta in relief, by Agostino d' Antonio di Duccio. — In the Right Transept, a 
marble sarcophagus containing the remains of Popes Innocent III. (d. 1216), 
Urban IV. (d. 1264), and Martin IV. (d. 1285). — The adjoining Winter, 
Choir contains an *Altar-piece by Luca Signorelli: Madonna with SS. John 
the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, and a bishop as donor (1484). 
Below the 2nd window to the left: Christ imparting his blessing, and saints, 
by Lodovico di Angelo. 

In the Library are preserved precious MSS., such as the Codex of St. 
Luke of the 6th cent., in gold letters on parchment. 

On the "W. and N. side of the Cathedral is situated the Piazza 
Danti (PI. B, C, 3, 4), with a bronze statue of Pope Julius III. by 
Vino. Danti (1556). — From the N. angle of the Piazza Danti the 
Via Vecchia descends to the *Arco di Augusto (PL 2; C, 3), an an- 
cient town-gate with the inscription Colonic Vibia Augusta Perusia. 
The foundations date from the Etruscan period , and the upper part 
from the 3rd cent. A. D. From this point the partly preserved walls 
of the ancient city, which occupied the height where the old part of 
the present town stands, may be distinctly traced. 

The small space in front of the Arco di Augusto is called the 
Piazza Foutebeaccio (PL 0, 3) ; to the left is the Palazzo Galenga, 
formerly Antinori, by Alessi. — A little to the N. lies the church 
of S. Agostino (PL 5 ; C, 2), to the right of which is an oratory con- 
taining several pictures by Alfani, Scaramucci, etc. 

From the Palazzo Galenga the Via dell' Universita leads in a few 
minutes to the University (PL B, 2), established in 1320 in a mon- 
astery of Olivetans, which was suppressed by Napoleon. It possesses 
a small Botanic Garden, Natural History and Art History Collections, 
and a Museum op Etruscan and Roman ANTiaurriES (curator, 
Big. Angelo Lupatelli). 

The Museum of Antiquities is on the first floor. On the Staircase are 
Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and unimportant Roman sculptures. The 
Corridor chiefly contains Etruscan urns and a few casts from antique 
and Renaissance sculptures. No. 279. Terracotta urn in the form of a 
recumbent man, who is being seized by a goddess of death with the 
features of a fiend; the hollow interior once contained the ashes of the 
deceased. The Gabinetto di Antiquaria contains stone weapons, urns, and 
Etruscan and Roman anticaglias. In the 3rd Room, Mountings of a chariot 
with figures and ornamentation resembling the most ancient Asiatic style (in 
a cabinet opposite the windows) ; large gold Earring with a female head (in 
the cabinet in the middle of the room) ; two Mirrors with scenes from the 
myths of Meleager and Helen. In the 4th Room, Vase of admirable Attic 
workmanship, with red figures of Dionysus and Ariadne (cabinet opposite 
the windows). — The Guardabassi Collection, at the end of the second 
corridor, contains various interesting objects from Etruscan graves. In 
the 1st Room, Collection of cut stones. In the 2nd Room, fine mirror- 
case, with a representation of Dionysus on the panther, toilette articles, 
and amber and coral ornaments (catalogue 1 fr.). — Gabinetto Crisiiano : 
Central Room, Coffin of Bishop Baglioni, with a sumptuous velvet covering 
(15th cent.) ; episcopal vestments of the 16th cent. ; richly carved panels 
from the confessionals of S. Agostino, perhaps by Barili; voting-urn used 
in municipal elections , with the arms of the Guilds (14th cent.). 2nd 
Boom (to the right), Reliquary containing the remains of the condottiere 



54 Route 7. PERUGIA. 8. Severo. 

Braccio Fortebraccio , who fell at the siege of Aquila on 5th June , 1424 
(formerly in S. Francesco dei Conventuali) ; Seal of Card. Bemho by Lau- 
tirio di Perugia ; Madonna by Agostino cT Antonio di Duccio, and other terra- 
cottas; fine terracotta relief of St. Francis, by Luca delta Robbia; bust of 
one of the Baldeschi family (15th cent.) ; weapons ; majolica. In the 3rd Room 
(to the left) three masterpieces of enamel-work ('champs leveV): a goblet 
which once belonged to Pope Benedict XI. (d. 1304), and a cup and plate 
or saucer executed by Catalorzio di Pietro of Todi (14th cent.) ; to the right, 
ivory carvings, includingc a ircular piece with chessmen, and a represents 
ation of French knights starting for the chase (14th cent.). — The Cor- 
ridor contains medieeval sculptures; statues from the Maesta delle Volte 
(p. 52), by Agostino d' Antonio di Duccio (1475), and a model of the Fonte 
Maggiore (p. 52). 

The Natural History Collections are nnimportant. 

The University Church, the key of which is kept by the curator of the 
Museum, contains mediaeval works of art and plaster casts, including 
those of an 8th cent, tabernaculum and an early-Christian sarcophagus. 

Near the Gate of S. Angelo (PI. A, 1), to which the Via Longara 
leads from the Piazza Fortebraccio , is situated the architecturally 
interesting church of S. Angelo, a circular structure with 16 antique 
columns in the interior, in the style of S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 
prohably dating from the 6th cent., with additions of a later period. 
— On the other (S.) side of the Longara is S. Agnese, adorned with 
frescoes from the later period of Perugino and his pupils. 

Ascending from the Piazza Fortebraccio (see above) by the Via 
Pinturicchio to the S.E. (or from the Piazza Danti, p. 53, by the 
Piazza Piccinino and the Via Bontempi to the E., and then taking 
the first side-street, the Via Raffaello, to the left), we reach — 

*S. Severo (PI. 14; C, 3), formerly a convent of the order of 
Camaldoli, now a college, in the chapel of which Raphael painted his 
first fresco, in 1505, having left Perugino' s school the year before, and 
gone to Florence. Entrance adjoining the chapel (custodian */ 2 fr.). 

The fresco, which was seriously damaged, and was spoiled in 1872 by 
the restorer Consoni, betrays the influence of Fra Bartolommeo's Last 
Judgment in S. Maria Nuova in Florence and may also be regarded as 
the forerunner of the upper part of Raphael's Disputa in the Vatican; 
above , God the Father (obliterated) with three angels and the Holy 
Ghost; below, the Redeemer and the saints Maurus, Placidus, Benedict, 
Romuald, Benedict the Martyr, and John the Martyr. The inscription 
(added at a later period) runs thus : Rafael de Urbino dom. Octaviano Ste- 
phano Valaterano Priore Sanctam Trinitatem angelos astantes sanclosque 
pinxit, A. D. MO V. At the sides, lower down, St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, 
St. John Ev., St. Gregory the Great, Boniface, and St. Martha, by Pietro 
Perugino. Inscription : Petrus de Castro Plebis Perusinus, tempore domini 
Silveslri Stephani Valaterani a destris el sinistris div. Christipherae sanctos 
tanctasque pinxit A. D. MDXXI, 



A vaulted passage under the clock of the Palazzo Pubblico (p. 51) 
leads from the Corso Vannucci to the Via de' Priori, the best route 
to the sights of the "W. quarter. The Via Deliziosa, diverging to the 
left near the small piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova (PI. 10 ; B, 4), 
contains (PI. 18) the House of Perugino (?; denoted by a tablet). 

"We continue to descend the Via de' Priori, passing the mediae- 
val Torre degli Sciri, or degli Scalzi (PI. 34 ; A, 4), and the Madonna 



S. Domenico. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 55 

della Luce (PI. 4), a pleasing little Renaissance church of 1518, and 
leach an open space on the right. Opposite us here rises the — 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardino [Confraternita della Giustizia; PI. 
A, 3). The early-Renaissance facade, executed by A gostino d! Antonio 
di Duccio , a Florentine sculptor , in 1459-61 , is a magnificent 
polychrome work , in which both coloured marble and terracotta are 
employed, while the ground of the numerous and very elaborate 
sculptures is also coloured. A picture in the interior, representing 
the consecration of the fihurch , contains a fine view of the facade. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Francesco dei Conventuali, or del 
Prato (PI. 9 ; A, 3), for which Raphael painted the Entombment now 
in the Borghese Gallery at Rome (p. 332). In the crypt are several 
frescoes of the 13th cent. (Betrothal and Death of the Virgin). The 
church is in a very precarious state. 

To the E. of the Corso, and parallel with it, stretches the 
Piazza del Sopramuro (PI. 0, 4), resting on extensive substructures, 
part of which belong to the ancient Etruscan town-walls. On the 
E. side of the Piazza rises the Palazzo delCapitano delPopolo, after- 
wards the Palazzo del Podesta (PI. 29), dating from 1472; adjoining 
it is the Old University, built in 1483 ; both edifices are now occu- 
pied by courts of justice (PI. 35). A Monument to Garibaldi rises 
in the centre of the piazza. 

The Via Baglioni leads hence towards the S. to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 50). We descend here immediately to the left, passing 
the substructures of the old citadel, where an ancient gate , called 
Porta Marzia (PI. 33 ; 0, 5), with interesting sculptures , and the 
inscriptions Augusta Perusia and Colonia Vibia, which was removed 
from its old site to make way for the fortress, has been re-erected. — 
We turn to the left here, and follow the broad main street with an 
avenue of acacias, at the end of which, to the left, rises the small 
Gothic church of <S. Ercolano (PL 6 ; 0, 5), with an altar consisting 
of an ancient sarcophagus, probably from the studio of Giov. Pisano. 

Following the Ooeso Cavour , the continuation of the Via dell' 
Indipendenza, to the left, we reach a small square in which stands 
the church of — 

S. Domenico (PI. 7; C, 6), a Gothic edifice built by Giov. Pisano 
(?) after 1304 , and almost entirely re-erected by Carlo Maderna in 
1614 , with a lofty campanile , part of which has been taken down. 

In the Left Teansf.pt is the Monument to Pope Benedict XI., who 
fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV. of France, and died in 1304 
from eating poisoned figs. It was executed hy Giovanni Pisano, and is one 
of the most famous monuments of its kind ; above the recumhent figure 
of the pope rises a lofty canopy, borne by spiral columns and adorned 
with mosaics (above is a Madonna between St. Dominicus and the kneeling 
pope on one side and St. Herculanus on the other). On the adjacent 
wall is the monument of Bishop Benedetto Guidolotti (1429). — The 
Choir , with a rectangular termination , contains a huge Gothic window 
filled with rich stained glass, the largest of its kind in Italy (218 sq. yds,), 
executed in 1441 by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia, and recently restored. 



56 Route 7. PERUGIA. 

This window belonged to the original church. — The inlaid Choir Slallj 
(tarsia) date from 1476. — The fourth chapel (Cappella del Eosario) in thA 
Eight Aisle has a large altar by Agostino (T Antonio di Duccio (1459). / 

After a few minutes more we pass through the Porta S. Pietfo, 
richly decorated by Agostino d' Antonio di Duccio (1473), and reach 
the old monastery and church of — 

*S. Pietro de' Cassinensi (PI. 13 ; D, 7, 8 ; entrance in the first 
court in the corner diagonally opposite, to the left). The church, 
erected about the year 1000 by S. Pietro Vincioli of Perugia, is a 
basilica, consisting of nave, aisles, and a transept, with a richly 
gilded flat ceiling, borne by 18 antique columns of granite and 
marble and two pillars, and contains numerous pictures. 

In the Nave, above, are eleven large pictures by Ant. Vassilacchi, sur- 
named VAliense, of Perugia, a pupil of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, exe- 
cuted in 1592-94. — The Eight Aisle contains several Umbrian pictures. 
The chapel of St. Joseph, adorned with modern frescoes, contains, on 
the left , the monumental relief of a Countess Baldeschi , in terracotta, 
from a drawing by Fr. Overbeck ; on the right, Holy Family, a copy from 
Andrea del Sarto, by Pontormo. — Then, above the door leading to the 
monastery, Two saints by Sassoferrato, after Perugino, and a Holy Family 
after Bonifazio of Venice. Above the door leading to the Sacristy, Three 
saints, also after Perugino by Sassoferrato. — Id the Sacristy (shown by 
the custodian , 20-30 c.) are five small half-figures of saints, by Perugino 
(which formerly surrounded the Ascension by the same master, removed 
by the French, now in Lyons); Holy Family, by Parmigianino ; Infant 
Jesus and St. John , after Perugino , by Raphael (?) ; S. Francesca Eo- 
mana, by Caravaggio. — The Choir-books are embellished with good min- 
iatures of the 16th century. 

The Choir Stalls, in walnut, are admirably carved and inlaid (tarsia) 
by Stefano da Bergamo, 1535; the doors at the back are by his brother 
Damiano. — Under the arch of the Choir, on each side, are ambones (pul- 
pits) in stone, with reliefs on a golden ground, by Franc, di Guido, 1517-21. 

The Left Aisle, beginning at the upper end by the choir, contains a picture 
by Bonfigli (?), Mary with the body of Christ and two saints, 1469. In the 
adjoining chapel is a marble altar with reliefs, partly gilded, by Mino da 
Fiesote , 1473. In the next two chapels : pictures by G. Rent, Giorgio Va- 
sari, and others. Between these, on the wall of the aisle: Judith, by Sasso- 
ferrato. Then, Adoration of the Magi, by Eusebio di S. Giorgio ; Annun- 
ciation, after Eaphael, by Sassoferrato; Pieta, a late work of Perugino, 
part of a large dismembered altar-piece from the church of S. Agostino. 

Close to S. Pietro , on the opposite side of the street, are the 
gardens of the Passeggiata Pubblica (PI. D, 8), extending to the 
Porta S. Costanzo, and commanding a magnificent prospect of the 
valley of Foligno and the Apennines. 

The visitor may also inspect the following private collections • 
the collection of Aw. Romualdi, Via del Bufalo, No. 5 (near the Al- 
bergo Gran Bretagna), "comprising bronzes, coins, cameos, drawings 
and paintings by An. Carracci, Perugino (?), etc. (for sale). — The 
Oalleria Monaldi (PL 26 ; B, 5), in the palazzo of that name, at the 
corner of the Via Baglioni and the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele , and 
the Oalleria Meniconi (PI. 25 ; C, 5), Via di Porta Romana , both 
chiefly contain works of later masters (end of 16th and 17th cent.). 

Outside the Porta del Carmine lies the Cemetery (PI. E, 3), con- 
taining a monument to the champions of liberty in 1859. 



EXCURSIONS FROM PERUGIA. 7. Route. 57 

Outside the Porta S. Costanzo, on the road to Assisi, lies the church 
(restored) of S. Costanzo (PI. D, E, 8), dating from the 11th cent., with an 
ancient portal. — About 3M. to the E. of Perugia, '/4 M. on this side of Ponle 
S. Giovanni (p. 77), the Ancient Etruscan Necropolis of Perugia was dis- 
covered in 1840. Carriage there and back, a drive of l'/2-2 hrs., 12 fr. 
This expedition may be conveniently combined with the drive to Assisi 
(p. 78). — The most interesting of the tombs, and one of the handsomest, 
though not oldest in N. Etruria, is the Sepolcro de' Volumnii (the tomb of 
the Volumnii, 3rd cent. B. C), close to the road, where it is intersected 
by the railway. It consists of ten chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained 
tufa. A number of cinerary urns, with portraits of men and women, and 
various kinds of decoration, were found here. Some of the objects found 
in the tomb have been left in their original positions , but most of them 
are now preserved in a chamber built above it. The custodian lives on 
the hill above the tombs (fee Yu fr., for a party 1 fr.). 

Feom Perugia to Todi, about 28 M. (diligence, see p. 48). This road, 
once greatly frequented, but now of merely local importance, descends 
rapidly into the valley of the Tiber , which it crosses , and then remains 
on its left bank. The scenery presents no great attractions. About half- 
way between Perugia and Narni, and 19 M. to the E. of Orvieto, lies — 

Todi (Posta, at the gate), the ancient TJmbrian Tuder, a high-lying town 
(1495 ft.) with 3300inhab. ; the hill is so abrupt that the upper part of the 
town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance is indicated by the 
fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, or Basilica, usually 
styled a temple of Mars. Although poor in treasures of art, the town boasts 
of several interesting edifices, among which are the Cathedral and the Town 
Ball in the Piazza. The church of S. Fortunato possesses a handsome portal, 
attributed to Lor. Maitani (c. 1320). The finest building of all, however, is the 
pilgrimage-church of S. Maria delta Consolazione , in the form of a Greek 
cross and covered with a dome. The arms of the cross are also sur- 
mounted with domes , and are polygonal in shape with the exception 
of the choir, which is semicircular. The exterior is remarkable for its 
simple and massive style, and the interior for its symmetrical proportions 
and the delicately graduated ornamentation of its pillars. Being one of 
the noblest creations of the Renaissance period, this edifice was naturally 
attributed to Bramante. Documents , however , name Cola di Matteuccio 
da Caprarola (1508) as the architect, and Baldassare Peruzzi as his ad- 
viser. The progress of the building was remarkably slow, and it was 
not completed till 1604. — Todi was the birthplace of Jacopone da Todi 
(d. 1306), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

Feom Todi to Naeni, 28 M., by the villages of Rosaro, Castel Todino, 
and San Gemine. About I1/2 M. from the last, on the ancient, now abandoned 
Via Flaminia, are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous Carsulae. 
From San Gemine (I l h M. from Narni) two roads descend gradually to 
the beautiful valley of the Nera, one leading S.E. to Terni (see p. 87), and 
the other S. to Narni (p. 90). 



8. From Arezzo to Fossato. 

84 M. Railway (Ferrovia de.lt Apennino Centrale): one through - train 
daily in about 6V2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 30, 6 fr. 75 c). 

Arezzo, see p. 39. — For a short distance the train follows the 
line to Rome (p. 44), but it soon diverges and begins to ascend more 
rapidly towards the hills to the E. of Arezzo, affording a picturesque 
retrospect of the town and plain. It mounts as far as the Scopettone, 
the W. parallel chain of the Umbrian Apennines, separating the 
valleys of the Arno and Tiber. This part of the line, the most in- 



58 Route 8. CITTA DI CASTELLO. From Arezso 

teresting from an engineering point of view, traverses 20 tunnels 
and several viaducts. — Beyond (11 M.) Palazzo del Pero we descend 
to the N. E. through the wooded valley of the Cerfone, a tributary 
of the Tiber. — 19'/2 M. Ville Monterchi, in a hollow, from which 
a steeper ascent leads to (20^2 M.) Citerna. — 241/2 M. Anghiari, 
a small town (1500 inhab.) picturesquely situated on a hill, com- 
mands an extensive view of the upper valley of the Tiber, here 
ahout 7 M. wide. 

The train traverses the highly cultivated plain, crosses the Tiber, 
and reaches (28'/2 M.) Borgo S. Sepolcro (Alb. Venezia). a little 
town with 3700 inhab. at the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4430 ft.). 
A marble statue, erected in 1892 after Zocchi's designs, comme- 
morates Piero delta Francesca (born here about 1420 ; d. 1492), 
one of the most influential painters of the 15th cent, and the teacher 
of Luca Signorelli (p. 45). Several of his paintings are preserved 
in the town: in the Misericordia or hospital-church, a Madonna with 
the Infant and saints (an early work; 1445); in the Palazzo del 
Ccmune, St. Louis (1460) and an admirable Resurrection, both fres- 
coes. The Palazzo del Comune also contains a fine Crucifixion by 
Signorelli, originally a church-banner. 

From Borgo S. Sepolcro a road crosses the Central Apennines to 
Urbino (p. 99), via Urbania (31 M.), formerly Castel Durante and noted for 
its majolica-manufacture, and the former convent of Montejiorentino, which 
contains a Madonna by Giov. Santi (1489). 

The railway proceeds to the S.E. along the left bank of the 
river. 31 M. 8. Oiustino; 33Y2 M. Selci Lama, a little to the right 
of the village of that name. 

38 M. Citti di Castello (Locanda la Cannoniera), with 5400 
inhab., occupying the site of Tifernum Tiberinum , which was de- 
stroyed by Totila. In the 15th cent, it belonged to the Vitelli family, 
and afterwards to the Church. The town , built in the form of 
a rectangle , and still surrounded by the walls erected in 1518, 
contains many interesting buildings of the early-Renaissance period. 

Of the numerous churches S. Domenico alone has preserved a 
Gothic character. All that remains of the old Cathedral of S. 
Flobido, founded in 1012, is the campanile and the N. portal ; the 
present building, an admirable specimen of the Renaissance style, 
was begun in 1482 and completed in 1540. Bramante has been 
frequently named as the builder, but Elia di Bartolommeo Lom- 
bardo is mentioned in the records as the architect. 

Among the secular buildings, the Palazzo Comunale, built in 
the 14th cent, by a certain Angelus of Orvieto, in the style of the 
Florentine palaces, retains most closely its original form. Four 
other palaces, dating from the 15-16th cent., bear the name of the 
Vitelli, the lords and masters of the town, who, like most of the 
magnates of the Renaissance period, were passionately addicted to 
building. Of these, the oldest is the Palazzo di Alessandro Vitelli; 
the handsomest is the Palazzo Vitelli a S. Giacomo; and the largest 



to Fossato. GUBBIO. 8. Route. 59 

the Palazzo Vitelli a Porta S. Egidio. The small summer-house ( Pa- 
lazzino) of the latter deserves special notice. 

The Pinacotbca now contains the more important paintings and 
■works of art formerly in the churches. 

Raphael, it is well known, painted in Perugia his first works for 
churches in Citta di Castello, but they have since disappeared, or (like the 
Sposalizio now in the Brera at Milan) have been carried elsewhere. The 
only work of his now here is a church-banner, with (No. 32) the Trinity 
and (No. 16) the Creation. An Adoration of the Shepherds and a Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian (from S. Etomenico) by Luca Signorelli, and several terra- 
cottas by Luca delta Robbia and his school, are also noteworthy. 

The church of 8. Cecilia contains a Madonna by Luca Signorelli, 
and the Palazzo Mancini a Nativity by the same master, as well as 
several other valuable pictures. 

Beyond Citta di Castello the train follows the right bank of the 
Tiber. 43 M. S. Secondo , at the mouth of a lateral valley. On a 
height to the right, 1 3 / 4 M. from this station and as far from(45!/2M.) 
Trestina, the next, lies Canoscio, a frequented pilgrim-resort. Be- 
yond (50 M.) Monte Castelli we cross the Tiber and reach (53 M.) 
Vmbertide (Alb. Guardahassi), a small town (1900 inhab.) on the left 
bank of the Tiber, the valley of which is here somewhat narrow. In 
the church of S. Croce is a Descent from the Cross by Luca Signo- 
relli. Diligence to Perugia, see p. 48. 

Beyond (55 M.) Monte Corona the railway quits the Tiber and 
ascends to the N. through the narrow valley of the Assino, crossing 
the stream six times. — 57 M. Serra Partucci; 59*/2 M. Campo 
Reggiano. At (64 M.) Pietralunga we reach the fertile tableland of 
Gubbio. To the left rise the Monte Calvo (2965 ft.) and the Monte 
d'Ansciano. 

70 M. Gubbio (Albergo S. Marco, near the station, well spoken 
of; Giardino, Rosetta or Colomba, both in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele and well spoken of), with 5500 inhab. , lies at the foot and 
on the slopes of Monte Calvo, at the entrance to a gorge flanked by 
steep cliffs. The town presents quite a mediaeval appearance, and 
the proximity of the Apennines also gives it a different character 
from most other Italian towns. Conspicuous among the houses is the 
huge Palazzo dei Consoli, (p. 60) and above them towers the church 
of S. Ubaldo. 

Gubbio is the ancient Iguvium or Eugubivm, mentioned by Cicero and 
Caesar. It was destroyed by the Goths, was besieged in 1155 by the Emp. 
Frederick I., then became an independent state, afterwards belonged to the 
duchy of Urbino, and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. 

Gubbio was the native place of Oderisio, a famous miniature painter 
(d. about 1300), who is called by Dante in his Purgatorio (xi,80) TOnor 
d'Agobbio' ; but no authentic work by his hand now exists. In the 14th 
and 15th cent, a branch of the Umbrian school flourished here, and among 
its masters, whose renown extended even beyond their native place, were 
Quido Palmerucci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, 
particularly Ottaviano Nelli (d. 1444). — Gubbio occupies a still more 
important page in the history of Artistic Handicrafts. Like Urbino, 
Pesaro, and Faenza, it was noted for the manufacture of Majolica, or earthen- 
ware vases and tiles which were covered with a white coating of colour 



60 Route 8. GUBBIO. 

before being baked. One of the most distinguished majolica painters was 
'■Maestro Giorgio' of Gubbio , who is said to have invented, or rather re- 
discovered and perfected, the metallic, ruby-coloured glazing for which the 
Italian majolicas are remarkable. 

At the bottom of the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the 
church of S. Francesco. We ascend hence by old-fashioned streets 
to the Piazza della Signobia, on the slope of the hill, supported 
by massive vaults, where the most conspicuous building is the — 

Palazzo dei Consoli, a huge pinnacled Gothic edifice with a 
tower, erected in 1332-46 by Oiovanello Maffei of Gubbio, sur- 
named Oattapone, and at present disused. The ground-floor contains a 
slab with an inscription of the Augustan period. The Loggia affords 
a beautiful view, embracing the ruins of the Roman theatre in the 
plain (p. 61), and on the other side, the old facade of the Palazzo 
Ducale (fee ^ fr.). 

The Palazzo Pretorio, now 'Residenza Municipale', contains 
several collections (fee y^l ^ r 0- 

On the first floor are the so-called Eugubian Tablets, which were dis- 
covered in 1440 near the ancient theatre. They are of bronze, and bear 
inscriptions, four in TJmbrian, and three in Latin characters, which long 
baffled the investigation of the learned. They contain in the TJmbrian 
language, an old Italian dialect akin to Latin , liturgical regulations and 
formulae of nearly uniform import, dating from different periods. The 
older, in the TJmbrian character, are read from right to left. The later, in 
Latin letters, date from about the 2nd cent. B.C. 

The upper saloon (handsome door) contains a number of pictures, 
including several fine works, chiefly of the TJmbrian school; admirable 
wood-carving of the 15th and 16th cent. ; cabinets, chairs, and a number 
of ancient and modern majolicas. 

The third side of the piazza is occupied by the modern Palazzo 
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone. — ■ Conte Fabiani-Beni, Piazza S. Martino, 
possesses several good pictures. 

Ascending the Via dei Duchi to the left, and then following the 
Via di S. Ubaldo, -we reach the Palazzo dei Duchi, an old Gothic 
edifice, which was remodelled by Luciano da Lauranna, the architect 
of the palace of Urbino (p. 100). The colonnaded court is almost an 
exact reproduction of that of Urbino. The interior is quite a ruin 
and scarcely accessible. 

Opposite the entrance to the court of the Pal. dei Duchi rises 
the Cathedral of SS. Mariano e Jacopo Martire , a structure 
of the 13th cent., destitute of aisles and so built against the slope 
of the hill that its back is embedded in the ground. The fafade is 
adorned with sculptures of the Evangelists (13th cent.). 

Among the pictures in the interior (first altar on the left) is a Ma- 
donna with SS. TJbaldo and Sebastian, by Sinibaldo Ibi of Gubbio. By 
the 2nd altar a Coronation of Mary Magdalene by Timoteo Titi. The sacristy 
contains a Flemish vestment, presented by Pope Marcellus II. 

The church of S. Maria Nuova, situated near the E. end of the 
Via delle Fonti, running above and parallel with the Corso , at the 
corner of the Via Nelli, contains the admirably-preserved 'Madonna 
del Belvedere', by Ottaviano Nelli, 1404 (apply to the sacristan), a 
Madonna in fresco byBernardino di Nanni, frescoes on the entrance- 



CHIUSI. 9. Route. 61 

■wall, and on the wall to the left of the door a St. Anthony by Quido 
Palmerucci. 

The Via Paoli leads from the end of the Corso Garibaldi to the 
fine Gothic church of 8. Giovanni (13th cent.). — At the other end 
of the Corso is the church of 8. Pietro, with a 12th cent, facade 
(decayed). — S. Domenico, S. Agostino (frescoes in the choir ascribed 
to Ottaviano Nelli), and S. Maria della Piaggiola (outside the Porta 
Vittoria ; over the high-altar , Madonna by Gentile da Fabriano). 
also contain pictures of the same period. 

The ancient town extended farther into the plain than the mod- 
ern. Among the rains still existing is a Theatre, discovered in 
1863, apparently of the republican era. It is not entirely excavated, 
but part of the external row of arches is preserved , and the stage, 
facing the town, is distinctly traceable. (We quit the Piazza Vitto- 
xio Emanuele by the Porta Trasimeno, turn to the right, and lastly 
pass through a modern gateway on the left, towards a farm.) 

73 M. Padule. Beyond (TS^M.) Branca we cross the Chiascio 
and traverse the valley of that stream to — 
84 M. Fossato, see p. 112. 



9. From Florence to Rome via (Arezzo) Terontola 
and Chiusi. 

196 M. Railway. This is the shortest route from Florence to Rome. 
Express in 572-73/4 hrs - (fares 39 fr. 30, 27 fr. 50 c); ordinary train in 
12 hrs. (fares 35 fr. 75, 25 fr., 16 fr. 10 c); no change of carriages. — The 
digression from Orte (p. 69) to the beautiful waterfalls of Terni (p. 87) 
is recommended to all who have sufficient time. 

From Florence to Terontola, 76 M., see pp. 38-47. The main 
line to Rome diverges to the right (S.) from the branch-line to Pe- 
rugia, Assisi , and Foligno, and at first skirts the W. bank of the 
Trasimene Lake (oomp. p. 47). 

82 M. Castiglione del Lago, lying to the left on a promontory 
extending into the lake, possesses an old palazzo of the Duchi della 
Cornia, built by Alessi. 

86Y2M. Panicale, a small place with unimportant frescoes in its 
churches by Perugino and his school. The line takes a W. direction 
and joins the line from Siena in the valley of the Chiana (R. 4). 

93Y2 M. Chiusi. — The Railway Station (' Restaurant) is about 
l'/a M. from the town, on the hill to the right. 'Posto' (seat in a carriage) 
to the town 1 fr., two 'posti' l 1 ^ fr. 

Hotels. Corona, Via Porsenna 1, unpretending and moderate ; Eteukia, 
at the station, well spoken of. 

Travellers who wish to inspect the Etruscan Antiquities should en- 
quire for the custodian, who is generally to he found at the museum. For 
opening the museum and accompanying visitors to the tombs his tarifi- 
eharge is 5 fr. An additional fee is required for the Deposito del Gran- 
duca (p. 62). The road to the tombs is very muddy in wet weather. 
— Travellers are cautioned against making purchases of Etruscan anti- 



62 Route 9. OHIUSI. From Florence 

quities at CMusi, as 'antiquities' from Etruscan tombs are largely manufac- 
tured here. 

Chiusi (820 ft. ; 1800 inhab.), the ancient Clusium, one of the 
twelve Etruscan capitals, frequently mentioned in the wars against 
Rome, and as the headquarters of Porsenna, was fearfully devastated by 
malaria in the middle ages ; hut under the grand-dukes of the House 
of Lorraine the Val di Chiana was gradually drained, and the town 
recovered from these disasters. The walls are mediaeval; a few re- 
lics of those of the Etruscan period are traceable near the cathedral, 
outside the Porta delle Torri. A walk thence round the town to 
the Porta Romana, also called Porta di S. Pietro, affords pleasing 
views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta della Pieve, the 
mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi and Montepul- 
ciano, and the latter town itself. Under the town extends a laby- 
rinth of subterranean passages (inaccessible), the precise object of 
which is unknown ; but they probably belonged to an elaborate system 
of drainage, as the ancient Etruscans excelled in works of this kind, 
and were even in advance of many modern nations. 

The interesting Museo Etbtjsco contains a valuable collection 
of objects found in the Etruscan tombs around Chiusi, such as vases 
(including several curious polychrome urns), dishes, bronzes, mirrors, 
sarcophagi, and especially cinerary urns, chiefly of terracotta, with a 
few of alabaster and travertine. 

The Cathedral of S. Mustiola consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient buildings; the eighteen columns of unequal 
thickness in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived 
from a similar source. The sacristy contains a mass-book illumin- 
ated with admirable miniatures of the 15th cent., chiefly by ar- 
tists of the Sienese school. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral 
square bear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The great attraction of Chiusi are the *Etruscan Tombs (guide, 
see p. 61), situated in isolated hills at some distance from the town. 
The most important are the following: to the N.E. the Deposito del 
Oranduca, 3 M. (private property ; fee i/ 2 "l. fr.); near it the most 
important of all, the Deposito della Scimia, with paintings represent- 
ing gladiatorial combats. The Deposito del Poggio Oajelli, which is 
supposed, but without authority, to be the Mausoleum of Porsenna 
mentioned by Pliny and Varro, is 3 M. distant and much dilapidated. 
To the N.W., the Deposito delle Monache, 2 M. ; then, to the S.E., 
the Deposito del Colle, with mural paintings, 1 M. from the town. 
Near S. Caterina, on the way to the station, are small catacombs of 
the early-Christian period, and near them a Roman tomb. 

About 3'/2 M. to the S.W. of Chiusi lies the little town of Sarteano 
(about 1970 ft.), above which rises an ancient castle. The Villa Bargagli 
contains a collection of sarcophagi, vases, small bronzes, and other anti- 
quities found in the neighbourhood, to which admission is courteously granted. 

A diligence runs from the Chiusi station in 1 hr. to the (5 M.) loftily 
situated town of Citta della Pieve (16C5 ft.), with 2200 inhab., the birth- 
place of Pietro Vanrueci (1446-1 524), sirnamed Perugino after Perugia, which 



to Borne. ORVIETO. 9. Route. 63 

was the chief scene of his labours (comp. p. 49). The town possesses sev- 
eral of his pictures, but they are works of his later period, hastily 
painted and chiefly done by his pupils, as the master apparently deemed 
Jiis native place not capable of appreciating works of a more elaborate 
kind. — The oratory dei Disciplinati , or S. Maria dei Bianchi, contains 
an Adoration of the Magi, one of the largest pictures by Perugino; two 
letters of the artist from Perugia (1504) are shown with regard to the 
price of this fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. — In the Cathedral 
(interior modernised) is the Baptism of Christ (first chapel to the left), 
and in the choir a Madonna with SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Prota- 
sius , 1513. The picture of St. Antony with St. Paulus Eremita and St. 
Marcellus in S. Agostino, belonged originally to the church of S. Antonio. 
All these pictures are by Perugino. — Outside the Orvieto gate is the church 
of S. Maria dei Servi, containing remains of a Crucifixion by Perugino 
dating from 1517. 

The road leading from Citta della Pieve in an E. direction to Perugia 
(31 M.) was formerly much frequented. 

About 7'/2 II. to the S.W. of Chiusi (carriage in l'/4 hr.), and at the 
same distance to the W. from Citta della Pieve, lies the small town of 
Cetona, commanded by a mediaeval castle. The Palazzo Terrosi contains 
a small collection of antiquities found in the neighbourhood (visitors gen- 
erally admitted on presenting their cards), such as handsome poly- 
chrome and richly gilded urns ; an elephant's tusk with archaic reliefs 
from the Odyssey, etc. — Picturesque grounds at the back of the palace. 

The Railway descends the CMana valley. 104 M. Ficulle ; 
the village, 2 ] / 2 M. distant, lies on a hill to the right. 112 M. 
Allerona. Near Orvieto the Chiana falls into the Paglia, a turbul- 
ent tributary of the Tiber, which causes great damage in rainy 
seasons. The rock here is tertiary sandstone, while at Orvieto the 
volcanic district begins , of which the central point is the lake of 
Bolsena (p. 68). 

U81/2 M. Stat. Orvieto (440 ft.), at the base of the hill oc- 
cupied by the town, to which a cable-tramway (Funicolare; 5min. : 
30 c), 520 yds. in length , ascends at a gradient of 27 : 100, pass- 
ing through a tunnel under the Fortezza. Hotel-omnibuses wait at 
the upper end of the cable-tramway. 



Orvieto. — Hotels. "Geand Hotel delle Belle Abti (Palazzo Bisenzi), 
Corso Cavour, R., L., & A. 2-5, B. l'/2, dej. incl. wine 3, D. 5, omn. 1 fr. — 
Alb. Tokdi &, Aquila Bianca, Via Garibaldi, behind the Palazzo Comunale, 
R., L-., & A. 11/2-3, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4 (both incl. wine), omn. 1/2 fr., well 
spoken of; Locanda Valentini, Via S. Andrea 17, unpretending. — Gaffe 
Benedetti, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Wine of Orvieto is esteemed both here and at Rome. 

Photographs of Signorelli's frescoes sold by Armoni, near the Cathedral. 

Orvieto (1165 ft. ; 7300 inhab.), a small town and episcopal res- 
idence, on an isolated tufa rock, occupies the site of Volsinii, one 
of the twelve capitals of the Etruscan League. Volsinii, after various 
vicissitudes was taken and destroyed in B.C. 264 by the Romans, 
who are said to have carried off 2000 statues among the booty. The 
wealth of the ancient town has been proved by the discovery of 
numerous vases, trinkets, and statues. A new town, the Urbibentum 
of Procopius, arose on the site, and was called Vrbs Vetus in the 



64 Route 9. 



ORVIETO. 



From Florence 



8th cent, whence is derived its modern name. In the middle ages 
it was a great stronghold of the Guelphs, and often afforded refuge 
to the popes. Ahout 4-5 hrs. is sufficient for a hasty visit to the town. 
From the E. entrance to the town, where the terminus of the cable- 
tramway (p. 63) is situated, near the old castle mentioned below, 
runs the Corso, the principal street of Orvieto. Two mediaeval towers 




rise in this street; opposite the first of these is the Via del Duomo, 
which leads us straight to the Piazza S. Maria with the far-famed — 
**Cathedral (PI. 1), a magnificent example of the Italian Gothic 
style, and one of the most interesting buildings in Italy, founded in 
consequence of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' (comp. p. 68). The first stone 
was solemnly laid by Pope Nicholas IV. on 13th Nov. 1290, and the 
edifice begun under the supervision of a now unknown architect. 
The work progressed so rapidly that in 1309 Bishop Guido di Farnese 
was able to read the first mass in the church. It consists of a nave 
and aisles, with transept and rectangular choir. It is 114 1 / 2 yds. 
long and 36 yds. wide, and like the cathedrals of Florence and Siena 
is constructed of alternate courses of black and white marble. This 
cathedral, like those in other towns, once constituted a great arena 
for the display of artistic skill. The guardians of the building were 
unwearied in providing for its ornamentation, and like the curators 
of modern museums who are zealous to secure works by the best 
artists, they did all in their power to obtain the services of the first 
masters of the day for the embellishment of their church. 



to Rome. ORVIBTO. 9. Route. 65 

The *FAgADE, with its three gables, 44 yds. wide and 160 ft. 
high , is gorgeously enriched with sculptures and (freely restored) 
mosaics, and is probably the largest and most gorgeous 'polychrome' 
monument in existence. Though it was begun in 1310 under the 
supervision and according to the plans of Lorenzo Maitani of Siena, 
its upper part was not finished until the 16th century. 

The excellent Bas-Reliefs on the lower parts of the pillars, which in 
many respects are characteristic of the transitional style preceding the 
Renaissance, represent scenes from the Old and New Testament: 1st pillar 
to the left, from the Creation down to Tubal Cain; 2nd, Abraham, ge- 
nealogy of the Virgin ; 3rd, History of Christ and Mary ; 4th, Last Judgment 
with Paradise and Hell; above are the bronze emblems of the Evangelists, 
by Lor. Maitani. Above the principal portal, a Madonna under a canopy, 
in marble, by Andrea Pisano. On the margin of the large square panel, 
in the centre of which is a rose-window, are small marble statues of 
prophets, and above, of the Apostles, executed by Raffaello da Montelupo 
(1560 et seq.l. 

Above the doors and in the three pointed gables are Mosaics on a 
golden ground, of various periods (14-19th cent.): Annunciation, Nup- 
tials of the Virgin, Baptism of Christ, Coronation of the Madonna; the 
latter, the principal picture, is the highest. 

The 'Interior has recently been admirably restored. It is constructed, 
like that of the Siena cathedral, of alternate layers of dark and light 
stone (black basalt and greyish-yellow limestone from the vicinity). On 
each side four columns and two pillars separate the nave, which is 131 ft. 
in height, from the lower aisles. Above the round- arched arcades is a 
gallery adorned with rich carving. The windows are pointed, and the 
upper parts filled with stained glass. The visible frame-work of the roof 
was formerly richly ornamented. 

At the sides of the principal entrance, to the right, St. Sebastian by 
Scalza, to the left, St. Rochus. In the Left Aisle , Madonna and St. Ca- 
tharine, a fresco by Gentile da Fabriano (1426; much damaged). Before this 
stands a fine marble font, the lower part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the 
upper by Sano di Matteo (1407). — In the Nave, to the right, a fine marble 
holy water basin in the Renaissance style; in front of the columns, statues 
of the Apostles, by Mosca, Scalza, Toti, Giov. da Bologna, and other masters. 
— In the Choir, frescoes from the life of the Virgin by Ugolino di Prete 
oVIlario and Pielro di Puccio. By the high-altar (on both sides) the Annun- 
ziata by Mocchi. The beautifully inlaid stalls in the choir by artists of 
Siena, of the 14-15th cent., have recently been replaced by modern works. 
On each side is an altar with reliefs in marble: on the left, Visitation of 
Mary, executed by Moschino when 15 years of age, from designs by Samrnicheli ; 
to the right. Adoration of the Magi, by Mosca. 

Right Transept. The ""Cappella Noova, (best light in the morning), 
containing a miraculous image of the Virgin (Madonna di S.Brizio), occupies 
an important page in the annals of Italian art. Don Francesco di Barone, 
the superintendent of the cathedral-mosaics, having heard that the 'famous 
painter and monk' Fra Angelico da Fiesole was not engaged during the summer 
in Rome (where he had been working at the Vatican), invited him to 
Orvieto, and secured his services for the decoration of the chapel. In 1447 
Fra Angelico accordingly worked here, but for three months only, during 
which time he executed two panels of the vaulting above the altar 
representing Christ in the glory as Judge, and prophets to the right. No- 
thing more was done til 11499, when the work was continued and completed 
by Luca Signorelli. These mural paintings are the chief attraction here. 
The first fresco to the left of the entrance shows the overthrow of Anti- 
christ, who is represented in the foreground, preaching ; the two devout 
figures, in the corner to the left, are said to be portraits of Signorelli and 
Fra Angelico. The wall on the side by which we enter has been skilfully 
eovered with representations of the symbols of the Sun and Moon and the 
beath of the Two Witnesses. — Next in order are the Resurrection of 

BAEDEKEIt. T*»lv II. Hth TCdUinn 5 



66 Route 9. ORVIETO. From Florence 

the Dead and the Punishment of the Condemned; then, on the wall of the 
altar, (right) Descent into Hell, and (left) Ascent into Heaven, and lastly, 
adjoining the first picture, Paradise. — Below these are medallions of poets 
of the fnture life, surrounded with scenes from their works. On the 
ceiling: Apostles, angels with the instruments of the Passion, patriarchs 
and church-fathers, virgins and martyrs. — These painting3 are the most 
important work produced during the 15th century. In the mastery of form, 
in the boldness of motion and of foreshortening, and in the acquaintance 
with the nude, Signorelli is by no means unworthy of comparison with 
Michael Angelo, who, according to Vasari, borrowed several motives from 
these works for his Last Judgment in the Sixtine Chapel. — Signorelli 
also completed the decoration of the vaulting, and painted the fine Entomb- 
ment in the niche behind the Pieta of Bcalza (1572). 

Opposite, in the Left Transept, is the Cappella del Corporale, where, 
behind the principal altar , is a canopy of marble mosaic, containing a 
silver reliquary , in which is preserved the blood-stained chalice-cloth 
(corporale) connected with the Miracle of Bolsena (p. 68). The reliquary, 
executed by Ugolino di Maestro Vieri of Siena in 1337, and resembling in form 
the facade of the cathedral, is about 4V2 ft. broad, 2 ft. high, and 440 lbs. in 
weight. The Passion and the 'Miracle' are represented on it in brilliant 
enamel; it is exhibited to the public on Corpus Christi and on Easter 
Day , but at other times it is shown only by permission of the Sindaco. 
Modernised frescoes of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' by Ugolino di Prete Ilario 
(1357-64). Over the altar on the left, a Madonna by Lippo Memmi. 

Opposite the cathedral is the *Opeb.a del Duomo (PL 2), 
containing the Museo Municipale (adm. daily). Tickets {}j^ fr.) are 
obtained at Armoni's photograph-shop (p. 63), at the corner of the 
Piazza S. Maria and the Via del Duomo. 

Ground Floor. Room I. Weapons, bronzes, pottery, etc., from the 
Etruscan Necropolis (p. 67). Plan of the excavations. — Room II. Architec- 
tural ornaments in terracotta, from a Roman temple, the remains of which 
were discovered in a new street near the Giardino Pubblico. Reconstruc- 
tion of an Etruscan tomb. 

The First Floor contains mediaeval works of art belonging to the 
Opera del Duomo. Two fine designs on parchment for the facade of the 
cathedral (one, probably the older, showing only a single gable) and a sketch 
(also on parchment) for a pulpit, which was never completed; a beau- 
tifully carved and inlaid reading-desk ; a precious reliquary by Ugolino di 
Maestro Vieri and Viva da Siena ; vestments-; two statues representing the 
Annunciation, by Friedrich of Freiburg (14th cent.) ; two specimen frescoes 
by Signorelli, representing himself and a certain Niccolo Franceschi; a 
Madonna, a fine statue by Giov. Pisano, partly coloured, etc. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the right, behind, are the Palazzo 
Vescovile (12-13th cent.), and more in front the Palazzo dei Papi, 
or Palazzo Soliano, founded by Pope Boniface VIII. in 1294, with 
a large meeting-hall (now undergoing restoration). — In the street 
behind the latter is the Palazzo Marsciano ('degli Ufflzi governativi'), 
by Ant. da Sangallo the Younger. 

The Via del Duomo leads to the N.W. from the cathedral to 
(8 min.) the Piazza del Mercato, with the Pal. del Popolo or del Ca- 
pitano, the rear of which is interesting (12-13th cent.). — 8. Oio- 
venale(V\. 5), at the N.W. angle of the town, is an 11th cent, church, 
with early-Gothic choir, altar of 1170, and fragments of old frescoes 
(1312, 1399). 

The Corso leads to the Piazza Maggiore, now VittorioEmanuele, 
with the Palazzo del Comune (PI. 4), dating from the 12th cent, and 



to Rome. ORVIETO. 9. Route. 67 

restored in the 14th, the still unfinished facade of which was re- 
newed hy Scalza in 1585. — Adjacent is the church of S. Andrea 
(PI. 3), with a twelve-sided tower of the 11th cent, and a restored 
facade. In the interior are paintings of the 14th and 15th cent., 
and a late-Gothic pulpit, the ornamentation on the hack of which 
dates from the 9th century. 

In the S. transept of 5. Domenieo (PI. 6) is the monument of 
Cardinal de Braye, by Arnolfo di Cambio (1282); the crypt was 
hnilt by Sammicheli. 

The Fortress, constructed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1364, and sit- 
uated at the N.E. entrance of the town (p. 64), has been converted 
into a garden with an amphitheatre for public performances. Fine 
view of the valley of the Tiber and the Umbrian mountains. — The 
custodian of the garden keeps the key of the famous adjacent 
well, II Pozzo di S. Patrizw, which was begun by Ant. da Sangallo 
the Younger in 1527, and completed by Mosca in 1540. It is partly 
hewn in the tufa rock, partly built of masonry, and is 203 ft. deep, 
and 43 ft. wide. Two separate spiral staircases wind round the 
shaft ; the water-carrying asses descended by one, and ascended by 
the other (fee l / 2 fr.). 

On the N.W. slope of the hill on which the town stands, 
below the ancient town-wall, an extensive *Etruscan Necropolis 
was discovered in 1876 (most conveniently visited on the way 
back to the station , about halfway , a digression of less than 
200 paces; comp. Plan, p. 64). The tombs, which are arranged 
in groups and rows, date chiefly from the 5th cent. B. C, and some 
of them were found intact. Their facades, as elsewhere, are con- 
structed of three large stones, two of which, placed nearly upright, 
are roofed by the third. Adjoining the entrance is inscribed the 
name of the deceased in the ancient Etruscan character. The inner 
chamber is square in form, and covered with the primitive kind of 
vaulting in which the stones are laid horizontally, each overlapping 
the one below it. The tombs contained many painted vases , of 
Greek, and particularly of Corinthian and Attic workmanship, and 
articles of native manufacture, the most important being black ter- 
racotta vases with patterns impressed on them (now in the Opera 
del Duomo, p. 66). — A number of similar tombs have been dis- 
covered 2V2 M. to the S.W. of Orvieto, near a suppressed Capuchin 
monastery (comp. Plan). Two of these contain paintings. The route 
to them is rough. The custodian must be enquired for in the town. 
— About l^M. beyond the Porta Romana is La Badia, the ruined 
abbey-church of San Severo, dating from the 11th century. 

The Excursion to the Lake of Bolsena is most conveniently 
made from Orvieto (one-horse carr. to Bolsena, 12 M., in about 
3 hrs., 10-12 fr.; bargain beforehand). — Quitting Orvieto by the 
Porta Maggiore or W. gate the road at first descends into the valley 

5* 



68 Route 9. LAKE OP BOLSENA. From Florence 

but soonie-ascends with many -windings (fine retrospect of the town) 
through a well- cultivated district to a monotonous plateau, which 
it traverses for some time (the direct road to Monteflascone, p. 71, 
diverges to the left). Finally we descend abruptly to — 

Bolsena {Hotel in the Piazza), a poor little town with 2200 in- 
hab., picturesquely situated on the N.W. bank of the lake, a little 
below the site of Volsinii Novi, which arose after the destruction 
of the older Volsinii (p. 63). The present town contains inscriptions, 
columns, and sculptures of this Roman municipium. The ancient 
site is reached in a few minutes by an antique causeway of basalt. 
Among the ruins is an amphitheatre, worthy of special attention, 
now converted into a vegetable-garden. Beautiful views of the lake. 

The church of S. Cristina was founded in the 11th cent, and 
embellished with its fine Renaissance facade by Cardinal Giov. 
Medici, afterwards Pope Leo X., in 1503. Above the doors are two 
terracotta reliefs by Andrea della Bobbia. 

Interior. To the right of the choir is a bust of S. Lucia, of the 
school of the Robbia, beneath a wooden crucifix of the 14th century. A 
portal in the left aisle dates from the 11th cent.; the relief represents 
the Five Wise Virgins and the Adoration of the Magi. Beneath the 
church, in the space before the entrance to the Catacombs, stands a terra- 
cotta altar, of the school of the Robbia; to the right, above the stone 
with which St. Christina, a maiden of Bolsena, was drowned in 278, is 
the Altar del Miracolo (see below), beneath a canopy of the 8th century. 
Adjacent is the Tomb of the Saint, below a modern canopy. The church 
also contains a small Museum, with inscriptions and glass vessels from the 
catacombs, Longobard antiquities, and a terracotta statue of St. Christina, 
dating fiom the beginning of the 16th century. 

The 'Miracle of Bolsena', the subject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican, occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest, who was somewhat 
sceptical as to the doctrine of transubstantiation , was convinced of its 
truth by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which he 
had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV. in- 
stituted the festival of Corpus Domini in 1264 and ordered the erection 
of the superb cathedral of Orvieto (p. 64). 

The Museum Comunale, in the Piazza, contains a Roman sarco- 
phagus, with the triumph of Bacchus. 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Zacus Volsiniensis, 995 ft. above the 
sea-level, a circular sheet of water, 28 M. in circumference, is the vast 
crater of an extinct volcano, which formed the central point of a wide 
sphere of volcanic agency, extending as far as Orvieto. The lake 
abounds in fish (its eels are mentioned by Dante, Purg. xxiv, 24) ; but the 
banks, especially on the W. side, are bleak and deserted, owing to the 
malaria, which is not easily dispersed by the wind from the confined 
basin of the lake. The monotony of the surface is relieved by the two 
picturesque islands of Bisenlina and the rocky Mariana. On the latter 
Amalasuntha, Queen of the Goths, the only daughter of Theodoric the 
Great, was imprisoned in 534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, 
by order of her cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank 
of co-regent. The church in the island of Bisentina was erected by the 
Farnese family and embellished by the Carracci. It contains the relics 
of St. Christina. 

From Bolsena the road leads towards the 8., at first on the bank of 
the lake, then ascending through woods, to (31/4 hrs.; in the reverse direc- 
tion 2 3 /4 hrs.) Monteflascone (p. 71). 



to Rome. ORTE. 9. Route. 69 

The Railway from Okvieto to Orte and Rome now traverses 
the wooded valley of the Tiber, the broad, stony bed of which bears 
traces of numerous inundations. Two tunnels. To the left lies Baschi. 
126 M. Castiglione Teverino; the river is crossed. 130 M. Alviano; 
136 M. Attigliano (junction for Viterbo, p. 71); 139!/2 M. Bassano 
Teverino, on a hill to the right. 

The small Lake of Bassano, formerly Lacus Vadimonis, now much di- 
minished in extent, is famous in ancient history as the scene of the great 
victories of the Romans over the Etruscans, B.C. 309 and 283. Pliny the 
Younger (Ep. viii. 20) has described the lake with its 'floating islands 1 . 
— About 3 M. farther to the W. is Bomarzo, picturesquely situated on a 
precipitous rock, near the ancient Polimarlium , where extensive exca- 
vations have been made. 

The train passes through several tunnels , and afterwards skirts 
the right bank of the Tiber, till it' approaches Orte, which becomes 
visible on the height to the left. It then traverses a longer tunnel 
and reaches the station of Orte , where the railway from Foligno 
(Perugia and Ancona; R. 11) unites with the main line. 

144 M. Orte (*Rail. Restaurant), with 2900 inhab., loftily situated 
about 2 M. to the N., the ancient Horta, presents no object of in- 
terest beyond its situation. — The train descends the valley of the 
Tiber on the right bank, affording pleasant glimpses of both banks. 
The lofty and indented ridge of Mount Soracte (p. 70) becomes 
visible, at first to the left, then to the right. To the left, on the 
other side of the river, lie S. Vito and Otricoli, the latter a small 
place 6 M. distant from Orte, near the site of the ancient Otriculum, 
where numerous antiquities (p. 299 etc.), have been excavated. — 
150 M. Gallese. Farther on, high above the left bank, is the small 
town of Magliano. 

152l/ 2 M. Borghetto , with a ruined castle on the height to the 
right. The Tiber is crossed by the handsome Ponte Felice, construct- 
ed by Augustus, and restored in 1589 by SixtusV., over which most 
of the traffic between Rome and the N.E. provinces formerly passed. 

About 5 M. to the S.W. of Borghetto (carriages at the station) lies 
Civita Castellana (Ate. Natalucci, good cuisine), with 4300 inhab., 
picturesquely situated 500 ft. above the sea, near the site of Falerii, 
the town of the Falisci, which was captured by Camillus in B. C. 396. 
A bridge, erected by Clement XI. in 1712, carries the road into 
the town across a ravine, 120 ft. in depth. The Cathedral of 8. 
Maria, rebuilt in the 16th cent, retains a handsome portico erected 
in 1210 by Jacobus Romanus and his son Cosmas; the bust in 
mosaic of Christ over the door to the right is by jacobus. The 
choir-screens also date from the 13th century. A flight of steps 
leads from the high-altar to a chapel on the left with two tablets of 
rich Cosmato work. Some of the columns in the crypt are an- 
cient. — The Citadel, erected by Alexander VI. in 1500 from a 
design by Ant. da Sangallo the Elder, was enlarged by Julius II. 
and Leo X. The deep ravines by which the town is enclosed testify 
to vast volcanic convulsions. They contain a few fragments of an- 



70 Route 9. SORACTE. 

cient walls and numerous Etruscan tombs hewn in the rock, espe- 
cially near the citadel. At the highest point of the town-district, 
in the Contrada lo Scasato, the remains of an Etruscan Temple were 
discovered in 1887 ; while another, known as the Temple of Juno 
Quiritis, was found in the Contrada Celle, the valley to the N.E. 
of the town. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii Novi (now pronounced 
Filleri), 3 M. distant. Near the citadel the Ponle del Terreno is crossed to the 
left, where tombs honeycomb the rocks on all sides, this being the more 
direct route to Falerii Novi or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans 
about 240, situated in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan 
and Roman tombs are here seen by the side of the road. The town was 
nearly in the form of a triangle, l l fe M. in circumference; the well-pre- 
served walls are protected by square towers and penetrated by gates, of 
which the Porta di Giove on the W., and the Porta del Bove, on the S.E. 
are worthy of a visit Near the latter are the theatre (of Roman construc- 
tion), the piscina, and what is regarded as the forum, at the back of the 
theatre. At the Porta di Giove , within the walls , is the interesting ruin 
of the Abbadia di S. Maria, of the 12th century. In the nave, antique 
columns. The adjoining building contains inscriptions, statues , etc. , the 
result of excavations made here. An amphitheatre has also been discovered. 

Civita Castellana is a starting-point for the Soracte; there and back 
about 7 hrs. A good road (one-horse carriage 6-8 fr. ; about 2 hrs.) leads 
to <S. Oreste, formerly called S. Rest(i)o and in the 10th cent. S. Edistio, a 
village about V2 nr - from the summit. 

Soracte , mentioned by Horace (Carm. i. 9 : Vides ul alia ttet nive 
candidum Soracte) and Virgil (jEn. xi, 785: Summe deum sancti custos So- 
ractis Apollo), is a limestone-ridge, descending precipitously on both sides, 
extending 3-4 M. from N.W. to S. E., and culminating in several peaks 
of different heights. On the slope which gradually descends towards the 
S. E. is situated the village of S. Oreste. Leaving the miserable village 
to the right, the path ascends gradually to the left, and in '/j hr. reaches 
the monastery of S. Silveslro (2120 ft.), founded in 746 by Carloman, son 
of Charles Martel and brother of Pepin. The central and highest summit 
(2265 ft.), with the church of jS. Silveslro and a small disused monastery, 
may now be reached in a few minutes. In ancient times a Temple of 
Apollo occupied this site. The "View, uninterrupted in every direction, 
embraces several snow-clad peaks of the Central Apennines, the Volscian 
and Alban Mts., the sea (to the W.), and the Clminian Forest (to the N.). 
— We may descend from S. Oreste to Stimigliano (see below) in about 
2'/2 hrs. (mule 5 fr.) 

The Borghetto and Civita Castellana road next leads to (7 l /i M.) Jfepi 
(p. 76). Halfway a road diverges on the right to Caprarola (p. 75). 

Beyond Borghetto, to the right, Civita Castellana (p. 69) be- 
comes visible for a short time. The train crosses to the left bank of 
the Tiber. 160'/ 2 M. Stimigliano, and 165 M. Poggio Mirteto, both sit- 
uated in the mountainous district of the Sabina, where olive-trees 
abound. 172 M. Fara Sabina lies near the ruins of Cures, the an- 
cient Sabine town, where Numa Pompilius was born, 

The line follows the left bank of the Tiber to (180 M.) Monte 
Botondo. The village (3400 inhab.), to the left, 2 M. higher (fine 
view of the Sabine Mts.), has an old castle of the Orsini, now be- 
longing to the Piombino family. It was stormed by Garibaldi on 
26th Oct., 1867. About 1 M. to the S.E. is Mentana (p. 341), where 
he was defeated on 3rd Nov. by the Papal and French troops, and 
forced to retreat. 



MONTEFIASCONE. 10. Route. 71 

From Monte Rotondo to Rome, a journey of 3 / 4 hr., the line 
follows the direction of the ancient Via Solaria. At (I86Y2 M.) 
Castel Oiubileo (p. 339) -we catch our first glimpse of the dome of 
St. Peter's at Rome, which vanishes again as we approach the Anio 
(p. 339). To the left are the Sabine and Alban mountains; then 
Rome again, with the dome of St. Peter, becomes -visible to the right. 
— 19V2 M. Portonaccio. A wide circuit round the city is described, 
and near the Porta Maggiore the so-called temple of Minerva Me- 
dica (p. 156) is passed, on the left. 

196 M. Rome, see p. 115. 

10. From Attigliano to Viterbo. 

The Etruscan Towns in the neighbourhood of Viterbo. 

Fkom Attigliano to Viteebo, 25 M., railway in l'A-iVs hr. (fares 4fr. 
55, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 5 c). 

Attigliano , see p. 69. — The train crosses the Tiber, passes 
(3*/2 M.) Sipicciano and (lO 1 ^ M.) Orotte S. Stefano, and reaches — 

I6Y2 M. Montefiascone. The station, at which omnibuses and 
carriages meet the trains, lies on the Viterbo road, nearly 3M. from 
the high-lying town. Shortly before we reach the latter, we pass 
S. Flaviano, an interesting church of 1030, restored by Urban IV. 
in 1262 (the shorter foot-path does not pass the church). The an- 
cient lower church contains the tomb of the Canon Johannes Fugger 
of AugsbuTg, with the inscription — 

Est, Est, Est. Propter nimium est, 
Johannes de Ike., D. mens, mortuus est. 

It is recorded of this ecclesiastic, that, when travelling, he directed his 
valet to precede him and to inscribe the word 'Est' on the doors of the 
hostelries where the best wine was to be had. On the door of the inn at 
Montefiascone ('bottle mountain') the 'Est' was written three times , and 
the good canon relished the wine here so highly that he never got any 
farther. The best muscatel of the district is still known as Est Est (1 fr. 
per 'fiaschetto'). 

The little town (2010 ft. ; Albergo Garibaldi, tolerable, bargain 
advisable), with 3100 inhab. , commands a magnificent view : N. the 
lake of Bolsena as far as the chain of M. Amiata, E. the Umbrian 
Apennines, S. as far as the Ciminian Forest, "W. as far as the sea. 
The extensive plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages 
may be surveyed from this point ; and it has therefore been reason- 
ably conjectured that the celebrated Fanum Voltumnae, the most 
sacred shrine of the Etruscans, once stood here. The uncompleted 
Cathedral of S. Margareta, with an octagonal dome, was one of the 
earliest works of Sammieheli (16th cent.). 

To (8 M.) Bolsena, see p. 68. The direct road to Orvieto does not 
touch Bolsena, but remains on the height to the E. A branch to the right 
leads to (3 M.) Bagnorea (the ancient Balneum Regis') , picturesquely sit- 
uated on a hill surrounded by ravines, and interesting to geologists. 

The railway to Viterbo runs to the S. through a bleak and un- 
attractive plain. Midway between Montefiascone and Viterbo, to the 
W. of the high-road lies part of the ancient Via Cassia (p. 77). 



72 Route 10. V1TEBB0. From Attigliano 

25 M. Viterbo. — Station to the N. of the town, outside the Porta 
Fiorentina. 

Hotels. Grahdori, at the Porta Fiorentina, R. from l'/a fr. . also re- 
staurant and cafe ; Schenardi, near the Piazza, with a frequented trattoria; 
Piccolo Parigi, near the station; Angelo (tolerable, R. li/i fr.), Tre Re, 
both in the Piazza. — Schenardis is the best cafe. 

Post Office, Piazza del Plebiscito. — Photographs at Leonardo Primi'i, 
S. Giovanni in Zoccoli 7, and PolozzVs, Vicolo della Ficunaccia. 

Viterbo, an episcopal residence with 15,300 inhab., surrounded 
by ancient Longobard walls and towers, is situated in a plain on the 
N. side of the Ciminian Forest, 1210 ft. above the sea-level. It 
was the central point of the extensive grant called the 'patrimony 
of St. Peter', made by the Countess Matilda of Tuscia (d. 1115) to 
the papal see, and is frequently mentioned in history as a residence 
of the popes , and as the scene of the papal elections in the 13th 
century. Viterbo, called by old Italian authors the 'city of hand- 
some fountains and beautiful women', still presents an abundance 
of fine architectural details and picturesque points. 

The centre of the town is occupied by the Piazza del Plebiscito, 
in which rises the *Palazzo Pubblico, -with a beautiful portico of 
the 15th century. The court contains an elegant fountain and six 
large Etruscan sarcophagi with figures and inscriptions. To the right 
is the entrance to the Museo Municipale (key on the 1st floor; fee 
72-1 fr.). 

This contains Etruscan and Roman antiquities ; also the 'Decree of 
Desiderius, king of the Longobards', and the Tabula Cibellaria, forgeries of 
the notorious Annius of Viterbo, a Dominican monk who died at Rome in 
1502 ; mediaeval sculptures , including a sphinx from S. Maria in Grado 
(1285); portrait-bust in terracotta, probably by Andrea delta Robbia (1510) ; 
an Aquamanile of the 12th cent.; and a few paintings: "Pieta from the 
church of S. Francesco, painted by Seb. del Piombo under the influence 
of Michael Angelo ; an ancient but ruined replica of the Scourging of 
Christ (p. 320), by the same; a Baptism of Christ from S. Giovanni de' Fio- 
rentini, also ascribed to Sebastiano; and a Madonna, by Lorenzo da Viterbo. 

Opposite the Palazzo Pubblico , to the left , is the small church 
of 8. Angelo, on the facade of which is a Roman sarcophagus, with the 
Hunt of Meleager; above is a 16th cent, inscription in honour of the 
beautiful Galiana (1138), on whose account , like Helen of old, a 
war was once kindled between Rome and Viterbo, in which the 
latter was victorious. 

Opposite, at the corner of the Via dell' Indipendenza, are a lion 
and a palm-tree, corresponding to a similar group at the other cor- 
ner of the Piazza, whence the Via 8. Lorenzo leads to the cathedral. 
Before reaching the latter we cross a square, with a medieval foun- 
tain, and a large bridge. 

In the piazza in front of the cathedral is the spot where in July, 
1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, an Englishman) 
compelled the Emp. Frederick I., as his vassal, to hold his stirrup, 
pmong the mediaeval buildings to the left is the dilapidated but 
Aicturesque Episcopal Palace of the 13th cent., in which, by order 
of Charles of Anjou, the Conclave elected Gregory X. pope in 1271, 



to Viterbo. VITERBO. 10. Route. 73 

John XXI. in 1276, and Martin IV. in 1281. The platform behind 
the palace commands a fine view. 

The Cathbdbal of S. Lobjbnzo, ahandsome Romanesque basilica 
of the 12th cent., with a Gothic campanile, was restored after 1489. 

Interior. The fantastic capitals of the columns should be noticed. 
At the end of the right aisle is the new tomb of Pope John XXI. ; the 
ancient tomb of 1277 is opposite, in the left aisle, behind the door. In the 
sacristy is a fresco, Christ with four saints, ascribed to Lorenzo da Viterbo 
(1472). — At the high-altar of this church, in 1279, Count Guido de Mont- 
fort, the partisan of Charlea of Anjou, assassinated Henry, son of Count 
Richard of Cornwall, King of the Germans and brother of Henry III., in 
order thereby to avenge the death of his father, who had fallen at the 
battle of Evesham in 1265 when fighting against Henry III. Dante men- 
tions this deed and places the assassin in the seventh region of hell (Inf. 
xn, 120). Other versions of the story mention the church of S. Silvestro 
(now del Gesii) as the scene of the crime. 

We return to the Piazza del Plebiscito (p. 72). Passing through 
the archway to the right of the Palazzo Pubblico, we reach in a 
few yards the elegant portal of the church of the Madonna della 
Salute (13th cent.). — [Some of the oldest houses in the town are 
to be found in the Vicolo del Pellegrino, between the Piazza del 
Plebiscito and the gate leading to Vetralla.] 

In the market-place rises the Fontana Qrande, begun in 1206. 
The Via Vittorio Emanuele and the Via Margherita lead hence to 
the Porta Fiorentina, in the direction of the railway-station. At 
the end of the former we ascend to the right to the church of S. 
Rosa, which contains the blackened mummy of that saint , who was 
born here in the 13th cent., and urged the people to rise against the 
Emp. Frederick II. Her festival is Sept. 3rd. Here also are fres- 
coes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1453) and an altar-piece by the modern 
German painter "Wittmer. — The Vicolo della Ficunaccia and the 
following street lead to the little Romanesque church of S. Oiovanni 
in Zoccoli (11th cent.) and thence bythe Porta S. Matteo to — 

8. Maria della Veriib (key in the Scuola Tecnica, 1st floor), in 
which the Oappella Mazzatosto, to the right, is adorned with *Fres- 
coes by Lorenzo da Viterbo (completed in 1469) , representing the 
Marriage of the Virgin, the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Ascen- 
sion, saints, and prophets, with numerous portraits. The majolica 
floor-tiles in front of the altar date from the 15th century. Fine 
monastery-court. The foundations of a palace built by Frederick II. 
have been excavated between S. Maria della Verita and the station. 
- Near the Porta Fiorentina, in the Piazza della Rocca, stands a 
fountain of 1566, ascribed to Vignola, adjacent to which is the 
Gothic church of S. Francesco. In the right transept of the latter 
are the tombs of Pope Clement IV. (d. 1268), to the right, and 
Hadrian V. (d. 1276), to the left; to the left of the high-altar is a 
cardinal's tomb of 1536, and in the left transept another of 1445. 

Outside the Porta Fiorentina lies the Oiardino Pubblico, with 
its gay flower-beds , and busts of Victor Emmanuel , Cavour, and 
Garibaldi. 



74 Route 10. TOSCANELLA. Excursions 

Excursions. About l 1 /* M. to the N.B. of Viterbo, towards Orte (one- 
horse cab '/a f r 1 1S the handsome pilgrimage-church of S. Maria delta 
Querela (1470-1525), the facade of which is erroneously said to have been 
designed by Bramante. One of the two courts of the adjoining Dominican 
monastery has a Renaissance loggia supported on Gothic foundations ; both 
courts have pretty fountains. — About l'/4M- farther on is the smalltown 
of Bagnaia, with the charming 'Villa Lante, built in the 15-16th cent., the 
summer-residence of the ducal family of that name, with fine fountains 
and splendid oaks (visitors admitted; carr. to the Quercia and Bagnaia 
and back, with stay at both places, 2 fr.). 

About 2 M. to the W. of Viterbo is the Bvlicame, a warm sulphurous 
spring, mentioned by Dante (Inf. xiv, 79) and still used for baths. The 
attractive road thither (3/ 4 hr. ; turn to the right behind the Palazzo Pub- 
blico) commands a fine view of Viterbo. — To Castel d'Asso, see p. 75. 



Several expeditions interesting both to antiquarians andto lovers 
of the picturesque may be made from Viterbo to the surrounding 
ruins of ancient Etruscan Cities. The volcanic nature of the dis- 
trict, indicated by the profound ravines and fissures of the surface, 
and the dreary desolation which prevails, combined with the proxi- 
mity of graves of 2000 years' antiquity, impart an impressive sadness 
to the scene. — The inns are generally very unpretending. 

About IY4 M. to the N. of Viterbo, on the W. side of the road 
to Civitella cCAgliana, near the Casale del Fontanile, are the ruins 
of Ferento, the Etruscan Ferentinum, birthplace of the Emperor 
Otho. In the 11th cent, it was destroyed by the inhabitants of 
Viterbo on account of its heretical tendencies, for the Ferentines re- 
presented the Saviour on the cross with open eyes, instead of closed, 
as was thought more orthodox. Such at least is the account of the 
chroniclers. Among the extensive mediaeval , Roman, and Etruscan 
remains, a Theatre of peculiar and primitive construction, with later 
additions, deserves notice. The return to Viterbo through the ro- 
mantic valley of the Acqua Rosa is recommended. 

AVettura-Corriera, which takes passengers, leaves Viterbo daily 
for Toscanella, I21/2 M. to the "W., on the road to Corneto (p. 5), 
and a diligence also plies thither thrice a week in 3 hrs. 

Toscanella (625 ft.; Albergo Marcoaldi), the ancient Toscania, is 
a mediaeval-looking town of 3600 inhab., with walls and towers. 
Outside the Viterbo gate is a picturesque ravine, with several 
Etruscan tombs. Amidst the ruins of the ancient An, on the height 
to the right, is the Romanesque church of S. Pietro, dating from 
the 9th cent., and restored in 1039, though part of the florid facade 
is later. In the interior are a tabernacle of 1093, choir-screens 
from the original church, and (to the right of the choir) fres- 
coes of the 11th century. The crypt is ancient. The custodian 
lives adjacent, in the dilapidated bishop's palace. — The somewhat 
later church of S. Maria, in the valley, is essentially an edifice 
of the close of the 11th cent., but the picturesque facade dates from 
the following century. The pulpit has been put together out of 
ancient and modern fragments. Custodian a the Palazzo Comu- 



from Viterbo. CASTEL D'ASSO. 10. Route. 75 

nale. Both churches are now disused. — The small Qarden of the 
Countess Campanari, in the lower part of the town, containing 
several sarcophagi with lifesize portraits of the deceased on the 
lids and an imitation of an Etruscan tomb, is interesting. Signor 
Carlo Campanari, late husband of the proprietrix, and his father 
conducted many of those extensive excavations which have filled 
the museums of Europe with Etruscan vases, goblets, mirrors, etc. 
Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castellaccio , 5 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo , may be visited on horseback or on foot (lights should not be 
forgotten by those who intend to explore the tombs). Passing the Buli- 
came (p. 74), the road traverses a moor and leads to the valley, which 
contains a succession of Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The fronts 
of these are architecturally designed, and bear some resemblance to the 
rock-tombs of Egypt; numerous inscriptions. On the opposite hill are the 
picturesque ruins of a mediaeval castle and the scanty remains of an 
ancient village, probably the Castellum Axia of Cicero. 

About 9 M. to the S.W. of "Viterbo, with which it is connected 
by diligence , lies Vetralla (3500 inhab.), near the Roman Forum 
Cassii. At the entrance, near the Osteria, is 8. Francesco, a basilica 
of the 12th cent., with a tomb of the 14th. From Vetralla a visit 
may be paid (with guide) to the Necropolis of Norchia. "We follow 
the road to Corneto for about 2i/ 4 M. , and then a rough track over 
a bleak moor for 3 M. more. The valley of graves here is similar to 
that of Castel d'Asso, but more imposing. Two of the tombs are 
Greek in style. On the other side of the valley a town named 
Orcle stood in the 9th cent., of which only the ruins of the castle 
and church now remain. — Bieda, the ancient Blera, now a poor 
village, 41/2 M. to the S. of Vetralla, possesses similar rock-tombs 
and two ancient bridges. The scenery is striking. 

The high-road from Viterbo forks at Vetralla : the W. branch 
proceeds via Monte Romano to Corneto (diligence on fixed days ; 
see p. 5), the S.E. to (11 M.) Sutri (p. 76). 

The high-road from Viterbo to Rome (47 M.) is now rarely 
traversed by tourists. A railway via Bracciano (p. 392) is being 
built; meanwhile a diligence runs daily; one-horse carriage, about 
40 fr., bargain necessary. The detour via. Sutri is recommended for 
driving, but as the inns are mostly poor, provisions should be taken. 
— The high-road gradually ascends the now sparsely wooded height 
of Mons Ciminius, onee considered the impregnable bulwark of central 
Etruria, until the Consul Q. Fabius , B.C. 308, successfully tra- 
versed it and signally defeated the Etruscans. The culminating 
point of the pass (2850 ft. ; no inn), on which lies an old post-station, 
commands an admirable view to the N. and "W. as far as the sea. A 
little farther on we enjoy a beautiful view of the Roman Campagna. 
To the right, below, lies the small, round Lago di Vico, the Lacus 
Ciminius (1700 ft.), an extinct crater surrounded by woods. 

About 9 M. from Viterbo by a farm a road diverges to the left 
from the road to Rome , and leads in l /. 2 hr. through wood to the 
little hill-town of Caprarola (about 4900 inhab.). The lofty *Palazzo 



76 Route 10. NEPI. 

Farnese here, built about 1547-49 by Vignola for Cardinal Alexander 
Farnese, nephew of Paul III., is one of the most magnificent chateaux 
of the Renaissance. 

The chateau, the property of the ex -king Francis of Naples, is let 
to Dr. K. Ohlsen, who has carefully maintained the building and filled the 
rooms with works of art. The ground-plan is pentagonal , with a central 
rotunda; the round central court, with its arcades, is adjoined by five wings 
of equal size. The chief facade looks towards the town (N.E.). The 
saloons and other apartments are adorned with frescoes of scenes from the 
history of the Farnese family, allegories, etc., by Federigo, Giovanni, and 
Taddeo Zucchero and Antonio Tempesta. The fine view ranges across the 
hilly country with the ancient Etruscan cities of Nepi, Sutri, and Falerii, 
to the Soracte ; in the distance rise the dome of St. Peter's and the Vols- 
cian hills, to the E. the Apennines, and to the S.E. the Abruzzi. The 
beautiful gardens are embellished with fountains and statues, and with the 
charming Palazzina, also designed by Vignola. — The fruit trees cultivated 
by Dr. Ohlsen enjoy a wide reputation. — From Caprarola to Civila 
Castellana, see p. 70. 

Farther on, on the road to Rome, about I2Y2M. fromViterbo, is 
Bonciglione (Albergo Aquila d'Oro, rustic) , a beautifully situated 
little town (5400 inhab.), commanded by a ruined castle. 

About 2'/ 2 M. to the S. of Ronciglione, on the road from Ve- 
tralla (p. 75), picturesquely situated on the crest of an isolated 
volcanic hill, is Sutri (2300 inhab.), the ancient Etruscan Sutrium, 
frequently mentioned as the ally of Rome in the wars against the 
Etruscans, from whom it was wrested by Camillus in B.C. 389 
(Claustra Etruriae). In 383 it became a Roman colony. The deep 
ravine contains numerous Etruscan tombs, and, on the S. side, 
fragments of the ancient walls. Three of the five gates are ancient, 
two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side (said to be 
so named after M. Furius Camillus), now built up. Outside the 
Porta Romana, at the foot of an eminence near the Villa Savorelli, 
is situated an Amphitheatre, hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, 
erroneously regarded by some as Etruscan (axes 55 and 44 yds. 
respectively). The rocks above contain numerous tomb-chambers, 
one of which has been converted into a church, where, according to 
various local traditions, the early Christians used to celebrate divine 
service. A legend attaching to the Orotta d' Orlando, near the 
town, describes it as the birthplace of the celebrated paladin of 
Charlemagne. 

A bridle-path leads in 2 hrs. from Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and 
Trevignano (p. 392). — A diligence plies from Sutri to Kome. 

The road from Vetralla intersects the road to Rome , 4 M. to 
the E. of Sutri and 6y 4 M. to the S.E. of Ronciglione, and reaches, 
2'/ 2 M. farther to the E., the little town of — 

Nepi (2200 inhab.), the Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, afterwards 
Colonia Nepensis, now an episcopal seat and surrounded by mediaeval 
walls and towers. The elegant Renaissance Palazzo Municipale, in 
the market-place, contains a few Roman sculptures and inscriptions. 
The Cattedrale dates from the llth cent., but its crypt is older. The 
picturesque ruined Castello , to the E. of the town, occupies the 



ASSISI. 11. Route. 77 

site of an ancient castle rebuilt by Pope Alexander VI. , and restored 
by Paul III. Lucretia Borgia resided here in 1500 after the death 
of her first husband. Below the castle, near the Porta Romana, are 
some squared blocks of tufa belonging to Etruscan Walls. 

A road, beginning beside the imposing aqueduct which crosses the 
Rio Falisco at the entrance to the town, leads to the right to ( 3 / 4 M.) Castel 
S. Elia. The ancient church of S. Elia, built about 1000, containing nu- 
merous frescoes of the 11th cent., an old pulpit, and crypts, is now preserved 
as a 'monumento nazionale' (key at the sindaco's). The view from the 
Campo Santo is strikingly beautiful. 

From Nepi a high-road runs to (7'/2 M.) Civita-Castellana (p. 69). 

From the above-mentioned cross-roads, the route to Rome leads 
to (l^M.) Monterosi, where it joins the high-road from Sutri to 
Rome, the ancient Via Cassia (p. 389), and thence proceeds through 
a peaceful but attractive district via Le Sette Vene (no inn) and 
Baccano to (11 M.) La Storta (p. 390). About 1 M. before La Storta 
the road to the ruins of Veii (p. 390) diverges to the left. — From 
La Storta to Rome, see p. 390. 

11. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). 

77 M. Railway in 441/2 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 5, 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 36 c. ; ex- 
press 15 fr., 10 fr. 55 c). — The most interesting points are Assisi, Spoleto, 
and Terni. It is sometimes advisable to exchange the railway for the road ; 
in this way the Tomb of the Volumnii (p. 57) may be visited by driv- 
ing from Perugia to Assisi, and the temple of Clitumnus between Fo- 
ligno and Spoleto (p. 84). — Fkom Pekugia to Eome , 128 M., in 5 3 /4- 
7 s /4 hrs. 

Perugia, see p. 48. The train descends, passing through 
several tunnels. To the left we obtain a glimpse of the tomb of the 
Volumnii (p. 57). 7 M. Ponte 8. Giovanni. The train crosses the 
Tiber, the ancient frontier between Etruria and Umbria, and the 
Chiaseio. 13 M. Bastia. 

15 M. Assisi. The town lies on a hill to the left (omn. 1, there 
and hack lV2 fr 0- 

Before ascending to Assisi the traveller should visit the magnifi- 
cent church of *S. Mabia DEGLr Angeli, about y t M. to the W. of 
the station, on the site of the original oratory of St. Francis. It was 
begun in 1569 by Vignola, after whose death in 1573 it was con- 
tinued by Qaleazzo Alessi and completed by Giulio Danti. The 
nave and choir were re-erected after the earthquake of 1832, but 
the dome had escaped injury. 

The interior contains, below the dome, the Oratory of the saint (called 
Portiuncula) , the cradle of the Franciscan order, on the facade of which 
is the 'Miracle of Roses', a vision of St. Francis, a fresco by Fr. Over- 
beck (1829); built in on the other aide, to the left, is part of an altar of 
the 9th cent.; frescoes by Presbyter Ilarius de Viterbo (1393). — In the 
Cappella di S. Giuseppe in the left transept is an altar with terracotta 
reliefs by Andrea delta Robbia (Coronation of the Virgin, St. Francis 
'.receiving the stigmata, St. Jerome). — To the E. of the sacristy is a little 
garden in which the saint's thornless roses bloom. Adjacent are the 
. Cappella dette Mote, containing frescoes from the life of the saint by Tiberio 



78 Route 11. ASSISI. From Perugia 

a" Assist (1518), and the hut of St. Francis, over which an oratory was 
erected by Bonaventura and adorned with frescoes by Lo Spagna. 

A beautiful path leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi in 3/ 4 hr. 

Assisi. — Hotels. *Ai,bergo del Subasio (PI. a ; C, 3), with a fine 
view , adjoining the monastery of S. Francesco , R., L., & A. 2'/2, B. 1, 
dej. 2'/2, D. 3'/2 fr.; "Leone (PI. b; D, 3), Piazza del Vescovado, R,, 
L., & A. I1/2, dej. 2^2, D. 4 (both incl. wine), pens., even for a short 
stay, 7, man. 1 fr.; Minerva, near the Porta S. Pietro (PI. C, 3), R., L., & A. 
from V/t fr., unpretending; Biagetti, near S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 77). 

Photographs from Giotto's frescoes Bold by P. Lunghi, in the Piazza 
near S. Francesco, and by 0. Carloforti, Via Portica 8. 

Assisi (1345 ft.), a small town and episcopal see (pop. 3700), the 
ancient Umbrian Asisium, where in B.C. 46 the elegiac poet Pro- 
pertius, and in 1698 the opera-writer Pietro Metastasio (properly 
Trapassi, d. at Vienna in 1782) were born, stands in a singularly 
picturesque situation. 

It is indebted for its reputation to St. Francis, one of the most remark- 
able characters of the middle ages, who was born here in 1182. He was 
the son of the merchant Pietro di Bernardone and his wife Pica, and spent his 
youth in frivolity. At length, whilst engaged in a campaign against Perugia, 
he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order of Francis- 
cans, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe, and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent III., and in 1223 by Honorius III. Pov- 
erty and self-abnegation formed the essential characteristics of the order, 
which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observan- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 1526) was soon widely diffused. St. Francis 
is said to have been favoured with visions, the most important of which 
was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the marks of his wounds 
(stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified seraph' the saint is also 
known as Pater Seraphicus. St. Francis died on 4th Oct., 1226, and in 1228 
was canonised by Gregory IX. Dante (Paradiso 11, 50) says of him that 
he rose like a sun and illumined everything with his rays. In the 18th 
cent, the Franciscan Order possessed 9000 convents with 150,000 monks ; 
and the general of the order was subject only to the pope. 

Havi ng reached the town, we proceed to the left to the conspicu- 
ous old *Monasteb.y of thb Franciscans on the brow of the hill, 
which was finished soon after 1228 upon massive substructures. 
It was suppressed in 1866, but a few monks have been allowed to 
remain here till their death. Part of the building has been con- 
verted by government into a school for the sons of teachers. Visi- 
tors are admitted by the iron gate to the left of the entrance to the 
lower church. Besides several frescoes of the 16th and 17th cent, 
in the refectories, the fine *Ohoir-stalls by Domenico da S. Severino, 
brought in 1882 from the upper church, dating from 1500, and 
adorned with admirable carving and inlaid figures of saints, are 
particularly worthy of attention. From the external passage a mag- 
nificent view of the luxuriant valley is enjoyed. 

The two *Churches, erected one above the other, are objects 
of great interest. The Crypt, with the tomb of the saint, was 
added in 1818, when his remains were re-discovered. 

The *Loweb. Church, still used for divine service, is always acces; 
sible ; entrance by a side-door on the terrace (best light in the fore- 
noon). It was begun in 1228, according to Vasari, by Jacopo Tedescom? 




w pi fa W jM w ^ w w u 



toFoligno. ASSISI. U. Route. 79 

but after 1232 Filippo da Campello appears as the architect in 
charge. Originally the church consisted of a nave of four bays 
with groined vaulting supported by wide circular arches, a "W. 
transept, and a semicircular apse. About 1300 the Gothic chapels 
and the E. transept were added, while the S. portal dates from about 
the same period , though the vestibule in front of it , with its rich 
Renaissance decoration, was not erected till the 15th century. 

To the right of the entrance is a tomb of the 14th cent., with an urn 
of porphyry, beside which is the magnificent 'Tomb of the Queen of Cyprus', 
of the close of the 13th cent., the recumbent figure on which P 1 "''" '"';' 
represents Jean de Brienne, king of Jerusalem and Byzantine emperor 
(d. 1237). — The adjoining Cappella di S. Antonio Abbate contains the 
tombs of a count of Spoleto and his son (14th cent.). — Opposite the 
entrance is the Cappella del Crocefisso , with some unimportant fres- 
coes; by the pillar to the left, consecration as cardinal of Egidius Albornoz 
(d. 1367), founder of the chapel , who is buried here. Fine stained-glass 
windows of the 14th century. 

The Nave was painted by predecessors of Cimabue. The hexagonal 
Cappella di S. Maetino, the first on the left, is adorned with frescoes 
of scenes from the life of the saint, by Simone Martini of Siena. — Above 
the pulpit: Coronation of the Virgin, by Giottino. — To the right of the 
nave are (1) the Cappella di S. Stefano, with frescoes from the life of 
the saint, by Dono dei Doni (1560); (2) Cappella di S. Antonio da Padova, 
the frescoes in which have been repainted; and (3) the Cappella di S. 
Maddalena, adorned with frescoes, representing scenes from the life of 
the saint and of Maria .dEgyptiaca, by a Pupil of Qiotto , who has here 
partly copied some of his master's pictures at Padua. 

The Right Transept contains on its right wall Scenes from the life 
of Jesus, by Giotto, assisted by his pupils. Adjacent, Madonna with 
angels and St. Francis, by Cimabue. — On the left wall the series of fres- 
coes from the life of Jesus is continued : Flight into Egypt , Massacre of 
the Innocents, Jesus in the Temple; St. Francis, and Death as Conqueror. 
— On the N. transverse - wall : Miracles of St. Francis and the Annun- 
ciation, by Giotto; Saints and Madonna, by Simone Martini. — At the end 
of the S. transept is the Cappella del Sackamento, with frescoes from the 
life of St. Nicholas, by a Pupil of Giotto , and the tomb of Cardinal Gian 
Gaetano Orsini (d. 1339), who is represented in the stained-glass windows. 

The High Altar occupies the spot where the remains of St. Fran- 
cis once reposed. Above it are four triangular spaces on the groined 
vaulting , containing the famous 'Frescoes of Giotto , illustrative 
of the vows of the Franciscan order: poverty, chastity, and obed- 
ience; the fourth painting is an apotheosis of St. Francis. The first pic- 
ture represents the nuptials of St. Francis with Poverty in rags; Hope, 
next to whom is Love, has handed the ring to the bride. In the next 
picture Chastity appears in a tower, while in the foreground a monk is 
being baptised by angels. Purity and Bravery are bestowing on him a 
banner and shield, while on the right angels, with penances as their 
weapons, are combatting the demons of lust. Obedience, enthroned between 
Prudence and Humility, is further symbolised by the laying of a yoke on a 
monk. Each scene, moreover, is replete with allegorical allusions (such 
as abound in Dante), most of which will be readily understood by those 
who are versed in the fanciful combinations of the period. 

The Left Transept contains Scenes from the Passion , on the right 
wall, and in front, on the left wall, a Madonna between SS. Francis and 
John, by Pietro Lorenzelti. — In the Cappella di S. Giovanni, to the 
left, is a Madonna with saints, by Lo Spagna (1516). 

In the Sacristy, over the door of the second apartment, is a portrait 
of St. Francis, dating from the close of the 13th century. 

The Crypt (p. 78) is approached by a double staircase, and is lighted 
with candles when visited by strangers. — Behind the tomb stand colossal 
statues of Popes Pius VII. and IX. 



80 Route 11. ASSI8I. From Perugia 

The *Uppee Chukch (completed in 1253), the frescoes of 
which are undergoing restoration , is entered either by the prin- 
cipal portal, or (by applying to the sacristan) from the lower church. 
The church is in the form of a Latin cross , with fine Gothic 
windows. The E. side possesses a Gothic portal. The pulpit in the 
nave dates from the 14th century. 

The W. end of the church is adorned with much-damaged frescoes 
by Cimabue (or according to some, by Qiunta Pisand). In the S. Transept, 
as we enter from the lower church , are a Crucifixion , Scenes from the 
Apocalypse, angels, and saints; in the Choik, Assumption and Death of 
the Virgin, and a bishop's throne of 1260; in the N. Tkansept, a Cruci- 
fixion , and History of St. Peter. In the vaulting of the choir and nave 
are Evangelists and Church Fathers. — Nave. In the upper section of 
the S. wall are sixteen scenes from Old Testament history, from the 
Creation of the world to the Recognition of Joseph by his brethren; on 
the N. side , sixteen scenes from the New Testament, from the Annun- 
ciation to the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by Pupils of Cimabue, show- 
ing gradual improvement in execution. The lower section contains 
twenty-eight scenes from the life of St. Francis, probably by Giotto and 
his contemporaries: 1. (at the right transept) St. Francis receives honour 
while a youth; 2. He clothes the poor; 3. His vision of a palace and 
weapons ; 4. Warned by the crucifix in S. Damiano ; 5. Restores his 
apparel to his father, and is enveloped in a bishop's cloak; 6. Appears 
to Pope Innocent III., supporting the Lateran; 7. Receives licence to 
preach ; 8. Appears to his brethren in a fiery chariot ; 9. Vision of his 
appointed seat in heaven; 10. Expels evil spirits from Arezzo; 11. Offers 
the ordeal of fire to the Sultan; 12. Hovers in the air while praying; 13. 
The infant Christ awakes in the saint's arms, as the latter is constructing 
a manger for the Christmas festival; 14. Miraculous production of a 
spring of water; 15. Sermon to the birds; 16. Predicts the death of a 
nobleman; 17. Preaches before Honorius III. ; 18. Appears at the Council 
of Aries ; 19. Receives the stigmata ; 20. His death ; 21. Appears to a 
dying man; 22. A doubter convinced by the stigmata; 23. Parting from 
St. Clara; 24. Canonisation; 25. Appears to Pope Gregory IX.; 26. Cures 
a wounded man in Spain; 27. Confesses a dead woman; 28. Frees a re- 
pentant heretic. 

Quitting the upper church and emerging on the space in front of 
it, we descend the steps to the right and follow the unpaved street 
ascending thence to the Via Principe di Napoli, which leads us to 
the Civile Nosocomio (a hospital on the right, No. 11), the chapel 
of which is adorned with frescoes by Mezzastris (p. 82) and Matteo 
da Oualdo (1468) , representing the miracles of SS. Anthony and 
James the Great. Farther on, to the right of the fountain, is an 
arcade of the 13th cent., formerly the Monte Frumentario. 

In the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele rises the beautiful portico of 
a *Templb of Minerva (PI. 9; D, 3), with six columns of traver- 
tine, converted into a church of S. Maria della Minerva. Ancient 
inscriptions immured in the vestibule. Adjacent to the church is 
the entrance to the ancient Forum , which corresponded to the pre- 
sent Piazza, but lay considerably lower. In the forum a Base for a 
statue, with a long inscription (fee i/ 2 fr.). 

The Chiesa Nuova (PI. D , 3) , a small but tasteful edifice of 
1615, reached by descending to the right, near the S.E. angle of 
the Piazza, occupies the site of the house in which St. Francis was born. 



to Foligno. SPELLO. 11. Route. 81 

The Piazza S. Ruflno, in the upper town, is embellished with 
a Statue of St. Francis, by Giov. Dupre", erected in 1882. 

The Cathedral op S. Rufino (PI. E, 3), named after the first 
bishop (240), was completed in 1140, and the crypt in 1228. The 
ancient facade is adorned with three fine rose-windows. The in- 
terior was modernised in 1572. In the nave, to the right, is a Ma- 
donna with four saints by Niccolb da Foligno. Fine choir-stalls by 
Giovanni da Sanseverino (1520). 

From the cathedral an unpaved road descends to the left to the 
Gothic church of S. Chiara (PI. E, 4), near the gate, probably 
erected by Fra Filippo da Campello in 1257. The massive buttresses 
have been recently restored. Beneath the high-altar are the remains 
of S. Clara, who, inspired with enthusiasm for St. Francis, abandoned 
her parents and wealth, founded the order of Clarissines, and died 
as first abbess. A handsome crypt of different coloured marbles has 
recently been constructed about her tomb. On the arch above the 
high-altar, frescoes by Oiottino (?) ; those in the Cappella di S. Agnese 
(right transept) are erroneously attributed to Oiotto. 

The Giardino Pubblico (PI. F, 4), between the Porta Nuova and 
the Porta Cappuccini, contains some fine oaks and commands a good 
view of the town and its fertile valley. A little way beyond the 
Porta Cappuccini, at the E, end of the town, are the ruins of a 
Roman Amphitheatre (PI. F, 3). — About */2 M. outside the gate is 
the Capuchin monastery of S. Damiano, the cloisters of which contain 
frescoes by Eusebio di San Giorgio (1507) representing the An- 
nunciation and St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 

A magnificent *Vibw of the town and environs is obtained from 
the Castello or Bocca Maggiore (PI. D, E , 2) , above the town, 
reached from the piazza in about Y2 hr. The tower should not be 
ascended without the assistance of a guide , who is to be obtained, 
with ladders and lights, at the hotel. 

In a ravine of the Monte Subasio (3610 ft.), at the back of Assisi, is sit- 
uated the hermitage delle Carceri, to which St. Francis retired for devo- 
tional exercises. Near the chapel are a few apartments built in the 14th 
cent., and the rock-bed of the saint (on foot l 1 /*, with donkey 1 hr.). 



From Assisi to Spello a very beautiful drive of 6 M. (one- 
horse carr. 4-5 fr.). By train it is reached in 13 minutes. To the 
right of the road as the town is approached are the ruins of an amphi- 
theatre oftheimperialperiod, but they are not visible from the railway. 

22M. Spello (2400 inhab.), picturesquely situated on a mountain- 
slope, is the ancient Colonia Julia Hispellum. The gate near the 
station, with three portrait-statues, as well as the Porta Urbana, 
the Porta Veneris , and portions of the wall, are ancient. 

The *Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore , built in the 16th cent, 
by Rooca da Vicenza (facade later), contains good paintings. 

The be'nitier to the right of the entrance is formed of an ancient 
cippus. To the left the Cappella del Sacramento with frescoes by 
Pinturicchio (1501): on the left, the Annunciation (with the name and 

BAEDEKKI' Ttal-c TT 11th KAiHnn. g 



82 Route 11. FOLIGNO. From Perugia 

portrait of the painter); opposite to U8 the Adoration ; to the right, Christ 
in the Temple ; on the ceiling, four Sibyls. — The Choir contains a magni- 
ficent canopy in the early-Renaissance style. On the left a Pieta, on the 
right a Madonna by Perugino, 1521. — In the Sacristy, a Madonna by 
Pinturicchio. 

S: Francesco (or Andrea), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the right transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, 
by Pinturicchio (1508), with a copy of a letter by 0. Baglione to 
the painter painted upon it. 

Among other antiquities the 'House of Propertius' is shown, 
although it is certain that the poet was not born here (p. 78). 
In the Pal. Comunale and on the church-wall of S. Lorenzo are Ro- 
man inscriptions. S. Girolamo, outside the town, contains an in- 
teresting Betrothal of the Virgin by Pinturicchio. The upper part 
of the town commands an extensive view of the plain, with Fol- 
igno and Assisi. Traces of the earthquake of 1831 are still observed. 

The train crosses the Torino and reaches — 

25 M. Foligno, the junction of the Ancona line (R. 14). 

Halt of 20 min.; mediocre Refreshment Room.— One-horse Carriage to the 
town 0/4 M.) 40 c. — Hotels. Posta, by the gate, Via della Fiera, the main 
street, R., L., & A. 3, D. 4 fr. , with restaurant and cafe's Umbria, clean. — 
Trattoria Falcone, Via della Fiera. 

Foligno, near the ancient Fulginium, a town with 8700 inhab., 
and an episcopal residence, lies in a fertile district. In 1281 it was 
destroyed by Perugia, from 1305 to 1439 it was governed by the 
celebrated family of the Trinci, and in 1439 annexed to the States 
of the Church. The earthquake of 1832 occasioned serious damage. 

At the entrance to the town a marble statue was erected in 
1872 to the painter Niccolb di Liberatore, surnamed I'Alunno, the 
head of the school of Foligno (p. 49). Public grounds behind it. 

The Corso Cavour leads to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Via Giuseppe Piermarini on the right conducts us to the 
Pinaooteca, in the old Ospizio di Mendicita, which contains a few 
Roman sculptures (relief with circus games) and some paintings by 
Umbrian masters: Pier Antonio Mezmstris of Foligno, 1. Madonna 
and angels, 3. Madonna with SS. John and Dominic, 4. Cruci- 
fixion, 5. Madonna with SS. Francis and John; in the middle, 
57. Dono deiDoni, St. Catharine. — Hence we follow the Via 
Umberto I. , pass through the gate on the right , and turn once 
more to the left to SS. Annunziata (beginning of the 16th cent.), 
which contains 'a Baptism of Christ, by Perugino; in the sacristy 
(now a joiner's shop) is a fine Entombment by Montagna (?). 

In the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the side-facade of the 
Cattbdralb S. Fbliciano, with a Romanesque portal (1201). 
The interior was modernised in the 16th and 17th centuries. To 
the left of the choir is an octagonal chapel, by Antonio da Sangallo 
the Younger (1527); some of the columns in the crypt date from the 
9th century. — Opposite the side-portal is the Palazzo Orfini, with 
a Renaissance facade, unfortunately much injured. On the E. side 



to Orte. FOLIGNO. 11. Route. 83 

of the piazza rises the Palazzo del Ooverno, the seat of the Trinci in 
1398-1439. The chapel on the upper floor (custode in the Muni- 
cipio, at the other end of the market-placej contains frescoes by 
Ottaviano Nelli (1424 ; history of the Virgin, Joachim, and Anna ; 
in the vestibule, Romulus and Remus). 

The Via Principe Amedeo, No. 22 in which, on the right, is the 
handsome Palazzo Deli (1510), leads to the Piazza Giordano Bruno. 
The old church of S. Maria infra Portas , in this piazza, with a 
portico of the 8th cent,, contains numerous but mostly faded frescoes 
of the Umbrian school. The Gothic church of S. Domenico, op- 
posite, is now a gymnasium (Palestra Ginnastica). 

The Scuola d'Arti e Mestieri, in the street of that name diverging 
from the Via Principe Amedeo, contains casts of many almost in- 
accessible monuments of Umbrian art, including the 'Temple of 
Clitumnus' (p. 84). — In the Piazza S. Niccolo is the church of 
S. Niccol6, the second chapel to the right in which contains a large 
altar-piece (Adoration of the Child, with twelve saints at the sides) 
by Niccolb da Foligno (1492); the chapel to the right of the high- 
altaT is adorned with a Coronation of the Virgin, by the same master. 

About 4 M. to the E. of Foligno, on the slope of the hills, is situated 
the Abbadia di Sassovivo, with cloisters built in 1229, resembling those of 
S. Paolo Fuori at Rome (p. 350). 

About 5 M. to the W. of Foligno is Bevagna (1800 inhab.), on the 
Clitumnus, the ancient Mevania of the Umbri, celebrated for its admirable 
pastures, with remains of an amphitheatre and other antiquities. The little 
churches of S. Silveslro and S. Michele, dating from the 12th cent., have 
facades by Binellus (1195) and Rodulfus (1201) respectively. The former is 
restored as a 'national monument'. 

From Bevagna (or from Foligno direct , 6 M.) we may visit the lofty 
Montefalco (Alb. delV Oreo, poor; Posta, near the gate), with about 
1100 inhab., probably on the site of the Umbrian Urvinum Bortense, one 
of the best places for the study of Umbrian painting. The church of 
S. Leonardo, by the Porta di Spoleto, contains a Madonna and saints by 
Francesco Melanzio of Montefalco (1515). In S. Agostino are a Madonna, 
and saints, of the Umbrian School (1522; left wall). One of the most 
interesting churches is S. Fkancesoo, built in the 14th cent., with a por- 
tal of 15S5. On the entrance- wall, Annunciation and Nativity, by Peru- 
gino; wall of left aisle, Madonna and saints by Tiberio d' Assist (1510); Cru- 
cifixion, Miracles of St. Anthony, School of Benozzo Gozzoli; Madonna, 
an archangel , four saints , Umbrian School (1506) ; last chapel in the 
left aisle, Crucifixion and Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, School 
of Giotto. The choir is adorned with "Frescoes by Benozzo Qozzoli (1452), 
representing the legend of St. Francis , with portraits of popes , cardi- 
nals, and church-fathers ; below the window, portraits of Dante, Pe- 
traTch, and Giotto. The most important of the frescoes on the wall of 
the right aisle are those by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452; Crucifixion, Christ 
blessing, four church-fathers, Madonna and four saints). — The Pinacoteca, 
in the principal piazza, adjoining the Municipio, contains three saints 
by Lo Spagna (?), a Madonna by Benozzo Gozzoli (?), and numerous other 
unimportant works. — The church of S. Foktunato, 1 M. beyond the 
Corta di Spoleto , also possesses several interesting paintings. In the 
Papella die S. Francesco (to the left in the court), Legend of St. Francis, 
by Tiberio d' Assist (1512); in the nave, seven angels by Benozzo Gozzoli; 
inthc choir, Madonna and saints, by Franc. Melanzio (1528); right aisle, 
Madonna adoring the Holy Child, by Ben. Gozzoli (1450). — A walk round 
the walls of the town affords magnificent 'Views of the Umbrian plain. 

6* 



84 Route 11. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

The Railway traverses the luxuriant, well- watered valley of 
the Clitumnus, whose herds of cattle are extolled by Virgil, to — 

30 M. Trevi {Locanda, near the Porta del Lago, poor). The 
small town (1200 inhab.), the ancient Trebia, lies picturesquely on 
the steep slope to the left. The Pinacoteca in the Municipio con- 
tains three works by Lo Spagna (1. Coronation of the Virgin, 61. St. 
Cecilia, 65. St. Catharine). The church of S.Emiliano, 12th cent., 
possesses an interesting portal (St. jEmilian between two lions) 
and three richly-ornamented altars by Rocco da Vicenza (1521). 

About V* M. beyond the Porta del Lago lies the church of S. Mar- 
tino (key at the Caffe Cecchini). In the outer chapel is a Madonna in 
glory, surrounded with four saints , by Lo Spagna (1512) ; above the 
entrance, Madonna and two angels, by Tiberio d' Assist; in the interior, 
St. Martin by Lo Spagna (? to the left), and Madonna, St. Francis, and St. 
Anthony, of the School of Foligno (to the right). — The church of S. 
Maria delle Lagkime, 3/4 M. from the Porta del Cieco, on the way to 
the railway-station, was built in 1487 by Antonio da Firenze and poss- 
esses a fine portal by Oiovanni di Gian Pietro da Venezia, added in 1511. 
In the 1st chapel to the left is a Resurrection, by an Urribrian Painter; 
in the transept, to the left, Entombment, by Lo Spagna; 2nd chapel to 
the right, Adoration of the Magi, by Perugino; 1st chapel to the right, 
Annunciation, Umbrian School. 

The small village of Le Vene, 4*/2 M. from Trevi, is next passed. 
Near it, to the left, we obtain a glimpse of a so-called Temple, some- 
times regarded as that of Clitumnus ' mentioned by Pliny (Bpist. 
8, 8). The elegant little building, however , now known as the 
church of 8. Salvadore , was constructed of the materials of ancient 
tombs, probably not earlier than the fifth cent., as the Christian 
emblems (the vine and the cross) , the twisted marble columns on 
the facade, and various inscriptions in the crypt and on the found- 
ations testify. Near Le Vene the abundant and clear Source of 
the Clitumnus , beautifully described by Pliny , wells forth from the 
limestone-rock, close to the road. On the height to the left is the 
village of Campello. On the way to (6 M.) Spoleto, to the left, 
in the village of S. Oiacomo, is a church the choir of which is 
adorned with frescoes by Lo Spagna (Coronation of the Virgin, 
Legend of St. James of Compostella ; 1526). Beautiful road through 
richly cultivated land. 

40'/2 M. SpoletO. The town is % M. distant ; one-horse carr. Va fr - 
"Albergo & Eistorazione di Filippo Lucini , Via S. Caterina 1, 
in the upper town, near the theatre, R., L., & A. 2'/2 , luncheon 2, D. 
3-5 (both incl. wine), pens 5-7'/2 (less for a long stay), omn. s /« ft. 5 
Posta, in the lower part of the town, near the railway-gate. — Trattoria 
delta Ferrovia, to the right of the gate. — "Caffe delta Nazione and Birreria, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele. — Baths, Piazza S. Luca. — Photographs at Cane's. 
Spoleto, the ancient Spoletium, very early the seat of a bishop, 
now an archiepiscopal see, is a busy town, beautifully situated, and 
containing some interesting objects of art. The chief occupations 
of its 77,000 inhab. are the gathering of truffles in the surrounding 
woods and the preparation of preserved meats, vegetables, and 
fruits. Mining is also carried on. 



to Orte. SPOLETO. 11. Route. 85 

In B. C. 242 a Roman colony was established in the ancient Umbrian 
town, and in 217 it vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal, as Livy 
relates (22, 9). It subsequently became a Roman municipium, suffered 
severely during the civil wars of Sulla and Marius, and again at the hands 
of Totila and his Goths, after the fall of the W. Empire, though Theo- 
doric the Great favoured it. The Longobards founded a duchy here (as in 
Benevento) in 569, the first holders of which were Faroald and Ariulf. 
After the fall of the Carlovingians, Guido of Spoleto even attained the dig- 
nity of Emperor, as well as his son Lambert , who was murdered in 898. 
In 1155 the prosperous town was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa; 
and in the beginning of the 13th cent, it was incorporated with the States 
of the Church. The Castle of Spoleto, known as La Rocca, originally 
founded in pre-Roman times, was rebuilt in 1364 by Cardinal Albornoz, 
and completed by Pope Nicholas V. In 1499 it was inhabited by Lncretia 
Borgia. It fell into the hands of the Piedmontese on 18th Sept., 1860, after 
a gallant defence by Major O'Reilly, an Irishman. 

Entering by the town-gate and following the main street which 
traverses the lower part of the town, we reach (5 min.) a gateway 
of the Roman period, called the Porta d'Annibale, or Porta della 
Fuga, in allusion to the above-mentioned occurrence. 

"We may continue to follow the Strada Umherto, ascending the 
hill in a wide curve, or take one of the direct but steep side-streets. 
Inclining towards the left, near the top, we come to the — 

"Cathedral op S. Mama Assunta, raised to its present dignity 
in 1067 and restored in the 12th century. The magnificent portico, 
in the early Renaissance style, was added in 1491 by Ambrogio 
d' Antonio of Milan and Pippo d' Antonio of Florence. On each side 
of it is a stone pulpit. Above , Christ with Mary and John, a large 
mosaic by Solsernus (1207). The richly ornamented portal, of the 
11th cent. , bears on the left the name of Oregorius Meliorantius. 
The lower part of the tower contains many ancient fragments. 

To the right of the vestibule is a Baptistery (Cappella Eroli), con- 
taining frescoes in the style of Giulio Romano; the travertine font, with 
sculptures from the life of Christ, is of the 16th century. 

The Inteeiok of the cathedral was restored in 1644. In the chapel 
immediately to the right of the entrance are some fragments of frescoes 
by Pinturicehio and a Crucifixion (1187), from SS. Giovanni e Paolo. — The 
Choir contains "Frescoes, the masterpiece of Fra Filippo Lippi, completed 
after his death by Fra Diamante in 1470, Annunciation, Birth of Christ, 
and Death of Mary; in the semicircle her Coronation and Assumption 
damaged). At the entrance to the chapel on the left of the choir, to 
the left, is the Tomb of Fra Fit. Lippi (d. 1469). The monument was 
erected by Lor. de' Medici; the epitaph is by Poliziano. Opposite is the 
monument of an Orsini, by Ambrogio da Milano (1499). — The Winter- 
Choir, in the left aisle, contains good carving of the 15th cent., and a 
Madonna by Lo Spagna. 

In the Piazza del Duomo , in front of the cathedral , probably 
stood the palace of the Longobard dukes. Adjacent is the Ckiesa 
della Manna d'Oro, an elegant Renaissance building, founded in 
1527. — On leaving the cathedral we proceed in a straight direc- 
tion, slightly ascending, to the Palazzo Arroni (on the left) with 
a fine portal and graffiti of mythological scenes (16th cent.), and 
to the Palazzo PuBBLrco, containing several inscriptions and the 
small Pinacoteca. 

On the entrance- wall, early mediaeval sculptures. — Room II. En- 



86 Route 11. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

trance-wall, Handsome chimney-piece of the beginning of the 16th cent.; 
centre, Archaic inscription regulating the felling of timber in a sacred 
grove. — R. III. Entrance-wall , Madonna with saints , an admirable 
fresco by Lo Spagna ; right wall , Virtues and Putti, by Lo Spagna. — 
R. IV. Right wall, Madonna, by Bern. Campello (1502); Adoration of the 
Holy Child, by Lo Spagna (?). 

On the other side of the Palazzo , a Roman House with rich 
mosaic pavements has been brought to light. The house, originally 
belonging to the mother of the emperor Vespasian, has been restored 
and adorned with the sculptures, coins, inscriptions, etc. found on 
its site. — In 1891 a portion of a large Roman Theatre (over 370 ft. 
in diameter) was discovered below the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The half- sunken Triumphal Arch said to have been built 
by Drusus and Germanicus, stands in the narrow street which 
leads to the S. from the Ptazza del Mbrcato, the ancient Forum. 
The small staircase adjoining it leads to a picturesque monas- 
tery court. — From this point we may enter the lower church of 
S. Ansano, with its damaged frescoes of the 11th cent., formerly 
dedicated to St. Isaac, a Syrian monk who founded the hermi- 
tages on the Monte Luco (p. 87). — Farther on traces of Roman 
construction have been discovered in S. Agata, now a prison, and 
its little piazza. — The small church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, gener- 
ally difficult of access, has a subterranean oratory, with 11th cent, 
frescoes. — Outside the Porta S. Luca, to the right, are the church 
and convent of 8. Paolo (13th cent.), now a poorhouse; adjacent is 
S. Madonna di Loreto, founded in 1572, with a later facade. 

The broad street in front of the Porta S. Luca leads to the left 
to the church of S. Pietro, the cathedral until 1067, restored after 
its destruction in 1329. The reliefs on the facade are of different 
dates : those from the bestiaries (the wolf preaching; the fox feign- 
ing death) at the central portal are the oldest, and may date from 
the ll-12th cent. ; those above (deaths of the righteous and of the 
sinner) are later. — At the top of Monte Luco is the small church 
of S. Giuliano, where St. Isaac founded a monastery about 500. 

A road issuing from the Porta S. Gregorio on the other side of 
the town and skirting the river to the right, then turning to the 
left to the new Campo Santo, with its conspicuous arcades, brings 
us to the church of *S. Agostino del Crocifisso, formerly S. Salvatore. 
This church was erected in the 5th or 6th cent, on the site of a 
Roman temple, and was destroyed at an early date. The fine ancient 
Roman doors have been preserved, but the ivy wreaths and consoles 
with which they are adorned and also the three magnificent windows 
which pierce the facade are the work of the Christian architects. In 
the interior the nave was separated by twenty Doric columns from 
the aisles, which were built up on the conversion of the church into 
a monastery. Six antique columns with a Doric entablature are still 
preserved in the choir; and the octagonal dome rests upon eight 
gigantic columns, with curious imposts. — In the neighbourhood 
is the small 13th cent, church of 8. Ponziano. 



to Orte. TERNI. 11. Route. 87 

The Conte Francesco Toni's valuable Collection of Petrefactions, 
in the Palazzo Toni, Piazza S. Luca, is of great interest to geologists 
(visitors readily admitted). 

Travellers should not omit to extend their walk beyond the ca- 
thedral and the Palazzo Pubblico as follows. Ascending to the left by 
the Strada Vescovado, we cross the Piazza Brignone in a diagonal 
direction, where a memorial slab commemorates the capture of the 
fortress in 1860. Passing the fountain, we leave the upper part of 
the Piazza by a street to the right, which passes immediately below 
the lower entrance of the fortress of La Rocca, now a prison. A 
little farther on, near a gate which here forms the entrance to the 
town, we perceive, to the left, polygonal foundations, being remains 
of the ancient castle-wall. Outside the wall is a profound ravine, 
spanned by the imposing aqueduct *Ponte delle Torri, built of brick, 
which is used as a viaduct, uniting the town with Monte Luco. It 
rests on ten arches , and is 290 ft. in height, and 231 yds. in 
length. Its construction is attributed to Theodelapius, third duke 
of Spoleto (604). The ground-plan is apparently Roman, while the 
pointed arches indicate a restoration in the 14th century. A window 
midway affords a view. To the left on the height is perceived 
S. Giuliano ; below is S. Pietro (see p. 86). Beyond the bridge we 
turn to the left, generally following the direction of the aqueduct. 
After 10-15 min. a more unbroken prospect is obtained, embracing 
the fortress and town, and the spacious valley. 

The ascent of Monte Luco, l>/2 hr. , is somewhat fatiguing. Refresh- 
ments at the Franciscan convent near the top (remuneration expected). 
The hermitages are now used as summer-dwellings. The 'Fra Guar- 
diano' conducts visitors to the best points of view. To the N. and E. 
lies the valley of the Clitumnus with Trevi, Foligno, Spello, and Assisi; 
then Perugia and the Central Apennines near Citta di Castello and Gubbio. 
In the other directions the view is intercepted by the mountains in the 
vicinity. Towards the E. these are overtopped by the rocky peak of the 
Sibilla, often snow-clad. — Returning to the right we pass the former 
Capuchin monastery of S. Maria delle Orazie, an ancient resort of pilgrims. 

The Railway now ascends for 3 / 4 hr. to its culminating point 
on Monte Somma (2230 ft.). — Passing through a long tunnel , it 
descends rapidly via, (51 M.) Oiuncano. 

58^2 M. Terni. — The town is about 74 M. from the station. The hotel- 
omnibuses meet the trains; a seat in a carriage ('un posto') to the piazza 
30-50 c, box 20 e. 

Hotels. Eueopa & Inghilterra , Piazza Vitt. Emanuele 2, with 
restaurant, R. 2-4, L. 3/4, A. '/ 4 , B. l'/4, dej. incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 5, 
pens. 9, omn. 3 /4 fr. ; Alb. & Rist. Italia, Via delle Colonne, R., L., & A. 
1V2-3, omn. 1 /i fr., mediocre; Alb. Nuovo, with trattoria. — Gaffe Elvezia, 
near the Europa. 

Cabriage to the Waterfalls ( 3 /4, back y^hr.): 1 person 5, 2 pers. 7, 
3 pers. 9fr., etc. (bargaining advisable); or at the hotels 7, 10, and 15 fr. 
respectively, besides which a fee of V2-I fr. is expected. — Guide (quite 
unnecessary) 3 fr. — The traveller should be abundantly provided with 
copper coins. At the different points of view contributions are levied by 
the custodians (15-20 c); flowers and fossils from the Velino are offered 
for sale, also not more than 15-20 c ; besides which the patience is sorely 
tried by the importunities of a host of beggars and guides. 



88 Route 11. TEKNI. From Perugia 

Terni, (415 ft.), situated in the fertile valley of the Nera (the 
Roman Nar), with 9400inhab. and several manufactories , is the an- 
cient Interamna, where, it is believed, the historian Tacitus and the 
emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains of an amphi- 
theatre (erroneously styled a 'Temple of the Sun'') in the grounds 
of the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
palaces of the Umbrian nobility, etc., are objects of interest. Pleasant 
walk on the ramparts, whence the beautiful Nera Valley is surveyed: 
to the left Collescipoli, to the right Cesi, opposite the spectator Narni. 

The Waterfalls of Terni may be reached on foot in l l / 2 hr. ; the 
whole excursion, including stay, requires about 4 hrs. (by carriage 
3 hrs. ; p. 87). Pedestrians may return by railway. 

The Railway to Rieti (see Baedeker's Southern Italy) gradually 
ascends to the S. , across the plain of the Nera, to (5^2 M.) Stroncone, 
the station for a village of the same name on the hill. Thence the 
line ascends rapidly in curves, threading six tunnels. As the train 
emerges from the last two, we catch fine glimpses of the upper val- 
ley of the Nera. — 10 M. Marmore (50 min. from Terni, in the re- 
verse direction 35 min.; fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30, 85c), about '^M. 
from the waterfalls. The railway now ascends the valley of the Ve- 
lino. — 11 M. Piediluco (1 hr. from Terni ; fares 2 fr. 5 , 1 fr. 45, 
95 c), on the W. bank of the lake, opposite the village of that name 
(p. 89). A boat for the transit (!/ 2 hr- ; V2-I f p ls not always to 
"be had without delay. By road the distance is about 2 M. 

To reach the Waterfalls from the station of Marmore (Rail. Restau- 
rant, good) we turn first to the right, and 80 paces beyond the pointsman's 
hut No. 214, cross the railway. Paying no attention to the 'Custodi delle 
Cascate' here lying in wait, we keep to the left, passing some cottages. 
We then pass through the gate on the right (when closed, fee of 10-15 c), 
and still keep on to the left till we reach (6 min.) the upper fall (p. 89). 

Two carriage-roads lead from Terni to the waterfall*. The New 
Road (4!/ 2 M.), following the right bank of the Nera, and flanked 
with poplars, leaves the town near the Porta Spoletina, and crosses 
the plain in a straight direction. On the right rises a government 
manufactory of weapons; on the left an armour-plate factory. We 
now approach the stream, the valley of which contracts. On each side 
tower lofty rocks, to which the luxuriant vegetation of the slopes 
forms a beautiful contrast. — The picturesque Old Road is reached 
from the piazza at Terni by passing the Albergo Europa and descend- 
ing the Strada Garibaldi. We at first follow the Rieti and Aquila 
road, which crosses the Nera just outside the gate, traversing gardens 
and olive-plantations ; after 2 M. (near a small chapel on the right), a 
broad road to the left descends into the valley of the Nera, while the 
high-road ascends gradually to the right. The former descends in 
windings past the village of Papigno, picturesquely situated on an 
isolated rock, ( 3 / 4 M.) crosses the Nera, and on the right bank, near 
the villa of Count Castelli-Graziani, reaches the new road mentioned 
above (1-1 »/ 4 M. to the falls). 



J,o Orte. TBRNI. 11. Route. 89 

The celebrated falls of the Velino (which here empties itself into 
the Nera), called the **Cascate delle Marmore, are about 650 ft. 
in height, and have few rivals in Europe in beauty of situation and 
volume of water. The rivulet is precipitated from the height in three 
leaps of about 65, 330, and 190 ft. respectively, the water falling 
perpendicularly at some places, and at others dashing furiously over 
rocks. The spray of the falls is seen from a considerable distance. 

The Velino is so strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit con- 
tinually raises its bed ; and the plain of Rieti (1400 ft.) is therefore 
frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. In ancient times Manius 
Cnrius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil by the construction 
of a tunnel (B. C. 271), which, though altered, is to this day in use. 
The rising of the bed of the river, however, rendered new measures 
necessary from time to time. Two other channels were afterwards 
excavated, the Cava Reatina or Gregoriana by Fieravante Fieravanti (p. 47) 
in 1422, and the Cava Paolina by Paul III. in 1546 ; these, however, prov- 
ing unserviceable, Clement VIII. re-opened the original 'emissarium' of 
Dentatus in 1598. In 1787 a new cutting was required , and another 
has again become necessary. The regulation of the Velino fall has long 
formed the subject of vehement discussions between Rieti and Terni. 

The finest views of the falls are obtained from the new road 
and from the following points. Before reaching the falls , we 
may ascend a rough path to the left, leading in 10 min. to the 
finest view of the upper and central falls. — We now return to 
the road, retrace our steps (80-90 paces) to the path on the left , 
and cross the Nera by a natural bridge , below which the water 
has hollowed its own channel. Where the path divides , we as- 
cend gradually to the left. The surrounding rocks (in which 
there is a quarry) have been formed by the incrustations of the Ve- 
lino. The channel on the right (Cava Paolina) is full in winter 
only. In 12-15 min. we come to a point, where the division of the 
cascade is surveyed ; the central fall, in the spray of which beautiful 
rainbows are occasionally formed, may be approached more nearly. 
A farther steep ascent of 15-20 min. leads to a small pavilion of 
stone on a projecting rock, affording a beautiful view of the principal 
fall and the valley of the Nera. We next ascend a flight of steps 
(4 min.), and soon reach another point of view on the left, in the 
garden of the first cottage (20 c). — Following the same path for 
a few minutes more , we turn to the right and come to a small 
house; passing through its garden (10-15 c), and between several 
houses, we reach in 10 min. the road to Rieti and Aquila (p. 88), and, 
after crossing the railway, a good osteria (No. 153). The station of 
Marmore (p. 88) is seen to the left. 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended to the beautiful Lake 
of Piediluco, ii/j M. farther. Following the road , we arrive at the village 
of Piediluco, with its ruined castle, in Vahr. (tolerable inn). On the op- 
posite (S.W.) bank lies the railway-station (p. 88). 



The Railway to Orte intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To 
the right on the hill lies Cesi, 5 M. to the N.W. of Terni, to the right 
of the S. Gemine and Todi road (p. 57), with remains of ancient 



90 Route 11. NARNI. 

polygonal walls and interesting subterranean grottoes. To the left, 
Collescipoli. 

66y 2 M- Narni (Angelo, tolerable), the ancient Umbrian Narnia 
(originally Nequinum), birthplace of the Emperor Nerva, Pope John 
XIII. (965-72), and Erasmus of Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, the 
well-known 'condottiere' of the 15th century. Pop. 2000. It is 
picturesquely situated , 3 / 4 M. from the station , on a lofty rock 
(1190 ft.) on the Nar, now Nera , at the point where the river 
forces its way through a narrow ravine to the Tiber (omn. up 75, 
down 50 c). The old castle is now a prison. — The Cathedral, 
erected in the 13th cent., with a vestibule of 1497, and dedicated 
to St. Juvenalis, the first bishop (369), is architecturally interesting. 
— The Town Hall contains the Coronation of Mary by Ohirlan- 
dajo (formerly in the monastery of the Zoccolanti, the strictest 
branch of the Franciscans), spoiled by retouching. 

From Narni via Perugia by Todi, see p. 57. 

From Narni a road leads to the N.W. to the (6 M.) venerable and 
finely situated Umbrian mountain-town of Amelia, Lat. Ameria (1390 ft.; 
inn outside the gate), mentioned by Cicero in his oration Pro Roscio Ame- 
rino, with admirably preserved Cyclopean walls and other antiquities. 

The train turns towards the narrowing valley of the Nera, and 
passes close to the Bridge of Augustus (on the left) , which spanned 
the river immediately below Narni in three huge arches , and be- 
longed to the Via Flaminia (p. 103), leading to Bevagna (p. 83). 
The arch next to the left bank, 60 ft. in height, alone is preserved, 
while of the two others the buttresses only remain. 

The train continues to follow the valley of the Nera , with its 
beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks. Beyond (71 M.) Nera Mon- 
toro we pass through two tunnels, and then (near the influx of the 
Nera) cross the Tiber, which in 1860-70 formed the boundary be- 
tween the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. — Near — 

77 M. Orte (*Rail. Restaurant) we reach the main line fromChiusi 
to Rome (see p. 69). 

12. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Home), 
and Ancona. 

127 M. Railway in 4i/ 4 -6>/2 brs. (fares 23 fr. 10, 16 fr. 15, 10 fr. 40 c; 
express 25 fr. 40, 17 fr. 80 c.) — Beautiful views of the sea between Rimini 
and Cattolica, and beyond Pesaro. A seat on the left should therefore be 
secured. — From Bologna to Rome, 300 M. , express in 12 hrs. (via Flor- 
ence in 9-10 hrs.). This train diverges to the S.W. at Falconara, the last 
station before Ancona. 

The towns on the coast of the Adriatic are far inferior in attraction 
to those in the W. part of the peninsula (Tuscany and Umbria); bnt 
without a visit to them the traveller's acquaintance with Italy would be 
but imperfect. The views of the Adriatic to the E., and of the Apennines 
to the W. are often charming, and the situation of some of the towns, 
especially Ancona, is strikingly beautiful. Rimini, an ancient Roman 
colony and frontier fortress, possesses several fine monuments of antiquity, 
and its church of S. Francesco is an admirable Renaissance work. Roman 
triumphal arches are also preserved at Ancona and Fano ; and Loreto boasts 



FAENZA. 72. Route. 91 

of valuable sculptures In the Eenaissance style (p. 108). UrUno, too the 
birthplace of Raphael, lies within a short distance of this route. ' Many of 
the towns now have galleries of pictures collected from the suppressed 
monasteries, but of second-rate importance. The provinces of Pesaro-Ur- 
bino, Ancona, Macerata, and Ascoli are called the Marches (Le Marche). 
In Roman times the S. part as far as Ancona was called Picenum, while 
the N. part belonged to Umbria (comp. p. 95). 

From Bologna via (22 M.) Imola to (26 M.) Castel Bolognese, 
junction for the branch-line to Ravenna, see Baedeker's Northern 
Italy. The line follows the Via Emilia, which ran from Placentia 
to Ariminum. We cross the river Senio, the ancient Sinnus. 

31 M. Faenza (*Alb. Firenze, Corona, near the Piazza Maggiore ; 
Ire Mori), a pleasant town with 14,000 inhab. , on the Amone 
(ancient Anemo), the Faventia of the Boii, was the scene of Sulla's 
■victory over Carbo. In the middle ages it witnessed numerous feuds, 
and in 1509 it was annexed by Julius II. to the States of the 
Church. The town was famous in the 15th cent, for its pottery, 
the manufacture of which has lately been revived ('faience') , and 
contains considerable silk and weaving factories. Faenza was the 
birthplace of Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer in 1643, 
to whose memory a monument has been erected in front of the 
church of S. Francesco, to the left as we enter the town. 

The main street leads direct to the Piazza Maggiore, which is 
surrounded by arcades. In this square, to the left, is the Cathedral 
op S. Costanzo, a handsome basilica begun by Qiuliano da Majano 
of Florence in 1474 and completed in 1513, named after Con- 
stantius, the first bishop of Faventia (313). It contains the tombs 
of Giov. Bosi (d. 1542; 1st chapel to the right) and Africano Seve- 
roli (d. 1522; 5th chap, on the right), both by Bariloto ; a Holy 
Family by Innocemo da Imola (4th chap, on the right) ; and the 
*Tomb of St. Savinus, by Benedetto da Majano, 1472 (chap, on left of 
high-altar). In the Piazza Maggiore are also the Palazzo Municipale 
and the Torre dell' Orologio ; the fountain in the centre, embellished 
with bronzes, dates from 1621. 

The street at the end of the piazza, leads to the right to the 
gymnasium, on the first floor of which is the municipal Pinacoteca. 

At the end of the Vestibule : Colossal group of Mary with the two 
SS. John, by Alfonso Lombardi. — Room I. To the right: Pace da Faenza, 
Madonna with saints (14th cent.) ; Lionardo Scalelti , Madonna with angels 
and saints (1484); Crucifixion, St. Dominic and St. Peter; Giambaltista 
Bertucci, Madonna with saints (1506); Bagnacavallo , Betrothal of St. Ca- 
tharine; Palmezzano, Madonna with saints (1495); Palmezzano , Bearing 
of the Cross (1535) ; Dosso Dossi, Two heads. — Room II. Giacomo Bertucci 
the Younger, Madonna with saints (1565), Descent from the Cross ; Cotignola, 
Baptism of Christ; Michele Manzoni, Martyrdom of St. Eutropius; Tiepolo, 
Judith; Ferraii Fenzoni, Bethesda; Massimo cTAzeglio , Landscape; Guido 
Reni, Madonna, with SS. Francis and Christina; Van Dycl, Two royal 
portraits. — In the Small Rooms : Two fine 'cassoni', formerly belonging 
to the Manfredi, and a wax-mask of the Dominican Paganelli. — In the 
Boom to the eight of the Entkance: Marble *Bust of John the Baptist, 
and wooden statue of St. Jerome, both by Donatello; terracotta bust of 
the 16th cent., and a Madonna of the school of the Robbia. 



92 Boute 12. FORLI. From Bologna 

In the Via Torricolli, at the end of the piazza, to the left, lie 
the old Palazzo Manfredi and , opposite , the church of S. Michele, 
with tasteful brick ornamentation. 

The street beside the clock-tower crosses the bridge to the Borgo. 
The second church in it, to the right, La Magione, contains a fine 
fresco by Oirolomo Pennacchi da Udine (1533), representing the 
Madonna and saints (in a recess in the choir). 

Feom Faenza to Florence, railway under construction; opened be- 
tween Faenza and (28 M.) Marradi (2 trains daily in about l 3 /4hr. ; fares 
4 fr., 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 80 c), and between Borgo S. Lorenzo and (28 M.) Florence 
(3 trains daily in about l>/2 hr. ; fares 4 fr., 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 80 c.) — Flo- 
rence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

Beyond Faenza the train intersects the plain in a straight direc- 
tion. It crosses the Amone, then the Montone, which, united with 
the Bonco (Bedesis), falls into the Adriatic near Ravenna. 

40 M. Forli (*Alb. Masini ; S. Marco , small , good cuisine ; 
Vapore , unpretending but well spoken of) , the ancient Forum 
Livii , founded by M. Livius Salinator after the defeat of Has- 
drubal, is a well-built provincial capital with 16,000 inhabitants. 

Forli, where in 410 the marriage of Athaulf , king of the Visigoths, 
with Oalla Flacidia, sister of the Emp. Honorius was solemnised, was 
long an independent state in which the Guelphs retained their ascendancy 
down to 1315. The Ordelaffl then usurped the supreme power, which they 
retained till 1480, when they were succeeded by Oirolomo Biario, a favour- 
ite of Sixtus IV. This prince was assassinated in 1488, and his widow. 
Gaterina Sforza, was afterwards banished by Cesare Borgia. At length, 
in 1504, Pope Julius II. annexed the city to the States of the Church. — 
Forli was the birthplace of the poet Cornelius Oallus (d. B.C. 27), of the 
historian Flavio Biondo (15th cent.), and of the eminent painter Melozzo 
da Forli (end of 15th cent.) , who was closely allied to Piero della Fran- 
cesca (p. 58), was recognised by his contemporaries as a master of per- 
spective, and was afterwards engaged at Rome. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, the principal square (comp. Plan, 
p. 94) is enclosed by handsome palaces. Here, too, is the church of — 

S. MsKCimrALE (so named after the first bishop of Forli). In the 
3rd chapel to the right, Palmezzano, Crucifixion, with saints and 
the donor ; 5th chap, to the right, Palmezzano, Madonna with saints ; 
4th chap, to the left, the decoration in which is by Oiov. Veneziano 
(1536), the Conception by Palmezzano ; in the choir, carved stalls 
by Alessandro de' Bigni (1535) ; in the sacristy, Tura, Visitation. 
l— Opposite the church is the restored Municipio, with a tasteless 
tower of the 18th century. 

Proceeding southwards from the piazza, we reach the Cathedral 
of S. Croce. In the left transept is the Chapel of the Madonna del 
Fuoco, the dome of which was adorned in 1686-1706 with frescoes 
of the Assumption by Carlo Cignani of Bologna. The painter is bur- 
ied in the chapel. At the end of the S. aisle, to the left, is a fine 
St. Sebastian by Bondinelli. A reliquary of the 14th cent., and the 
sculptures of the principal door (15th cent.) also deserve notice. 

SS. Biagio e Qirolamo contains in the double chapel (1st &2nd) 
on the right frescoes by Palmezzano , early works showing the in- 



to Ancona. FORLI. 12. Route. 93 

fluence of Melozzo: History of St. James and (in the dome) prophets 
and angels. To the left is the tomb of Barbara Manfredi (15th cent.). 
In the 3rd chapel on the right is an Immaculate Conception, by 
Quido Reni. In the 4th chapel : Palmezzano, Madonna and saints, 
with Girolamo Riario and Caterina Sforza and their sons (1486). 
The frescoes in the dome are also by Palmezzano. 

The Pinacoteca and other municipal art- collections are preserved 
in the Ginnasio Comunale, in the Piazza di S. Pellegrino. The 
school of Forli is represented in the Pinacoteca by Melozzo and Pal- 
mezzano, and also by Agresti, Menzocchi, and Cignani. The names 
of the artists are attached to each painting. 

In the Codrt: Monument to the anatomist Morgagni (d. 1771), nnveiled 
in 1875. On the Staircase : Sarcophagus of the 14th cent. ; Sarcophagus 
of St. Marcolinus, by Antonio Rosellino (145S). Fine door-frame and lunette, 
Madonna with angels (formerly in the cathedral), by Simone di Oiov. Ohini. 

Pinacoteca. Passing through a corridor with engravings we enter 
Boom I. To the left: 5. Marcello Venusti, Resurrection (restored); 20. 
Tapestry from the design of a Lower Rhenish master (ascribed to Perugino) ; 
35. Tapestry from the design of a South German master (ascribed to Wol- 
gemut); 34. Cigoli, St. Francis; Fra Angelica, 43. Christmas night, 45. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; 44. Simone Memmi, Two saints; 54. Bassano, 
Adoration of the Shepherds. In the middle: Hebe, by Canova. — The 
Large Room contains the gems of the collection, the most important being 
the paintings by Melozzo da Forli, Francia, and Palmezzano. To the 
right : 77. Cagnacci , St. Valerian ; 86. Quercino , Annunciation ; 90. Ron- 
dinelli, Madonna; 92. Francia, Adoration of the Child; 93. Agostino Car- 
racci, St. Francis; 96. Lorenzo di Credi (not Palmezzano), Portrait (damag- 
ed); 103. Cignani, Portrait of himself; Melozzo, 'Pestapepe', an apprentice 
with pestle and mortar (a fresco, formerly used as a shop sign); Pal- 
mezzano , 113. Annunciation , 115. Crucifixion (1492) ; 117. Cotignola, God 
the Father with saints (1513); 126. Melozzo, S. Antonio Abbate, John the 
Baptist, and St. Sebastian; 127. Melozzo, God the Father; Palmezzano, 
128. Annunciation, 147. Institution of the Eucharist (1501), 148. Portrait 
of himself in his 80th year (1536); 151. Rondinelli, Portrait said to be of 
Csesar Borgia; 163. Cagnacci, S. Mercuriale. — In the Small Rooms: Me- 
dals (among which is the portrait of Caterina Sforza), Majolica, Pre- 
Roman and Roman antiquities, marble bast of Pino Ordelaffi (15th cent.). 

The church of 8. Pellegrino, opposite the Ginnasio, to the right, 
contains a fine tomb of the 15th century. 

The Citadel, constructed in 1361 by Cardinal Albornoz, and en- 
larged by the Ordelaffi and Riarii, is now used as a prison. 

A diligence-route leads from Forli through the Apennines via Rocca 
S. Casciano and S. Benedetto to Pontassiene (p. 39). 

The Railway to Rimini crosses the Ronco and passes (45 M.) 
Forlimpopoli (2300 inhab.), the ancient Forum Popilii; to the right, 
on the hill, Bertinoro, with its productive vineyards. It then passes 
Polenta and crosses the Savio (the ancient Sapis). 

52 M. Cesena (Leon d'Oro, R. 21/2 fr. ; Cappello), with 11,400 
inhab., is surrounded by beautiful meadows and hills, and boasts of 
several interesting palaces. 

The ancient Caesena is said to have been an episcopal see in the 
1st cent. A. D. During the middle ages it was at first an independent 
state, then became subject to the Ghibelline family of Montefeltro, and 
shortly afterwards to the Malatestas, who were partizans of the Guelphs. 
This rapid change of rulers is alluded to by Dante, Inf. xxvii, 52: 



94 Route 72. CESENA. From Bologna 

Cost com 1 ella sie' tra il piano e il monte, 
Tra lirannia si vive e stato franco. 

On 1st Feb., 1377, the town was cruelly sacked by Cardinal Robert 
of Geneva, and subsequently by Cesare Borgia after which it was incor- 
porated with the States of the Church. 

In the Piazza is the handsome Palazzo Pubblico, with a statue of 
Pius VI., who was born at Oesena in 1717, as well as his successor 
Pius VII. in 1742. — The Cathedral contains two fine marble altars 
of the Lombardi school (16th cent. ; in the aisles). — The Library, 
built in 1452 by Malteo Nuzio for Domenico Malatesta Novello, con- 
tains 4000 MSS., many of them written for the founder, and after- 
wards used by the learned Aldus Manutius in preparing his famous 
editions of the classics. — The Pinacoteca contains a good Present- 
ation in the Temple by Franc. Francia. — In the Oiardino Bufa- 
lini is a statue (by Zocchi) erected in 1883 to the physician Mau- 
rizio Bufalini of Cesena. 

On an eminence. 3 /i M. distant, stands the handsome church of S. Maria 
del Monte, erroneously attributed to Bramante. Productive sulphur-mines 
in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The train crosses the stream Pisciatello, the upper part of which, 
called Vrgone, is identical with the Rubicon of the ancients, the 
boundary between Italy proper and the province of Gallia Cisalpina, 
and memorable for its passage by Caesar at the beginning of the 
civil war between him and Pompey, B.C. 49. The lower course of 
the Rubicon, which has altered its channel since antiquity, is now 
represented by the Fiumicino , which the railway crosses between 
(56 M.) Gamlettola and (SO'^M.) Savignano. 

Most of the towns of this district have in turn laid claim to the distinc- 
tion of possessing the Rubicon within their territory; a lawsuit involving 
this question was actually instituted at Rome, and in 1756 the 'Rota' decid- 
ed it in favour of the Uso. On the road between Cesena and Savignano 
stands a column bearing a decree of the Roman senate, which threatens to 
punish those who should without authority trespass beyond the Rubicon. 
Montesquieu regarded this as genuine, but it is an obvious imposition. 

The train crosses the Uso. 63 M. S. Arcangelo di Romagna, 
where Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) was born in 1705 (d. 1771). 
The Marecchia is next crossed. 

69 M. Rimini. — "Aquila d'Oro, in the Corso, R., L., & A., 3, omn. 
3 /4 fr. ; Leon d'Oro ; Albeego Nuovo ; Italia , at the Pescheria, fair. — 
Trattoria d'Europa, Piazza Cavour; Caffe delta Speranza, Piazza Giulio 
Cesare. — Railway Restaurant, good wine of the country. 

Carriage from the station to the Piazza, with one horse 1 fr., with two 
horses 1 fr. 20 c. — Tramway to the bathing-place on the beach. 

Rimini, beautifully situated on the Adriatic at the mouth of the 
Ansa and Marecchia, with 11,000 inhab., and extensive fisheries 
and silk manufactories, has of late come into notice as a sea- 
bathing place. Handsome public rooms with a cafe" and restaurant, 
and numerous lodging-houses have been erected on the pleasant 
promenade on the beach. 

Rimini, the ancient Ariminum, a town of the Umbrians, became a 
Roman colony in B.C. 269, and formed the frontier- fortress of Italy in the 
direction of Gaul , and the termination of the Via Flaminia (p. 103). The 



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to Ancona. RIMINI. 12. Route. 95 

town was extended and embellished by Julius Caesar and Augustus. Dur- 
ing the Exarchate, it was the northernmost of the Pentapolis Maritima, 
or 'Five Maritime Cities', which were ruled over by one governor. The 
other four were Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, and Ancona. In 260 Ariminum 
became an episcopal see, and in 350 a council against Arianism was held 
here. The town afterwards belonged to the Longobards. 

In the course of the 13th cent, the Malatesta made themselves masters 
of the city. In 1285 Giovanni il Sciancato ('the lame'), surnamed also 
Lancilotto, put to death his wife, Francesca Polenta of Ravenna, and his 
brother, Paolo il Bello (an event from which Dante derived the episode 
of 'Francesca da Rimini' in the 5th canto of the Inferno, and Leigh Hunt 
the materials for his 'Story -of Rimini'). During the following century this 
family ruled the greater part of the Romagna , and also , for a time , the 
mark of Ancona. Under Lewis the Bavarian they became vicegerents of 
the emperor, but Cardinal Albornoz afterwards succeeded in reducing 
them under the power of the pope. The Malatesta family, divided into 
the Pesaro and Rimini branches, distinguished themselves as condottieri, 
but also as patrons of learning. The most famous scion was Sigismondo., 
son of Pandulfo (1417-68), who united the gifts of a great military leader 
with the most violent passions. He attracted painters and scholars to his 
court, in order to secure immortality for himself and his mistress (after- 
wards his wife), the clever Isotta. — In 1528 the people revolted against 
the Malatesta and placed themselves under the authority of the pope. 

A broad road leads from the Station (PI. D, 4) to the gate, -within 
which it is called the Via Principe Umberto. After 4 min. we follow 
the Via del Tempio dei Malatestiano to the left. 

*S. Fbancbsco (Duomo , Tempio dei Malatesta; PI. 3; C, 5), 
originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th cent, was magnificently re- 
modelled in the early-Renaissance style in 1447-55 by Sigismondo 
Malatesta from designs by Leon Battista Alberti and under the super- 
intendence of Matteo de J Pasti. The windows of the original building 
are retained. Of the facade unfortunately the lower part only has 
been completed, while the dome intended by Alberti to surmount 
the choir is wanting. The choir itself dates from 1709. On the 
cornice are the initials and arms (the elephant and rose) of Sigis- 
mondo and Isotta. 

The vaults on the 8. side contain the sarcophagi of the poets and 
scholars whom Sigismondo entertained at his court. In the first four are 
the remains of Basinio, the Parmese poet; Qiusto de' Conti; Gemisthius 
Plethon (d. 1451), a Greek philosopher whose corpse Sigismondo brought 
hither from his campaigns in Greece; and Roberto Valturio (d. 1489), the 
learned engineer. In the others repose several physicians and a bishop 
of the 16th century. 

The Interior was said by Pope Pius II. to resemble a heathen temple 
rather than a Christian church. To the right of the entrance is the Tomb 
of Sigismondo (d. 1463). Most of the plastic ornamentation of the chapels 
was executed by Agotlino d' Antonio di Duccio of Florence; a few works 
are by Ciuffagni. — 1st Chapel on the right : above the altar , St. 
Sigismund of Burgundy, patron -saint of the founder; by the pillars, 
allegorical figures of the virtues. — 2hd Chapel op the Relics ('San- 
tuario'), containing a (restored) "Fresco by Piero delta Francesca (p. 58; 
l Pelri de Burgo opus 1451'): Sigismondo Malatesta kneeling before his 
patron St. Sigismund, with La Rocca, built by him, on the right. In the 
Cappella di S. Miohele, the 3rd to the right, is the Tomb of Iiolta (d. 1470), 
erected in 1450, with the motto 'tempus loquendi, tempus tacendi'. The 
archangel on the altar, by Ciuffagni, is a portrait of Isotta. By the pillars, 
angels playing on musical instruments. — 4th Chapel on the right: by the 
pillars, the planets and other fantastic representations from a poem by 



96 Route 12. RIMINI. From Bologna 

Sigismondo in honour of his mistress. — 4th Chapel on the left: by the 
pillars, allegorical figures of the sciences. — 3kd Chapel on the left: 
Children's games, probably by Simone Ferrucci, a pupil of Donatello. — 
The 2nd Chapel on the left is closed. — The 1st Chapel on the left, 
restored in 1868, is named the Cappella dell' Acqua from an ancient 
statue of the Madonna, represented as sending rain. On the left is a 
sarcophagus for the reception of the ancestors of the founder, with two 
reliefs , representing the House of Malatesta in the Temple of Minerva 
and the Triumph of Sigismondo. By the pillars , above the elephants, 
two portrait-medallions of Sigismondo. 

From the small piazza in front of the church, the Via Patera 
leads S. to the Piazza Giuxio Cesare (PI. 0, 5), the ancient forum. 
A stone Pedestal here, erected by Sigismondo and restored in 1560, 
commemorates Caesar's passage of the Rubicon. Near it is a chapel, 
on the spot where St. Anthony once preached, and another on the 
canal is said to mark the spot where the saint preached to the fishes 
because the people refused to hear him. — The Cokso d'Augusto, 
which intersects this piazza, leads to the S. to the Porta Romana, and 
to the N. to the Piazza Oavour and the bridge of Augustus. 

The *Pobta Romana or Arco d'Augusto (PI. D, 6) is a triumphal 
arch of travertine, of elegant execution (note the capitals on the 
outer side), erected to Augustus in B.C. 27 out of gratitude for the 
restoration of the Via Flaminia (p. 103) , as the inscription records 
(inaccurately restored ; the letters to the right outside the gate also 
belong to it). Above are medallion figures : on the outside those of 
Jupiter and Venus , on the inside those of Neptune and Minerva. 

Near the town-wall, beyond S. Marino, are the uninteresting 
remains of an Amphitheatre (reached by the Via dell' Anfiteatro, the 
second side-street of the Corso from the Porta Romana). 

The Palazzo del Comune (PL 9 ; B, 5), in the Piazza Cavour, 
contains a small picture-gallery, comprising : Domenico del Ghirlan- 
dajo (school-piece), SS. Vincenzo Ferrerio, Sebastian, andRochus; 
Giovanni Bellini, Pieta (fine early work); Perin del Vago, Ma- 
donna; Jac. Tintoretto, S. Domenico. — In front of it rises a 
bronze Statue of Pope Paul V. (inscription on the pedestal obli- 
terated). Beyond the Teatro Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 10) is the ancient 
Palace of the Malatesta, now a prison, and in a very dilapidated con- 
dition. Their arms are still to be seen over the entrance. The 
town-wall, to the right, commands a fine view of the mountains. 

The Library (PI. 8 ; C, 5), in the Via Gambalunga to the B. of the 
Piazza Cavour, founded in 1617 by the jurist Gambalunga, contains 
23,000 vols, and several MSS. The small Museo Archeologico here 
contains the fine tomb of a woman, a herma of Pan and other antique 
sculptures, and tombstones of the 10-llth centuries. 

At the end of the Corso the Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) 
is crossed by the five-arched *Ponte d'Augusto (PI. A, B, 4), one 
of the finest ancient structures of the kind. It leads to the Borgo 
S. Giuliano, where the Via /Emilia (p. 91) united with the Via Fla- 
minia (p. 103). Here, too, is situated the church of — 



to Aneona. SAN MARINO. 12. Route. 97 

8. Oiuliano (PI. 6 ; A, 3, 4), containing the Martyrdom of St. 
Julian, an altar-piece by Paolo Veronese, and an old picture by 
Lattanzio della Marca (1357), the Life of the saint. 

In the Castello di S. Leo, 18 M. to the W. of Eimini, the notorious im- 
postor Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo; b. at Palermo in 1743), died in con- 
finement in 1794. From S. Leo a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, 
leads via Camaldoli and the Consuma Pass to Pontassieve (p. 39). 

An interesting excursion may be made from Rimini to (about 12 M.) 
S.Marino; diligence daily in 3 3 /4 hrs. , back 2 hrs. (fare l>/2, there and 
back 2 l fe fr.), starting from the Piazza Cavour at 2, in the season at 3, and 
in winter (Oct.-March) at 1p.m.; returning at 4 Or 5a.m. The walk is 
also interesting. — The republic of San Marino, the smallest in the world 
(32 sq. M. in area , with 8000 inhab.), is said to have been founded in 
an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the time of the persecutions 
of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminutive state braved all the 
storms of mediaeval warfare, and even the ambition of the popes. It is ruled 
by two regents, elected annually by a council. — The road leads through 
the suburb of Borgo (Albergo Michetti, E. 2-3, dej. 2, D. 3, both incl. wine, 
pens. 7 fr. , well spoken of), at the base of the precipitous rock (nearly 
820 ft.) in a bleak district on which the town (Albergo Cesarini ; Alb. Cre- 
monesi, both plain) is situated. The Palazzo del Governo, the cathedral 
(La Pieve), the museum with a small picture-gallery, and the Giardino 
Borghesi are objects of interest. Fine view from the Rocca (2460 ft.). The 
epigraphist and numismatist JSarlolommeo Borghesi, born at Savignano in 
1781, was from 1821 until his death in 1860 a resident at S. Marino, where 
he arranged and described his admirable collections. 

Fkom Rimini to Eavenna, 31 M., railway in l'/n hr. (fares 5 fr. 70, 
4 fr., 2 fr. 60 c). Ravenna, and thence to Ferrara, see Baedeker's Nor- 
thern Italy. 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, crosses the streams 
Marano and Conca (the Crustumius rapax. of Lucan) , and reaches 
(75 M.) Biceione. 81 M. Cattolica , so called from having been 
the residence of the Roman Catholic bishops during the Council of 
Rimini in 359. A chain of hills descends here to the sea. The train 
ascends for some distance, and then passes through them by means 
of a long tunnel. It crosses the Tavollo and passes the Villa Vit- 
loria , situated on the left , on the road to Rimini. "We then cross 
the Foglia, the ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus. 

90Y2 M. Pesaro. — Albergo Zongo, near the Piazza, with restaur- 
ant, tolerable j starting-point of the diligence to Urbino (see p. 99). — Caffe 
della Piazza, in the piazza; del Commercio, in the Corso. — Carriage from 
the station to the town, one-horse 80 c, two-horse 1 fr. ; one-horse carr. 
to Urbino about 12 fr. 

Pesaro, with 12,500 inhab., the ancient Pisaurum, is the capital 
of the united provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and formerly belonged 
to the Pentapolis Maritima (p. 95). During the Renaissance period 
it was famous for its majolica (comp. p. 59). 

Pesaro, first inhabited by the Siculi, then by the TJmbrians and Etrus- 
cans, afterwards by Senonian Gauls, and a Roman colony as early as B.C. 
184, was destroyed by Vitiges the Goth, and rebuilt by Belisarivs. In the 
13th cent, it passed to the Malatesta family, in 1445 to the Sforza, and in 
1512 to the Bovere, dukes of Urbino , under whom , chiefly through the 
influence of Lucrezia d'Este, consort of Francesco Maria II., it became a 
centre of art and literature, and was visited by Bernardo and Torqualo 
Tasso. Bernardo completed his 'Amadis' here. In 1631 the town was an- 
nexed to the Papal States. — The figs of Pesaro are excellent. 

The Via Branca , to the left in which is the Teatro Rossini, 
Baedekeb. T4 - , ~ tt ""- ™" : ~- 7 



98 Route 12. PESARO. From Bologna 

leads to the Piazza, just on this side of which a side-street diverges 
on the left to the Alb. Zongo , while on the right is the handsome 
portal of the former church of S. Domenico (1395). 

In the Piazza, which is adorned with a large fountain, rises the 
imposing Prefettura , the ancient ducal palace, built by the Sforza 
in 1455, and completed in the 16th cent, by the Eovere, whose 
architects were Girolamo' Oenga and his son Bartolommeo. The 
banquet-hall, 132 ft. long and 48 ft. wide, still contains a painted 
wooden ceiling dating from the latter half of the 16th century. In 
1474 this hall was the scene of the marriage of Costanzo Sforza 
and Camilla d'Aragon. 

Opposite is situated the more modern Palazzo dei Pagi. Between 
the palaces, to the right, is a facade erected in 1848, with marble 
statues of the composer Oioachimo Rossini (b. 1792 ; d. at Paris 
1868"), the 'Swan of Pesaio', and the author Count Oiulio Perticari 
(1779-1822), by P. Lorandini. — At the other angle of the piazza 
is the Palazzo del Municipio. 

To the N. of the Piazza, in the Via Mazza, is the Palazzo 
Almerici, with the Atbneo Pesarese. 

In the vestibule are votive stones of the matrons of Pisaurum , 
among the most ancient Latin monuments extant. In the court and on 
the staircase are Roman and Christian inscriptions and sculptures; high 
up two reliefs with representations of ships, dating from about 1000 B. C. 
— Here is the entrance to the Museum and to the Biblioteca Oliviebi. 
The latter, recently much increased by the acquisition of the Biblioteca 
Porticari, contains 50,000 volumes and 2000 MSS., amongst which are letters 
of Torquato Tasso and others. — In the Museum are ancient clay images 
and lamps ; ivory carvings (early Christian reliefs of the Expulsion from 
Paradise and the Stoning of Stephen, and a slab from the throne of Maxi- 
minian in Ravenna); early Italian bronzes and coins (aes grave from Ve- 
tulonia); an image of Mithras in vitreous paste. Here also are an ad- 
mirable Majolica Collection (550 pieces ; many from Pesaro, Urbino, Castel 
Durante, and Guhbio; some of the last by Maestro Giorgio), a collection 
of paintings , including two pictures by Zoppo (a Pieta and a head of John 
the Baptist), and a marble bust of Napoleon by Canova, 

In the Palazzo Machirelli (first turning to the left from the 
Albergo Zongo) is the Liceo Comunale, in which is a sitting figure 
of Rossini by Marochetti, erected in 1864 by two admirers, Baron 
Salamanca of Madrid and G. Delahante of Paris. 

In the Via Rossini, in which stands the small house where Rossini 
was born, is the old Cathedral (closed at present). Close by, in the 
hall of the Vescovado, is an early-Christian Nymphsum. 

The present cathedral , 8. Francesco , in the Via Roma , has a 
Gothic portal and contains a *Madonna enthroned, with four saints by 
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1475). — S. Giovanni Battista,in the Via Passeri, 
begun by Girolamo Genga in 1515, was finished by Bartolommeo 
in 1543. — 8. Agostino, in the Corso, has a Gothic portal of 1413. 

On the N. side of the town stands the Rocchetta (now a powder- 
magazine), built by Giovanni Sforza. — Opposite the spacious 
Lunatic Asylum (Manicomio or Ospizio degli Incurabili) are the 
small Orti Giuli, where a bastion of the town- wall commands a 



to Ancona. PESARO. 12. Route. 99 

fine view of the Foglia (once crossed by a Roman bridge) and of 
Monte S. Bartolo. 

About l'/2 M. from Pesaro rises Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman 
dramatist L. Attius is said to have been interred. On the top lies the "Villa 
Imperiale, belonging to the Principe Albani, at whose town-house entrance- 
tickets may be obtained. Alessandro Sforza built a country-house on this 
site, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the Emperor Frederick III., 
on his journey to Italy in 1469. The upper rooms were adorned by the 
Rovere with stucco-work, majolica-plaques, and frescoes. In the 1st Room 
is the triumphal procession of Duke Francesco Maria of Drbino , accom- 
panied by Alfonso of Ferrara, by Qirol. Oenga, The 2nd Room (the finest), 
was decorated as an arbour, with figures of Daphne and landscapes, by the 
brothers Dossi; on the ceiling is the duke with his army. In the 3rd 
Room are the Coronation of Charles V., and allegories after designs by 
Angelo Bronzino. The frescoes in the following rooms represent the duke 
being appointed commander-in-chief by Cardinal Alidosi, Pope Leo X., 
and the doge of Venice. The last room, which has a fine stucco ceiling, 
is embellished by paintings by Raffaellino del Golle, representing the doke 
being crowned with a garland, Calumny (after Apelles), and the Christian 
virtues. — Bleonora Gonzaga caused Girolamo Genga to erect a new palace 
about 1530, near the old house, with an inscription on the facade to the 
effect that it was built for her husband Francesco Maria 'a bellis redeunti 
animi ejus causa 1 . It was never completed, but even in its present dilapi- 
dated condition, it retains much beauty; fine view from the terrace. — In 
the neighbourhood is the church of the Girolamitani ; one of the finest 
views in the environs' is obtained from an eminence behind the monastery. 

The Municipio of the little coast-town of Grradara , 7 M. to the N.W. 
of Pesaro, contains a Madonna and saints by Giovanni Santi (1484) ; in the 
Rocca is a terracotta altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

An Excursion to Urbino is best made from Pesaro. Diligence 
twice daily (fare S 1 /^ ft.), ascending in 5, and descending in 4 hrs. 
The road leads through the valley of the Foglia, passing several un- 
important villages. At the inn 'del Cappone', halfway, the horses 
are changed. Beyond Moline the road ascends in windings. Above, 
to the right, is the ducal palace, with three loggie flanked by round 
towers. The diligence stops in the main street, flanked on the left 
by arcades, in which the inn and cafe are situated. 

Urbino {Albergo d' Italia, tolerable), the ancient Urvinum Metau- 
rense, celebrated as the birthplace of the greatest painter of all ages, 
Raphael Santi (b. 28th March, 1483; d. at Rome, 6th April, 1520), 
lies on an abrupt hill, surrounded by barren mountains. The town, 
with narrow, crooked streets and 5000 inhab. , has an unimpor- 
tant university, and merits a visit for the sake of its monuments 
and historical associations. The situation is picturesque. 

In the 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Monlefellro 
family, and under Federigo Montefeltko (1444-82) and his son Guidobaldo 
(1482-1508) attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neigh- 
bouring courts of the Malatesta at Rimini and the Sforza at Pesaro. 
Federigo Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds 
of the 15th cent. , married his daughter in 1474 to Giovanni della Rovere, 
a nephew of Sixtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of Urbino. 
His court was regarded as a model among the princely courts of that period. 
It was visited for shorter or longer periods by numerous scholars and ar- 
tists , amongst whom the prince was pre-eminent for learning. His son, 
Guidobaldo , in spite of ill health and other misfortunes , zealously fol- 
lowed his example , with the able assistance of his beautiful and ta- 

7* 



100 Route 12. URBINO. From Bologna 

lented wife Elizabeta Qonzaga. A famous description of the court of Ur- 
bino under Guidobaldo, depicting it as the most refined social school of the 
day," is given by Count Baldassar Castiglione in his 'Cortigiano', the ideal 
of a courtier. In 1497 Guidobaldo was expelled by Cesare Borgia, the son 
of Alexander VI., after whose death, however, he returned to Urbino in 
1503. He died in 1508 and bequeathed his dominions to his nephew Fran- 
cesco Maria della Sovere, the favourite of Pope Julius II. In 1626 the duchy 
was incorporated with the States of the Church , when Urban VIII. per- 
suaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to abdicate. 

Amongst the most distinguished Aktists employed at the court of Ur- 
bino, during the zenith of its splendour under Federigo and Guidobaldo, 
were Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesco, and Melozzo da Forli. Even for- 
eign painters , like Justus van Gent , a picture by whom is still preserved 
in the gallery (see p. 101), were attracted to the court. The peculiar bond 
of union which existed here between the interests of science and art is 
chiefly exhibited in the library pictures or ideal portraits of scholars painted 
by Melozzo da Forli and others, but which have been removed from Urbino 
together with the library. Timoteo Viti, or della Vite, of Ferrara 
(1467-1523), the best pupil of Francesco Francia, spent the greater part of 
his life in Urbino ; he was the first painter who exercised an influence on 
Raphael, but at a later period he himself became subject to that great 
master's magic spell. — The master, however, in whom we are now spe- 
cially interested , is Giovanni Santi of Urbino (? 1450-94), the father of 
Raphael, whose frescoes at Cagli (p. 104) and Fano (p. 103) show considerable 
power and a keen sense of the graceful. As Giovanni died when Ra- 
phael was in his 11th year, his son can hardly have had the benefit of his 
instruction. After his father's death, Raphael remained in Urbino till 1500, 
but under what tuition is unknown. Another native of Urbino was Fed- 
eeigo Baeoccio (1528-1612), some of whose works are able, while others 
display the customary affectation of the post-Raphaelite period. — During 
the Renaissance period, Urbino was one of the chief centres of the majol- 
ica manufacture (comp. p. 59). 

In the centre of the town is the Plan del Mehcato , or market- 
place, where the Corso Ducale, in which the inn is situated, ends. 
— The Via Pucinotti ascends hence to the right in a few minutes to 
a somewhat dull piazza, with the cathedral and ducal palace. 

The Cathedral contains some interesting pictures. 

To the right of the entrance, St. Peter, a replica of the statue in St. 
Peter's at Rome. In the 2nd chapel to the right: St. Sebastian by Fede- 
rigo Baroccio; to the left of the high-altar, 'Lord's Supper, also by Fed. 
Baroccio. In the sacristy: SS. Martin and Thomas a Becket, with a por- 
trait of Duke Guidobaldo, the master-piece of Timoteo Viti (1504) ; Ador- 
ation of the Magi, by the same ; and a Scourging of Christ by Piero della 
Francesca, elaborately executed in the miniature style. — The Crypt 
(entered from the right corner of the small piazza between the cathedral 
and the palace) possesses a Pieta by Qiov. da Bologna. 

The *Ducal Paxa.ce, erected by Luciano da Laurana of Dalmatia 
in 1468-82 by order of Federigo Montefeltro , is now used as a 
'Residenza Oovernativa', and contains the archives. The require- 
ment of strength, coupled with the unevenness of the ground, has 
given rise to the irregularity of the building, but at the same time 
has enhanced its picturesqueness. The palace has always been much 
admired, and was regarded by the contemporaries of the founder as 
an embodiment of their ideal of a princely residence. According 
to modern standards, however, its dimensions are not grand, and 
even the court, the entrance to which is opposite the cathedral, is 
pleasing rather than imposing. In the latter, to the right, are med- 



to Ancona. URBINO. 72. Route. 101 

ifflval tombstones and a relief (Pieta) of the 14th century. The 
staircase to the upper rooms is on the left, with a statue of Duke 
Federigo, by Oirol. Campagna (1606). The ornamentation of the 
doors, windows, and chimney-pieces here and in the apartments is 
by Ambrogio da Milano, etc. The corridors and rooms contain a 
collection of inscriptions from Rome and the Umbrian municipia, 
early- Christian and mediaeval sculptures, and a small Picture Gallery. 

The Collection of Inscbiptions was made by the epigraphist Fabretti. 
— Of the Scglptures the chief are 72 reliefs with representations of 
engines of war (after Francesco di Giorgio), by Ambrogio da Milano (1464), 
which formerly decorated the outside of the palace. Farther on in Room I. 
are four chimney-pieces and a marble font. Room II. Fed. Zucchero, 
Pieti ; two crucifixes of the 13th cent. ; St. Clara (14th cent.). Room III. 
Tapestry worked in Urbino by masters from Flanders ; to the right, Pal- 
merini, Madonna ; stucco-reliefs by Brandano. Farther on is the Sala degli 
Angeli, with five beautiful doors and dancing angels, and a room with 
a portrait in relief of Ariosto. In the Chapel is a plaster-cast of Raphael's 
skull. The studio of Duke Federigo should be visited for the sake of 
the intarsias, which formerly also covered the upper part of the walls, 
and the fine ceiling. From the balcony a beautiful view is obtained. — 
The celebrated library collected by Federigo has been removed to Rome. 

Piotoke Gallekt. To the right: 38. Baroccio, Madonna, with saints; 
25. Tim. Titi, St. Sebastian; 23. Paolo Uccello, Legend of the desecrated Host. 
Fine chimney-piece. — 22. Oiuliano da Rimini, Madonna, with saints ; 2. 
Giovanni Banti, Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Sebastian, Jerome, and 
Francis, and the Buffi family; Pieta; 18. Piero delta Francesca, Archi- 
tectural piece ; 1. Justus van Gent , Holy Communion , with numerous 
portraits, including Duke Federigo and Caterino Zeno, the Persian ambas- 
sador (to the right of the table; injured; 1474); 60. Tim. Viti, S. Apol- 
lonia; 53. Sasioferralo, Madonna; 52. Fra Camevale, Madonna; Titian, 
Last Supper (damaged), and the Resurrection (late works). 

Opposite the palace rises an Obelisk, facing which is the church 
of 8. Domenico , with a pleasing portal and a terracotta relief of 
the Madonna , with SS. Dominic and Peter Martyr , by Luca della 
Bobbia (1449). — The street contracts ; to the right is the Univer- 
sity, with armorial bearings over the door. Farther on is the Istituto 
di Belle Arti, which contains sculptures and some fine majolicas. 

In the market-place (p. 100) is the loggia of S. Francesco, a 14th 
cent, church, with a handsome campanile. The portal of the chapel 
to the right of the high-altar is by Bartol. Centogatti (15th cent.). 

The Contrada Raffaelo leads hence to the Fortezza. Raphael was 
horn at No. 278, on the left. Purchased in 1873 at the suggestion 
of Count Gherardi , aided by a donation from Mr. Morris Moore , 
the house now belongs to the 'R. Accademia Raffaello'. 

The rooms are adorned with engravings from Raphael's pictures. In 
one of the rooms is a fresco of the Madonna (removed from the court; 
entirely repainted), by Giovanni Santi, possibly representing Magia Ciarla, 
Raphael's mother (fee '/a **•)• 

From the beginning of the Contrada Raffaello the Via Bramante 
leads to the church of S. Spirito , containing a Pieta and Descent 
of the Holy Ghost, two good paintings by Luca Signorelli, originally 
a church-banner, of 1495. 

Returning to the market-place, and descending the Via Bal- 
hona, we follow the Via della Posta Vecchia, the first side-street to 



102 Route 12. URBINO. From Bologna 

the right, and then the Via S. Giovanni, the first street to the left, 
which leads straight to the Oratorio della Confraternity di S. Gio- 
vanni. The walls of the interior are covered with scenes from the 
history of the Virgin and John the Baptist , by Lorenzo da S. Seve- 
rino and his brother, of the school of Giotto (1416). — The neigh- 
bouring church of S. Giuseppe contains a Nativity by Fed. Brandano. 

In the Theatre, once famous for its decorations by Oirolamo 
Oenga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the 'Ca- 
landra' of Cardinal Bibbiena (p. 43), the friend of Pope Leo X. 

The hill of the old Fortezza (ascend the Contrada Raffaello , at 
the top take the Via dei Maceri to the left, and knock at No. 1461 ; 
fee 25-50 c.) commands an interesting survey of the barren chain 
of the Apennines. A powder-magazine now stands at the top. 

About 1 M. to the E. of Urbino , to the left of the Pesaro road, 
are situated the conspicuous old monastery and church of S. Ber- 
nardino, with the new cemetery of Urbino. This spot commands a 
fine view of the town. The church contains the tombs of the Dukes 
Federigo and Guidobaldo, with their busts. 

FeomTJebino to Fossombeone (p. 103), H'/bM., diligence daily at 6 a.m., 
returning at 1.45 p. m. (fare 2 fr. 10 c. ; carriage 10 fr.). The 'Corriere 
del Furlo 1 passes through Fossombrone at 11 a.m. Carriage from Urbino 
to Gubbio 40 fr. 

The Railway from Pesaeo to Ancona skirts the coast, oc- 
casionally close to the sea. 

98 M. Fano (*Alb. $ Ristor. Nolfi, Alb. del Moro, both in the Via 
Nolfi), the Fanum Fortunae of antiquity, is indebted for its origin 
to a temple of Fortune, a fact commemorated by a modern statue of 
fortune on the public fountain. It is now a pleasant little town 
(9500 inhab.), surrounded by ancient walls and a deep moat. The 
once celebrated harbour is now unimportant. Pope Clement VIII. 
(Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 1536. The first printing-press 
with Arabic type was set up here in 1514 at the cost of Pope Jul- 
ius II. As a sea-bathing place Fano is less expensive than Rimini. 

We enter the town by the Via Garibaldi, which is intersected 
by the Via Nolfi. Farther on, to the right, is the Piazza, in which 
(in the mediaeval Palazzo della Ragione") is the Theatre, formerly 
one of the most famous in Italy, rebuilt by Torelli, a native archi- 
tect, and decorated by Bibbiena (d. 1774). One of the rooms con- 
tains (temporarily) a David with the head of Goliath, by Domeni- 
chino, injured by thieves in 1871. — The old Palazzo del Munieipio 
is reached through the arches to the right of the market-place. 

The S. side of the Piazza, which is enlivened by a fountain of 
flowing water, is skirted by the Corso. Following the latter to the 
right , we reach the Via dell' Arco d' Augusto , the second cross- 
street to the left. In a small piazza here rises the Cathedral of 
S. Fortunato ; the four recumbent lions in front formerly supported 
the pillars of the portico. The portal dates from the 13th century. 



to Ancona. FANO. 12. Route. 103 

In the interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to the left) contains 
a monument of the Rainalducci family ; nearly opposite (4th to the right) 
is a chapel adorned with sixteen frescoes hy DomenicMno. — In the chapel 
to the right of the choir, a Madonna with saints, by L. Carracci. — In 
the court of the Vescovado, behind the cathedral, are 13th cent, sculptures. 

Farther on we come to the *Aech of Augustus, which spans 
the street , a structure of simple design , to which a second story 
was added in the 4th cent. , when it was re-dedicated to Constan- 
tine. It once had three openings , as is shown by a view of it on 
the adjacent church of JS. Michele, adjoining the handsome Renais- 
sa ice portal. — On the side of the arch next the town is the Found- 
ling Hospital (Brefotroflo), a pleasing edifice with loggie. 

Returning to the piazza, we follow the Via Boccaccio opposite the 
fountain, and then take the Via Bonaccorsi, inclining to the left, to 
the church of S. Maria Nuova, with portico. 

Interior. 1st jhapel on the left: Oiov. Santi, Visitation; 2nd chapel: 
Perugino , Annunciation, 1498. 3rd chapel on the right : Perugino, Ma- 
donna and saints, with admirable predelle (1497). 

In the vestibule oi 8. Francesco (closed) are the monuments of 
Pandolfo III. Malatesta (d. 1427; to the right), perhaps by L. B. 
Alberti, 1460, and his wife Paola Bianca (d. 1398; left). — S. 
Croce, the hospital-church, in the Via Nolfl, contains a Madonna 
with four saints, by Giovanni Santi. — S. Paterniano, dedicated to 
the first bishop ofFano, possesses a Marriage of the Virgin, by Ouer- 
cino. — 8. Pietro is an imposing and richly-decorated church, with 
frescoes by Viviani; in the chapel of the Gabrielli is an Annunciation 
hy Outdo Reni. — In S. Agostino is a painting of S. Angelo Cus- 
tode, by Ouercino. 

Interesting excursion to the Monte (Hove, by a good road (4 M.). At 
the top is a monastery (quarters). Splendid view of the Adriatic. 

From Fano to Fossato via Fossombeone and the Fuklo Pass, corriere 
daily: to Fossombrone 2'/2, to Cagli &/v, to Schieggia 10, and to Fossato 
12'/2 hrs. The road is identical with the ancient road from Rome to Ri- 
mini (p, 95), the Via Flaminia, constructed in B.C. 220 by the Censor C. 
Flaminius (p. 47) , to secure the district of the Po which had been recently 
wrested from the Gauls. The road quits Fano by the Arch of Augustus 
and the Porta Maggiore, and skirts the N. bank of the Metaurus, the 
fertile valley of which is well cultivated. About 1 M. from Fossombrone, 
near the church of 8. Martino al Piano, was once situated the Roman co- 
lony of Forum Sempronii, destroyed by the Goths and Longobards. 

15 l /2 M. Fossombrone (Tre Be), long in possession of the Malatesta 
family, accrued to the States of the Church under Sixtus IV. It is now 
a busy little town with 4300 inhab. and silk-factories , prettily situated 
in the valley, which contracts here, and commanded by a castle. — From 
Fossombrone to Urbino, see p. 102. 

_ The Via Flaminia about 2 M. from Fossombrone crosses the Metaurus, 
which descends from the valley near /S. Angelo in Vado from (he N., and 
follows the left bank of the Candigliano, which at this point empties itself 
into the Metaurus. The valley soon contracts again; to the right rises the 
hill of Pietralala, occasionally named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here, according 
to the popular tradition, was fought the memorable battle of the Metaurus 
in which, B.C. 207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to the aid of his brother 
Hannibal with 60,000 men , was signally defeated and slain by the consuls 
Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. This was the great event which 
decided the 2nd Punic War in favour of Rome. 



104 Route 12. CAGLI. 

The road, which skirts the river, now pierces the N.E. chain of the 
Apennines by means of the celebrated Furlo Pass (Furlo from forulus = 
passage, the ancient petra intercita), a tunnel 17 ft. wide, 14 ft. high, and 
about 32 yds. in length, between lofty and precipitous cliffs. The founder 
of the work was the Emp. Vespasian (in A. D. 76), as the inscription 
hewn in the rock at the N. entrance records (Imp. Caesar. Augustus. Ves- 
pasianus. pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. XVII. p(ater) p(atri<e) cos. VIII. 
censor, faciund. curaoit). — A little beyond it is the small church Badia del 
Furlo. At the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, 8 M. from Fos- 
sombrone, lies the village of Acqualagna. The road crosses the Candigliano 
and then follows the left bank of the Burano through an undulating di- 
strict. At the foot of the hill on which Cagli is situated, an antique 
bridge, built of huge masses of rock, crosses a tributary brook. 

31 M. Cagli (Italia, in the piazza), a little town with 3000 inhab., occu- 
pies the site of the ancient borough of Cales, or Calle. S. Domenico contains 
one of the chief works of Giovanni Sanli, Raphael's father, a Madonna 
with saints , al fresco. Also a Pieta with St. Jerome and Bonaventura, 
by the same master. S. Francesco and S. Angelo Minore also possess 
several pictures. — Travellers beyond Cagli are generally conveyed in 
smaller carriages. Above the town the Burano, which the road skirts, 
pierces the main chain of the Apennines by means of a wild and deep 
gorge. At the other end lies (5'/2 M.) Cantiano, with 1000 inhab. ; the 
church delta Gollegiata contains a Holy Family by Perugino. — The road 
ascends rapidly, and reaches the height of the pass, 2400 ft. above the 
sea. A little before arriving at Schieggia the road crosses a ravine by 
the curious Ponle a Botte, constructed in 1805. 

4372 M. Schieggia, an insignificant place, lies at the junction of the 
roads to Fossato and Foligno, and to (6 M.) Gubbio (the latter leading over 
the pass of Monte Calvo, p. 59; carriage 5-6 fr.). On Monte Petrara, in the 
vicinity, amid oak-plantations, stand the ruins of the celebrated temple 
of Jupiter Apenninus, whose worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. 
Several bronzes and inscriptions have been discovered in the environs. 

The main road continues to descend the gTeen valley of the Chiascio, 
and leads via Costacciaro and Sigillo (stalactite caves) to — 

55 M. Fotsato, a station on the Ancona and Borne line, p. 112. 

Beyond Fano the train crosses the river Metaurus (p. 103), then 
the Cesano, near (105 M.) stat. Mondolfo-Marotta. 

112 M. Senigallia or Sinigallia (*Albergo Roma, near the har- 
bour ; Trattoria del Oiardino, near the Municipio), the ancient Sena 
Oallica, with 9,600 inhab., chiefly occupied in fishing. The town 
was destroyed by Pompey during the Civil War between Marius 
and Sulla. It was an episcopal see as early as the 4th cent., but 
was afterwards frequently devastated by Are and sword , so that it 
now presents quite a modern appearance. The house in which 
Pope Pius IX. (1792-1878) was bom is shown to visitors (a few 
memorials). In summer Senigallia is a favourite sea-bathing place. 
— The monastery-church of S. Maria delle Orazie (2 M. distant) 
contains in the choir a picture by Perugino (retouched), and over 
the 3rd altar on the right a small Madonna by Piero delta Fran- 
cesca (or Fra Carnevale ?). 

119Y2 M. Montemarciano. Pleasant view of the promontory of 
Ancona, rising from the sea. The train crosses the Esino. At 
(122 M.) stat. Falconara Marittima passengers for the line to Rome 
change carriages (see R. 14). The town lies on the hill to the right. 

127 M. Ancona, see R. 13. 




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105 
13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto. 

Hotels. "Grand Hotel Vittoria (PI. b; C, 3), Strada Calamo, 
well fitted up, E. & L. 3V4, D. 5 fr. ; Albergo Eeale della Pace (PI. a; 
0, 3), Via Aurelio Saffi 2, with good restaurant, E., L., & A. 2-3, B. IV4, 
d<5j. 3, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. ; "Milano (PI. c ; C, 4), Via 29 Settembre, with 
restaurant, E., L., & A. 21/2-4V2, B. I1/4, dej. 3V2, D. 41/2 (both incl. wine), 
pens. 7-9, omn. 1 fr. — Albergo della Ferrovia, at the station, Roma, 
Eueopa are less pretending. — Cafe. Stoppani & Leva, in the Corso. — 
Trattoria. Leon <TOro, in the Corso. 

Post Office (8-8 o'clock), Strada Calamo (PI. D, 3). — Telegraph Office 
Via del Porto. — Theatre. Piazza del Teatro (PI. C, 3). 

Gabs. One-horse cab from station to town, incl. luggage, 1, at night 
lVs fr. ; two-horse IV2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. 11/2-2 fr. ; each '/s hr- more, 
60-80 c. — Beyond the town, 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. 60 c. for 1 hr. ; each 1/* hr. 
more, 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c. 

Tramway from the station through the Via Nazionale to the Piazza 
del Teatro (PI. C, 3) and the Piazza Cavour (PI. E, 4). 

Steamboats of the Peninsular and Oriental Company on Frid. mornings 
to Brindisi and Alexandria; on Sun. to Venice. Societa Plorio-Rubattino, 
on Mon. at 9 a. m. to Zara in Dalmatia, in 9 hrs. ; on Mon. at 4 p. m. 
to Tremiti, Bari, Brindisi, Corfu, the Piraeus, and Constantinople; on 
Wed. at 6 p. m. to Venice, in 12 hrs. Austrian Lloyd, to Trieste every al- 
ternate Sunday. 

Sea Baths, near the station. Warm Baths, Piazza Stamura (PI. E, 4). 

British Vice-Consul, Sig. Albert P. Tomastini (also American Consular 
Agent). 

Ancona, the capital of a province, with 28,000 inhab., of whom 
upwards of 6000 are Jews, and possessing an excellent harbour, is 
beautifully situated between the promontories of Monte Astagno 
(PI. C, 6) and Monte Guasco (PI. C, 1). Since 1860 the govern- 
ment has improved the harbour and endeavoured to foster the trade 
of Ancona, but business has declined somewhat of late years. 
Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. 

Ancona was founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse, and thence named 
Dorica Ancon (i.e. 'elbow', from the form of the promontory). It was 
afterwards a Roman colony, and the harbour was enlarged by Trajan. Af- 
ter the beginning of the Christian era it repeatedly recovered from the 
ravages of the Goths and others, and in 1532 was made over by Gonzaga 
to Pope Clement VII., who built a fort and garrisoned it. Ancona is also 
frequently mentioned as a fortress in modern history. Thus in 1796 it was 
surrendered to the French, in 1799 to the Austrians, in 1805 to the French 
again ; and in 1815 it was ceded to the pope, to whom it belonged till 1860. 
In 1832-38 the citadel was garrisoned by the French, to keep in check 
the Austrians, who held Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 
the town revolted, but on 18th June was re-captured by the Austrians. On 
20th Sept., 1860, after the Battle of Castelfidardo (p. 108), it was finally oc- 
cupied by the Italians. 

The Harbour, an oval basin of about 990 by 880 yds. in dia- 
meter, is considered one of the best in Italy. The handsome quay, 
called the Banchine, was completed in 1880. The N. pier is 
of ancient Roman origin. At the beginning of it rises the well- 
preserved marble ^Triumphal Arch (PI. B, 1), erected A. D. 115 
by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the completion of the 
new quays, as the inscription records. The holes to which its ori- 
ginal bronze enrichments were attached are still observed. The 
new pier constructed by Pope Clement XII. , a continuation of the 



106 Route 13. ANCONA. Cathedral. 

old, also boasts of a Triumphal Arch (PI. B, 1), designed by Van- 
vitelli, but far inferior to the other. Its facade is towards the sea 
and has no inscription. At the S. angle of the harbour is the old 
Lazzaretto, built in 1732, now a bonded warehouse {Magazzini 
Oenerali, PI. B, 5). The harbour is defended by several forts. 

The *Cathedral of S. Ciriaco (PI. C, 1), dedicated to the first 
bishop of Ancona, stands on the Monte Guasco (seep. 105) an 
excellent point of view. The church occupies the site of a tem- 
ple of Venus mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal, and contains 
ten columns which once belonged to the ancient temple. It is in a 
mixed Romanesque and Byzantine style of architecture , and in 
the form of a Greek cross, each of the arms being flanked with 
aisles. The church was probably erected about the end of the 11th 
century. The dodecagonal dome over the centre of the cross is one 
of the oldest in Italy. The facade (13th cent.), ascribed to Marga- 
ritone d'Arezzo, has a beautiful Gothic portico. 

In the Left Aisle, in front, is a tomb of 1530. In the Eight 
Teansept the semi-Byzantine capitals have been preserved; the railing 
of the steps to the choir dates from the 12th century. In the Crypt, to 
the right , sculptnres of the 13th cent. ; relief of Christ between an ox 
and a lion (the symbols of the evangelists SS. Luke and Mark), by Philip- 
pus; beneath, Head of Christ and St. George; tomb of the Franciscan 
B. Gabriel Ferretti (1456) ; in the corner, three statuettes (12th cent.) ; re- 
liefs, probably from the ancient choir of the left transept ; "Sarcophagus 
of Titus Fl(avius) Oorgonius, Prsetor of Ancona, with reliefs (in front, 
Christ and the apostles with Gorgonius ;;nd his wife at the Saviour's feet ; 
on the lid to the left of the inscription, Adoration of the kings; to the 
right, Moses, David, Goliath, Baptism of Christ; on the left end, Moses, 
Abraham's Offering, on the right end, M;;gi before Herod, etc.; 4th cent.); 
farther on, Roman head ; statue of St. Primianus ; relief of Christ (12th 
cent.); sarcophagus of St. Marcellinus. — The Crypt of the Left (mod- 
ernized) Transept contains the tombs of SS. Cyriacas, Marcellinus, and 
Liborius, in the baroque style. 

Pope Pius II. Piccolomini, while vainly endeavouring to organise 
a crusade against the Turks, died in the Episcopal Palace, adjoining 
the cathedral, in 1464. — Within a house at the foot of the hill are 
scanty remains of a Roman Amphitheatre. 

The Palazzo Comunale (PI. C, 2), built in the 13th cent, by 
Margaritone d'Arezzo, was restored in the 15th by Francesco di 
Giorgio, and partly modernized in 1647. The reliefs of Adam and 
Eve on the facade and the lower part of the rear date from the ori- 
ginal building. On the staircase in the interior is a statue of the 
law-giver Marco de' Rossi (14th cent.). 

The Strada del Comune descends from the Palazzo Comunale. 
On the left is the church of S. Francesco (PI. D, 2; now a barrack), 
Testing on a massive substructure, with a rich Gothic portal attri- 
buted to Giorgio da Sebenico (1455). — The street next leads (r.) 
to the Prefettura (PL D, 3), the fine court of which is flanked by 
Gothic arcades and has a fine Renaissance archway. We proceed 
through the court to the Piazza del Plbbiscito (PI. D, 3), reached 
by steep approaches between which is a statue of Clement XII. 



Museum. ANCONA. 13. Route. 107 

(Corsini, 1730-40), by Cornachini. — Farthei up is the church of 
S.Domenico, which contains a Madonna and SS. Francis and Nichol- 
as hy Titian (in the 3rd Chapel on the right), beautiful and im- 
posing in its composition, though now much injured (1520). 

Adjoining the church on the right is the Museum (Civica Pina- 
coteca Podesti e Museo Archeologico delle Marche), 

Vestibule. Keystones from the doorways of houses and other reliefs 
of the 13th cent. ; also large groups, Cain and Abel from the old Palazzo 
Comunale. — Room I. Roman antiquities and coins. — Room II. Antique 
bronzes and vases; medals.. 

Upper Floor. Room I. Paintings and drawings by Francesco Podesti. 
— Room II. 1. Carlo Crivelli, Small Madonna ; 8. Titian, Crucifixion (dam- 
aged); 9. Pellegrino Tibaldi, Baptism of Christ; 11. Ouercino, Cleopatra; 
13. Lorenzo Lotto, Assumption of the Virgin; 27. Ciccarelli, Relief of the 
Madonna; 30. Ouercino, St. Pelagia; 37. Lorenzo Lotto, Madonna and saints. 

The street descending to the right from the Prefettura leads to 
the Loggia dei Mercanti (Exchange, PLC, 3), a late-Gothic edifice 
with a fine facade of 1459. In the interior are paintings by Pel- 
legrino Tibaldi and stucco-work by Varle. — Adjoining, on the left, 
is the pretty Palazzo Benincasa (15th cent.). — Farther on to the 
right we reach the church of S. Maria della Piazza (PI. C, 3), with 
on elaborate facade (1210) ; the sculptures by Filippus. Still far- 
ther, on the same side, is the church of S. Maria della Misericordia, 
with an elegant early-Renaissance portal. — We return through the 
Via della Loggia to the Piazza del Teatro (PI. C, 3), the centre 
of traffic, beyond which is S. Agostino, with a late-Gothic portal 
showing a Renaissance tendency, attributed to Giorgio da Sebenico. 

From the Piazza del Teatro the Cobso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 
C, D, E, 4; tramway) ascends towards the E., through the new 
quarters of the town. At the end is the Piazza Cavour, with a 
colossal statue of the minister in the centre (PI. E, 4). 

Excursions prom Ancona. 

The Province of Ancona, the ancient Picenum, is a remarkably fertile 
district, abounding in beautiful scenery. The Apennines send forth a series 
of parallel spurs towards the sea, forming short, but picturesque valleys. 
The towns are invariably situated on the heights. To the W. the view is 
bounded by the Central Apennines, usually covered with snow, which 
here attain their greatest elevation in several continuous ranges, from the 
Montagna della Sibilla to the Gran Sasso d' 'Italia (9815 ft.). 

On the coast, 9 M. to the S. of Ancona, rises the Monte 
Conero (1760 ft.), with an old Camaldulensian monastery, com- 
manding a superb panorama. The pedestrian follows a tolerable 
road over the coast-hills nearly as far as (7M.) Sirolo (1000inhab.), 
whence a path to the left ascends in 3 / 4 hr. to the top. A carriage 
(see p. 105) may be taken as far as the foot of the hill. 

The Ancona-Foggia Railway (to Loreto, 15 M., in 38-55 min.; 
fares 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 20 c, express 2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 5 c; to 
Porto Civitanova, 27 M., in V/i-i 3 /* hr.) penetrates the heights 
enclosing Ancona by means of a tunnel. To the left, Monte Conero. 
4 M. Varano. 



108 Route 13. OSIMO. Environs. 

10 M. Osimo (Albergo della Corona, in the market-place ; om- 
nibus from the station to the town, 3 M., 75 c), the ancient 
Auximum, colonised by the Romans B.C. 157, and mentioned by 
Caesar, is now a country-town with 5000 inhab. , and lies on a hill 
in a commanding position. The N. part of the Town Wall (2nd 
cent. B.C.),still exists. A walk round the town affords a beautiful view. 
The Palazzo Pubblico in the large Piazza contains inscriptions and 
statues in Roman dress, found on the site of the ancient forum in 
the 15th cent., but barbarously mutilated by the Milanese in 1487. 
The Cathedral contains a fine bronze font of the 16th century. 

Proceeding hence by railway, we perceive, to the right , Castel- 
fidardo, where on 18th Sept. 1860, the papal troops under Lamo- 
riciere were totally defeated by the Italians under Cialdini. 

15 M. Loreto {Alb. del Pellegrino, in the Piazza, well spoken 
of; omnibus to the town 60 c), situated on a hill at some distance 
from the line, with admirable views of the sea, the Apennines, and 
the province of Ancona, is a celebrated resort of pilgrims (llOOin- 
hab.). It consists of little more than a single long street, full of 
booths for the sale of rosaries, medals, images, etc., and is much 
infested by beggars and importunate (but useless) 'guides'. 

According to the legend, the house of the Virgin at Nazareth became 
an object of profound veneration after the year 336, when the aged 
Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, made a pilgrimage thither, and 
caused a basilica to be erected over it. Owing to the incursions of the 
Saracens the basilica fell to decay, and after the loss of Ptolemais the 
Gasa Santa was miraculously transplanted by the hands of angels in 1291 
to the coast of Dalmatia (the precise spot being between Fiume and 
Tersato). Three years later, however, it was again removed by angels 
during the night, and deposited near Recanati, on the ground of a certain 
widow Laureta (lauretum = laurel-grove). A church was erected over it, 
and houses soon sprang up for the accommodation of the believers who 
flocked to the spot. In 1586 Pope Sixtus V. accorded to Loreto the pri- 
vileges of a town. 

Among the numerous pilgrims who have visited this spot may be 
mentioned Tasso, who thus alludes to it: — 

l Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 

Si questo grande e spazioso mare, 

O santa Stella, il tuo splendor tn'ha scorto, 

CW illustra e scalda pur Vumane menW. 

The *Chiesa della Casa Santa, built after 1465 for Pope 
Paul II. by Oirolamo da Majano of Florence, and altered in 1526 
by Ant . Sangallo the Younger , is again undergoing restoration. 
The handsome facade was erected in 1583-87 under Sixtus V., a 
colossal statue of whom adorns the entrance flight of steps. Over 
the principal door is a life-size statue of the Madonna and Child, by 
Oirolamo Lombardo, whose sons and pupils executed the three su- 
perb bronze doors, under Pope Paul V., 1605-21. The campanile, 
designed by Vanvitelli , is a very lofty structure in a richly-deco- 
rated style, surmounted by an octagonal pyramid. The principal 
bell, presented by Pope Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. 

In the Ikteiuoe, to the left of the entrance, is a beautiful font, cast 
in bronze by Tiburzio Vercelli and Qiamballista Vitale, and adorned with 



of Aneona. LORETO. 13. Route. 109 

basreliefs and figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Fortitude. On the al- 
tars and in the chapels of the nave are mosaics representing St. Francis 
of Assisi, by Domenichino, and the Archangel Michael, by Guido Reni; also 
a number of valuable pictures, frescoes, and sculptures. — The frescoes in 
the Sagrestia della Cura (to the left) are early but good specimens of Luca 
Signorelli (p. 45), restored in 1877. The sacristy to the right contains 
•Frescoes by Melozzo da Forll (p. 92). 

In the centre of the church, beneath a dome constructed by Giuliano 
da Sangallo in 1489-1500, rises the 'Casa Santa 1 (or 'Holy House'), a simple 
brick-building, 13Vs ft. in height, 28 ft. in length, and 12'/2 ft. in width, 
surrounded by a lofty "Marble Screen designed by Bramante (1510), and 
executed by Andrea Sansovino (1513-29), Qirolamo Lombardo, Giovanni da 
Bologna, Bandinelli, Tribolo, Guglielmo della Porta, etc., with bronze doors 
by Qirolamo Lombardo. It is adorned with statues of prophets and sibyls, 
and with reliefs, among which are: — 

W. Side. Annunciation, by Sansovino ; smaller representations by 
Franc, da Sangallo, Girol. Lombardo, and Gugl. della Porta. 

S. Side. Nativity, by Sansovino; David and Goliath, Sibyls, Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by other masters. 

E. Side. Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto, by Mccolb Tribolo; 
above it, Death of the Virgin, by Domenico Aimo of Bologna. 

N. Side. Nativity of the Virgin, begun by Sansotino, continued by 
Baccio Bandinelli and Raffaello da Montelupo. Basreliefs : Nuptials of the 
Virgin, by the same masters. 

In a niche of the interior is a small black image of the Virgin and 
Child, in cedar, attributed to St. Luke. It is richly adorned with jewels, 
the lustre of which is enhanced by silver lamps always kept burning. 
In 1798 it was carried off to Paris by the French. 

In the N. Tkansept is the entrance to the Treasury (open to the 
public on Sun. till 11.30 a.m.; at other times fee 1 fr.), which contains 
valuable votive offerings and cariosities, the gifts of monarchs and persons 
of rank. The ceiling-painting is by Pomarancio, who also painted the now 
damaged frescoes in the dome. 

In the Piazza in front of the church are the Jesuits' College and 
the *Palazzo Apostolico, begun in 1510 from designs by Bramante. 

The latter contains a small picture-gallery (Titian, Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery; Vouet, Last Supper; Schidone, St. Clara; Guer- 
cino, Descent from the Cross; Ann. Carracci, Nativity, etc.); a hall with 
Tapestries after RaphaeVs Cartoons (Paul at Lyslra, Healing the Lame, 'Feed 
my Sheep', Elymas the Sorcerer, Holy Family, Miraculous Draught of Fishes, 
St. Paul's Speech); and a Collection of Majolicas, chiefly from the well- 
known manufactory in Urbino (lVu fr.) 

At (I71/2 M.) Porto Recanati (3000 inhab.) we alight for — 

Becanati (5800 inhab .), loftily situated at some distance from the 
line and commanding charming views. It was a fortified and impor- 
tant place in the middle ages. A oharter of municipal privileges ac- 
corded to it by Emp. Frederick II. in 1229 is shown at the Palazzo 
Comunale. The Cathedral of S. Flaviano , with a Gothic porch, 
contains the monument of Gregory XII., of 1417. In <S. Domenico 
are six good paintings by Lor. Lotto (1508). Several of the palaces 
deserve notice, especially that of the Leopardi, containing the collec- 
tions of the scholar and poet Giacomo Leopardi (d. 1837). 

Excursion from Recanati to Macerata (p. 110), passing the ruins of 
aelvta Ricina (remains of an amphitheatre, bridge, etc., on the Potenzd). 

The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena (3000 in- 
hab.), named after a Roman colony, the ruins of which have disap- 
peared. On the hill, 41/2 M. distant, lies Montesanto. 



110 Route 13. PORTO CIVITANOVO. 

27 M. Porto Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti ; the town 
of Civitanova (about 2000 inhab.) lies 1 M. inland. — Thence to 
Pescara, Foggia, etc., see Baedeker's Southern Italy. 

Fkom Pokto Civitanova to Fabbiaho, 59Vs M., railway (one through- 
train daily) in about i'/i hrs. — The line at first ascends the fertile valley 
of the Chienti. 5 M. Mcmtecosaro ; 811. Morrovalle- Monte S. Giusto; 13'/2 M. 
Pausula, a town on the height to the left, with 2300 inhabitants. 

1772 M. Macerata (Pace; Posta), a flourishing town with 10,100 inhab., 
capital of the province of Macerata, picturesquely situated on the heights 
between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza, possesses a university, an 
agricultural academy, etc. In the Cathedral a Madonna with St. Francis 
and St. Julian, ascribed to Perugino. In S. Giovanni an Assumption of 
the Virgin, by Lanfranco. The Palazzo Munieipale and the Pal. Compagnoni 
contain inscriptions and antiquities from Helvia Rieina (p. 109), after 
the destruction of which the modern towns of Recanati and Macerata 
sprang up. Macerata also has a modern triumphal arch, called the Porta 
Pia. The Biblioleca Comunale contains a small Pinacoteca, the chief treasures 
of which are a Madonna and SS. Julian and Anthony of Padna by Gentile da 
Fabriano (Nos. 35, 22), a Madonna by Carlo Crivelli (1470; No. 36), and a 
Madonna with SS. Julian and Anthony by Allegretto Nuzi da Fabriano 
(1368; No. 39). Outside the gate, 3 A M. from the town, is the church of 
the Madonna delle Vergine, by Battista Lucano. erroneously ascribed to 
Bramante. 

22 M. Urbisaglia, the Roman Vrbs Salvia, with extensive ruins, am- 
phitheatre, walls, baths, etc. 24 M. Pollenza. 

28'/2 M. Tolentino (Corona, tolerable), the ancient Tolentinwm Picenum, 
prettily situated on the Chienti, with 4100 inhab., was once strongly 
fortified. The Palazzo Munieipale in the Piazza contains a few Roman 
antiquities, the most important of which is a female portrait-statue of the 
time of the Flavian emperors. The Basilica di S. Niccolb possesses a court 
of the 13th cent, and a fine Portal by Rosso of Florence (1431), presented 
to his native town by Niccolo Mauruzzi, the celebrated condottiere. A 
chapel in the interior is adorned with frescoes from the life of St. Nicholas 
of Tolentino, by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San Severino, and another contains 
two paintings of the Venetian school (the Fire at St. Mark's at Venice, 
and the Plague in Sicily). The church of S. Francesco, dating from the 
i3th cent., contains a fresco of the Crucifixion executed in 1360 (chapel 
to the right of the high-altar) and another of 1475, representing the Madonna 
and S. Amicone di Rambone healing the infirm (chapel to the left). The 
church of S. Catervo, on the E. side of the town, possesses an early-Christ- 
ian sarcophagus , embellished with reliefs (Adoration of the Magi, Christ 
as the Good Shepherd) and containing the remains of St. Catervus, who is 
highly revered in the Marches. The frescoes of the Crucifixion and the 
Evangelists date from the 15th century. The Pal. Gentiloni contains the 
proceeds of the excavations carried on by Count Silveri Gentiloni since 
1880 in the Picene necropolis surrounding the town (adm. by visiting-card). 
The tombs, dating from c. 525-350 B.C., yield numerous weapons and amber 
ornaments. The learned Francis Philelphus, one of the first students and 
disseminators of classical literature, was born at Tolentino in 1388. — The 
picturesque environs command fine views of the mountains. 

The railway now quits the Chienti and enters the valley of the Po- 
tenza. — 35 M. San Severino delle Marehe (Leon oTOro), a town with 
3200 inhab., arose from the ruins of the ancient Septempeda. In the church 
del Castello, frescoes by Diotisalvi oVAngeluzzo, and an altar-piece by Niccolb 
da Foligno (1468) ; in the sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna, a good 
early work by Pinturicchio. S. Lorenzo stands on the site of an ancient 
temple. Inscriptions and antiquities in the town-hall, and at the residence 
of the Conte Servanzi-Collio. 40'/2 M. Gagliole. 

From (42 M.) Castel-Raimondo (Alb. Rossi) a road leads to the S. to (6 M.) 
Camerino (4300 inhab.), the ancient Camerinum Umbrorum, once the capital 
of the Umbrian Camertes, who during the Samnite wars allied themselves 



JESI. 14. Route. Ill 

with Rome against the Etruscans. It is the seat of a bishopric (founded in 
252). The cathedral of S. Sovino occupies the site of a temple of Jupiter; 
in front of it is a bronze Statue of Pope Sixtus V., of 1587. The painter 
Carlo Maratla was born here in 1625 (d. at Rome in 1713). 

47 M. Matelica (Alb. Mona, clean), a town with 2800 inhab., possessing 
pictures by Palmezzano and Eusebio di S. Giorgio in the church of S. Fran- 
cesco dei Zoccolanti, and a small picture-gallery in the Pal. Piersanti. — 
51'/2 M. Cerreto d"Esi; 54 M. Albacina (see below; change carriages for 
Jesi and Ancona). — 59'/2 M. Fabriano, see below. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome). 

80 M. Railway in 3V4-5>/2 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 25 , 6 fr. 60 c. ; ex- 
press 16 fr. 5, 11 fr. 25 c). To Rome (183 M.) in 71/2-12 hrs. (fares 33 fr. 
35, 23 fr. 30, 15 fr. 5 c; express, 36 fr. 70, 25 fr. 65 c). 

To (5!/ 2 M.) Falconara Marittima, see p. 104. — Here the train 
diverges to the S.W. into the valley of the Esino (Lat. JEsis), which 
it crosses at (lO 1 ^ M.) Chiaravalle. 

17y 2 M. Jesi (Alb. S. Antonio; Speranza, hoth fair; Corona), 
with 6200 inhab. , now one of the most prosperous manufacturing 
towns of the province, was the ancient jEsis, where the Emp. 
Frederick II., the illustrious son of Henry VI., was born on 26th 
Dec. 1194. The picturesque town-walls, dating from the middle 
ages, are in good preservation. The Cathedral is dedicated to the 
martyr St. Septimius, the first bishop of Jesi (308). The Palazzo 
Pubblico, now the Prefettura, bears the town-arms within an ela- 
borate Renaissance border. The Library contains several good paint- 
ings by Lor. Lotto, etc. Jesi was also the birthplace of Giov. Batt. 
Pergolese (b. 1710 ; d. 1736 at Pozzuoli), the composer of the Stabat 
Mater; and a neighbouring village gave birth to the composer G. 
Spontini (1778-1851). 

The valley contracts, and the train crosses the river twice. 26 M. 
Castel Planio. Beyond (30Y2 M.) Serra S. Quirico, the valley narrows 
to a wild ravine, endangered by falling rocks. Long tunnel through 
the Monte Rosso. 39 4 /2M. Albacina ; to Porto Civitanova, see above. 

44Y2 M. Fabriano (Leond'Oro; Campana), a prosperous town 
with 5500 inhab., noted since the 14th cent, for its paper-manufac- 
tories, lies near the sites of the ancient Tuficum and Attidium. The 
Town Hall contains ancient inscriptions and a small collection of 
pictures. The Campanile opposite bears a bombastic inscription about 
the unity of Italy. The churches of S. Niccolb, 8. Benedetto, S. 
Agostino, and S. Lucia, and the private houses Casa Morichi and 
Fornari, contain pictures of the Fabriano school, of which Gentile 
da Fabriano (about 1370-1450 ; p. 49) was the head. — Railway 
to Porto Civitanova, see p. 110. 

From Fabriano a mountain-road (9 M.) leads via the picturesque Oenga 
to the lofty Sassoferrato, situated in a fertile valley, consisting of the 
upper and lower town, with 600 inhab., and possessing interesting churches 
and pictures. Qiambattista Salvi, surnamed Sassoferrato, was born here in 
1605; he was especially noted for his Madonnas, and died at Rome in 1685. 
3. Pielro, in the upper town, contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity 



112 Route 1 4. GUALDO TADINO. 

are the ruins of the ancient Sentinum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive 
battle took place between the Romans and the allied Samnites, Gauls, Urn- 
brians, and Etruscans, in which the consul Decius heroically sacrificed him- 
self. The Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 
— To theN.E. of Sassoferrato, on the road to Senigallia (p. 104), lies the 
little town of Arcevia (1300 inhab.). The church of S. Bernardo contains 
a large altarpiece by Luca Signorelli (150T; restored in 1890), and a fine 
Baptism of Christ and a Madonna with saints (1520), by the same master. 

Beyond Fabriano the train skirts the brook Oiano , and pene- 
trates the central Apennine chain by a tunnel l l /i M. long. 

At (54 Y2 M.) Fossato di Vico (to Arezzo and Fossato , R. 8.) we 
enter the plain of the Chiascio. To the left on the hill, Palazzolo ; to 
the right, Pellegrino; to the left, Palazzo and S. Facondino. 

58 M. Gualdo Tadino, a small town with 2700 inhab., lies about 
2 M. from the railway (cab 40 c.) , near the insignificant ruins of 
the ancient Tadinum. In 552 Narses defeated and slew the Os- 
trogothic king Totila here, and owing to this victory, soon gained 
possession of Rome. In the Palazzo Comunale is a small picture- 
gallery with a Pieta by Niccolo da Foligno (1471) and works by 
native artists ; in the corridor are an ancient sarcophagus and a 
few inscriptions. The church of 8. Francesco contains an altar-piece 
by Niccolo da Foligno (1471). The Cathedral has a fine rose-win- 
dow ; in the sacristy, pictures by Niccolo da Foligno. 

The train gradually descends to (68 M.) Nocera Umbra, an epis- 
copal town (1300 inhab.), on the site of the ancient Nuceria, a city 
of the Umbri (3 M. from the station; omn.). The Cathedral and the 
church of the Madernina contain a few tolerable paintings. Some 
admirable frescoes of 1434 were discovered in 1877 on the organ- 
screen of S. Francesco, and others of less importance (c. 1500) in 
the nave and choir. The Orfanotrofeo (Vescovado Antico) contains 
portraits of the bishops of Nocera from the 1st cent, of our era (?), 
painted in 1659. About 2'^ M. from the town are mineral springs, 
known since 1510. 

On the slope of the Monte Pennino (5160 ft.), above the town, is a 
prettily situated and much frequented Summer Hotel (1970 ft.; pens. 8-10 fr.; 
omn. at the station; open June-Sept.). 

The train enters the narrow Val Topina, crosses the brook several 
times, traverses a tunnel, and descends by Ponte Centesimo to — 

80 M. Foligno; thence to Rome, see pp. 82-90 and 69-71. 



SECOND SECTION. 



ROM E. 



Preliminary Information 115 

a. Hotels. Pensions. Private Apartments 115 

b. Cafes.' Confectioners. Restaurants. Beer. Osterie 117 

c. Post and Telegraph Offices. Carriages. Horses. Porters. . 118 

d. Embassies and Consulates. Bankers. Physicians and Chemists. 

Hospitals. Baths, etc 119 

e. Studios. Art Associations. Art Dealers 120 

f. Shops 120 

g. Church Festivals. English Churches 122 

h. Principal Libraries 125 

i. Best time for visiting Churches and Hours of Admission to 

Public and Private Collections, Villas, etc 125 

j. Theatres. Popular Festivals. Street Scenes. Garrison . . . 128 

General Topographical Description 130 

I. The Hills to the N. and E. : Pincio, Quirinal, Viminal, 
and Esjuiline 132 

a. Piazza del Popolo. Monte Pincio. Piazza di Spagna . 133 

S. Maria del Popolo, 131. — Villa Medici, 136. — SS. Trinita 
de' Monti, 136. 

b. Via Sistina. Ludovisi Quarter. Quattro Fontane. Via 
Venti Settembre 138 

Fontana del Tritone, 139. — Palazzo Piombino-Boncam- 
pagni (Ludovisi), 140. — Palazzo Barberini, 142. 

c. Piazza delle Terme. Via Nazionale. The Quirinal . . 144 

Thermae of Diocletian ; S. Maria degli Angeli , 145. — 
Thermae Museum, 146. 

d. From the Via Nazionale to S. Maria Maggiore and the 
Porta S. Lorenzo or Porta Maggiore 152 

S. Pudenziana, 152. — S. Maria Maggiore, 153. — Porta 
Maggiore, 158. — S. Croce in Gerusaleinme, 157. 

e. From S. Maria Maggiore to the Forum Romanum . . 157 

S. Prassede, 157. — S. Pietro in Vincoli, 159. 

II. Rome.onthe Tiber (Left Bank) 160 

a. Via .del Corsq and Adjacent Side-Streets 160 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina, 161. — Piazza di S. Silvestro, 161. 
— Piazza Colonna, 162. — Temple of Neptune ; Fontana 
di Trevi, 163. — Piazza di Venezia, 164. 
h. "Museo Kircheriano and Museo Etnografico-Preistorico. 
Doria, Colonna, and Torlonia Galleries 166 

c. "From the Piazza di Spagna to the Pohte S. Angelo . 177 

Via Condottij Palazzo Borghese," 177; — Via di Ripetta, 
Mausoleum of Augustus, 177; — S. Agostino, 178. 

d. From the Piazza Colonna via the Pantheon to the Piazza 
Navona (Circo Agonale) and the Ponte S. Angelo . . 179 

Monte Citorio (Chamber of Deputies), 178. — Pantheon, 
ISO. — S. Maria sopra Minerva, 182. — University ; Palazzo 
Madama (Senate), 183. — S. Luigi de' Francesi; Piazza Na- 
vona, 184.— S.Maria dell' Anima; S. Maria della Pace, 185, 186. 



Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. 



114 



e. From the Piazza Venezia to the PonteS. Angelo. Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele 187 

Corso Vittorio Emanuele; 187. — Gesii, 187. — S.Andrea 
della Valle, 188. — Palazzo Massimi, 189. — Cancelleria, 190. 

— Chiesa Nuova, 191. — S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, 192. 

f. Quarter to the S. of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele as 

far as the Piazza Montanara. Isola Tiberina 191 

Campo di Fiore, 192. — Palazzo Farnese ; Palazzo Spada, 193. 

— Fontana delle Tartarughe, 191. — Portico of Octavia; 
Theatre of Marcellus, 193. — Isola Tiberina, 197. 

III. The Southern Quarters (Ancient Rome) 197 

a. The Capitol 198 

S. Maria in Araeceli, 199 — Palace of the Senators, 201. 
— Palace of the Conservatory 202. — Capitoline Museum, 
206. — Tabularium, 212. 

b. The Forum Romanum and the Colosseum 213 

Temples of Vespasian, Concordia, and Castor and Pollux, 216. 

— Basilica Julia, 217. — Temple of Saturn, 218. — Arch 
of Septimius Severus, 218. — Rostra, 218; Column of 
Phocas, 219. — Atrium of Vesta, 220. — Temple of Faus- 
tina, 221. — SS. Cosma e Damiano, 222. — Basilica of Con- 
stantine, 222. — S. Francesea Romana ; Arch of Titus, 223. 

— Temple of Venus and Roma, 224. — Colosseum, 224. 

— Arch of Constantine, 226. — Thermae of Titus, 227. 

c. Fora of the Emperors 227 

Career Mamertinus, 223. — Accademia di S. Luca, 228. — 
Forum of Caesar; Forum of Augustus, 229. — Forum of 
Nerva, 230. — Forum of Trajan, 230. — Trajan's Column, 231. 

d. The Palatine 232 

Palace of Tiberius, 233. — House of Livia,234. — Domus 
Augustana, 235. — Palace of Septimius Severus, 237. 

e. Velabrum and Forum Boarium 238 

Janus Quadrifrons, 239. — Cloaca Maxima, 239. — S. Maria 
in Cosmedin, 210. — Piazza Bocca della Verita, 240. — 
Ponte Rotto, 240. — Circus Maximus, 2U. 

f. The Aventine. Monte Testaccio. Pyramid of Cestius . 242 

g. The Via Appia within the City 245 

Thermae of Caracalla, 246. — Tomb of the Scipios, 248. 
h. The Cfelius (S. Gregorio Magno; Villa Mattei) ... 249 
i. S. Clemente. The Lateran 252 

Lateran Museum: Antiques, 253; Christian Museum, 261; 

Picture Gallery, 263. 

IV. Quarters of the City on the. Bight Bank 264 

a. Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo. The Borgo . . 264 
h. St. Peter's 269 

c. The Vatican 278 

Cappella Sistina, 280. — Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 284, 
231. — Picture Gallery, 292. — Raphael's Tapestry, 294. 

— Antiquities, 293. — Library, 310. 

d. The Lungara (Villa Farnesina; Palazzo Corsini) . . .313 

e. Trastevere 319 

Ponte Sisto; S. Pietro in Montorio, 319. — Passeggiata 
Margherita, 321. — Ponte Garibaldi; S. Crisogono, 322. 

— S. Maria and S. Cecilia in Trastevere, 322, 323. 



ROME. 
Preliminary Information. 



a. Hotels. Pensions. Private Apartments. 

Arrival. At the Slazione Termini, or chief railway-station (Plan I, n, 
27- Buffet, dej. 2, D. 3 fr.), numerous hotel-omnibuses are in waiting, for 
the use of which a charge of l-l ! /2 fr- i 8 made in the bill. Cab to the town : 
with one horse, for 1-2 pers., 1 fr., at night 1 fr. 20 c; with two horses, 
for 1-4 pers., 2 fr., at night 2>/2 fr.; small articles of luggage free, each 
small box 20 c, trunk 50 c. (comp. tariff in the Appx.). Porter (facchino) 
25-60 c. — There is another station at Trastevere (p. 324) of little impor- 
tance, however, to tourists; it serves the W. quarters of the city for the 
line from Home to Fiumicino (p. 394) and for slow trains to Civita Vec- 
chia, Leghorn, and Pisa (R. 1). — Police Office (Questura) : Via SS. Apos- 
tolil7(Pl. 11,18). — Railway enquiry and ticket offices in the town: Via della 
Propaganda 8 and Via del Corso 218; Thoe. Cook & Son, Piazza di Spagna 2. 

Hotels (comp. pp. vi, xvi). The lirst-class hotels are large and com- 
fortable establishments, with lifts , etc., and are nearly all lighted by 
electricity. Several are closed during summer. 

•Hotel Quibinale (PI. I, II, 27, Q), Via Nazionale 7, a large and well- 
managed hotel in the Swiss style, with an excellent but expensive restau- 
rant in the 'Winter Garden'; "Bbistol (PI. I, 24, B), Piazza Barberini, 
'Londbes (PI. I, 17, L), Piazza di Spagna 13, two first-class houses, the 
former frequented by the British, the latter by the German aristocracy; 
"De l'Eokofe (PI. I, 21, E), Piazza di Spagna 35, frequented by the 
English. Charges at these: R. from 4-5, L. 1 (Europe 1/2), A. 1, B. l>/s, 
dej. 4 (Quirinale 3V2), D. 6, pens, from 12, omn. wilh luggage I1/2 fr. — 
*De Rdssie et des Iles Beitanniques (PI. I, 17, B), Via Babuino 9, near 
the Piazza del Popolo, with fine garden, R. from 3, L. 1, A. 1, B. I72, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr.; *Rotal (PI. I, 26, E), Via Venti Settem- 
bre 31, in a sunny situation, a first-class house patronized by Americans, R., 
L., & A. 4-6, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 12-14 fr.; TDe Rome (PI. I, 18, R), 
Via del Corso 128, R. from 3, L. %, A. 3 / 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens, 
from 11 fr.; "Continental (PI. II, 27, C), Via Cavour 5, beside the station, 
frequented by the English, R. 3-5, L. 1, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, 
pens. 10-13 fr. 

In the upper and partly new quarter on the Pincian Hill and the IN. 
slope of the Quirinal : *De Pabis (PI. I, 24, Z, P.), Via S. Nicola di Tolen- 
tino 67, near the Piazza Barberini, R. 2-4, L. 3/t, A - U B. I72, dej. 21/2, 
D. 5, pens. 10-12 fr.; «Eden (PI. I, 20, E), Via Ludovisi 49, in a sunny 
situation, near the Pincian Garden, with a view of the city, R. & A. 
31/2-5, L. 3/4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-12 fr.; Sud, Via Lombardia 
(PI. I, 20, 23), R., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. I1/2, dej. 2V», B. 4 (both incl. wine), 
pens. 7-10 fr.; -Hassleb, Piazza S. Trinita de' Monti, above the Scala di 
Spagna (PI. I, 20, 21) and close to the Pincian Garden, almost exclusively 
frequented by Germans, same charges as in the Eden Hotel; d'Italia 
(PI. I, 21 24, J), Via Quattro Fontane 12, with view of the Barberini 
Gardens, R. 3, L. 3/ 4 , A. »/«, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-12 fr.; *Molabo 
(PI. I, 21, M), Via Gregoriana 56, similar charges. 

In the lower streets near the Piazza di Spagna in the direction of the 
Corso: *Angletebbe (PL I, 18, A), Via Bocca di Leone 14, R. 3, L. 3 / 4 , 
A. 1, B. IV2, dei. 3, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr.; d'Allemagne (PI. I, 18. Al.\ 
Via Condotti 88, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens 8-12 fr ; 
H8t.-Pens. Anglo-Amebicano (PI. I, 18, AA), Via Fratina 128, R. from i, 
L. 8/4 A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-14, omn. I-I1/2 fr. These three 
are of the first-class and are chiefly patronized by English and Americans. 
— To the N. of the Piazza di Spagna: d'Alibekt (PI. I ; 17, A), Vicolo 
d'Alibert a clean hotel garni of the second class, R. 2-3, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, 
B 1 npn's 9-10 fr. — To the S. of the Piazza di Spagna: Poste (PI. I, 
18, P), Via della Vite 29, R., L., & A. 3>A-4, B. H/4, dej. 3, D. 4 (both 

8* 



116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Pensions. 

incl. wine), pens. 10 fr.; Vittoria (PI. I, 21, V), Via Due Macelli 24; 
Orients & Venezia (PI. I, 21, 0), in the upper Via del Tritone 80, near 
the Piazza Barberini. 

In the lower part of the Via Nazionale, on the Quirinal, but nearer 
the Piazza Venezia, the Capitol, and the Forum Romanum: Bellevue 
(PI. II, 21, B), Via Nazionale 163, R., L., & A. 5-6, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. 12 fr.; *Ladrati (PI. II, 20, L), Via Nazionale 153-155, R. 372-4, 
L. 3/ 4 , A. 3/4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr.; Suisse, Via Nazionale 
104, R. 3-4, L. a/«, A. 3/ 4 , B. I1/4, dej. 2*/2, D. 41/2, pens. 9-12 fr. All these 
are of the first class. 

Nearer the centre of the city: *Marini (PI. I, 18, M), Via del Tri- 
tone 17, near the Piazza Poli and the Piazza Colonna, largely patronized 
by Americans, R. 3-6, L. 3 /4, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3Va, D. 5, pens, from 
10 fr.; 'Minerva (PI. II, 18, Ma), beside S. Maria sopra Minerva, an old- 
established house recently re-fitted, R. from 2'/2 fr., L. 60, A. 80 c, B. I1/4, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8>/2-12 fr. Both these are of the first class. — National, 
Piazza di Monte Citorio (PI. II, 18), R. 2-3, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. I1/4, dej. 3, 
D. 4 (both incl. wine), pens. 8-10 fr. — Milano (PI. II, 18, M), Via Colonna 
and Piazza di Monte Citorio, with restaurant, patronized, like the Na- 
tional, by Ilalian deputies. — Capitole (PI. II, 17, 18, C), Via del Corso 
286, at the corner of the Piazza Venezia, with the Cafe-Restaurant Venezia 
(see p. 117). — Colonna (PI. I, 17, C), to the E. of the Piazza Colonna; 
Centrale (PI. II, 18, Ce), Via delia Rosa 9, a commendable hotel garni, 
R. 3, L. 3/4, A. 3/4 fr.; Cesari (PI. II, 18, GQ, Via di Pietra 89; Senato 
(PI. II, 15, 8), Via delle Coppelle 16, with restaurant; S. Chiara (PI. II, 
18, Ch), Via S. Chiara 18, R. 2 fr., L. 60, A. 50c; Cavour (PI. II, 15, C), 
Via S. Chiara 5. The last-named hotels are entirely in the Italian style. 

Pensions (comp. p. xvii). In the new Ludovisi quarter (p. 139; PI. 
1,23): Lermann, Via Veneto lb, 7-10 fr.; Zamvos, Via di Porta Pinciana 
34, chiefly English and Americans; Maria Rosada, Palazzo Spallanzani, 
Via Aurora 35, is a good hotel garni in this quarter. — To the S. of these, 
but still in the higher districts: Chapman, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 76; 
Dawes, Via Sistina 57 ; Michel, Via Sistina 72, pens. 8-12 fr. ; these three 
frequented by English and Americans; De Krismanic, Via Agostino De- 
pretis 86, Austrian ; pension,kept by the Suore delle Croce (Swiss nuns), 
Via S. Basilio 8, Casa S. Giuseppe, simple. — In and near the Piazza di 
Spagna (PI. I, 17, 18): Anglaise ( Hurdle- Lomi), Smith, Piazza di Spagna 
51 and 93, both English; Tellenbach, Via Due Macelli 66, a first class 
international house, with lift and baths, well fitted up, 9-12 fr.; Tasselli, 
Via Due Macelli 73, 7 fr.; Avanzi, Via di Capo le Case 75, English; Fran- 
caise, Via del Tritone 36, with lift, 8-11 fr.; Gori, Via del Tritone 36. 
— In the lower part of the Via Nazionale (PI. II, 21): von Kruger, Via 
Nazionale 181 and Via del Quirinale 43, 8 fr. , English and Americans; 
Pecori, in the same house, 7-8 fr. 

Private Apartments (comp. p. xvii). The best are situated in the 
old strangers' quarter (PI. I, 17, 18, 21), bounded by the Via del Corso, 
the Via del Tritone, and the Via Sistina, especially in the Piazza di Spagna 
and its immediate neighbourhood, in the Via Nazionale (PI. II, 24), Via 
Venti Settembre (PI. I, 24, 27, 26), and in the high-lying Ludovisi quarter 
(p. 139; PI. I, 20, 23). In the Forum of Trajan and the adjoining streets 
the visitor may obtain sunny apartments , conveniently situated with regard 
to the ancient part of the town. Rent of two well-furnished rooms in a 
good locality 150-250 fr., one room 40-80 fr. per month; for a suite of 3-5 
rooms 300-500 fr. and even 1000 fr. (e.g. in the Via Sistina or Via Gre- 
goriana). Rooms to let are indicated by notices and placards ; but, as these 
are seldom removed when the rooms are engaged, the traveller must be 
prepared for a number of fruitless enquiries — House-agents : KarlPochalsky, 
Via del Corso 131; Toli, Piazza di Spagna 53; Mullon & Co., Piazza S. 

Claudio93.- "' " - - - - 

it may be 

Monte Brianzo i 

51; and other large wood-stores. 



Restaurants. ROME. Prelim. Information. 117 

b. Cafes. Confectioners. Restaurants. Beer. Osterie. 

Cafes. "Roma, Via del Corso 426-432; "Nazionale, perhaps the finest 
cafe 1 in Italy, Via del Corso 179, at the corner of the Via delle Convertite 
(excellent coffee at these two) ; Venezia, Corso 289 ; Colonna (see below), 
Piazza Colonna; 8. Chiara, Via S. Chiara, adjoining the Piazza Minerva; 
Capretari, Piazza Capretari ; Cafe Turco, Piazza di Spagna 43 (also beer) ; 
Breco, Via Condotti 86, frequented by artists; Gastellino, Via Nazionale 
134. — Ices in all the cafes; particularly good at the "Sorbetteria Napole- 
tana, Via dell' Impresa 22, to the N. of the Piazza Colonna, 50 c. per por- 
tion, 30 c. per half-portion. 

Confectioners. Ronzi 4c Singer, in the Piazza Colonna, corner of the 
Via del Corso (No. 349) and the Piazza Colonna; Pesoli, Via del Tritone 
58 ; Ramazzotti , Via del Corso 404, Via Frattina 76, and Via Nazionale 
195; Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81. 

Restaurants (those of more moderate pretensions are called Trattorie; 
comp. p. xvii). Handsomely fitted up and expensive (D. a prix fixe 6 fr. and 
upwards): — "Quirinale (p. 115), excellent but bill of fare unpriced; 
Doney <k Nipoii, Via delle Convertite 19 ; Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81 ; 
Spillmann & Co., Via della Vite 11. — The following is somewhat less 
pretentious though the cuisine is excellent: "Ranieri, Via Maria de' Fiori 
26, to the W. of the Piazza di Spagna. — In the Corso and near the Piazza 
Colonna (p. 162): Caffe di Roma, Via del Corso 426 (see above); Milano (see 
p. 116), Piazza di Monte Citorio 13 ; Colonna, Piazza Colonna, in the arcade 
to the right with another entrance in the Monte Citorio ; Caff e di Venezia, 
Corso 288, near the Piazza Venezia; "Comelio, Via del Corso 418, at the 
corner of the Piazza S. Lorenzo, with a garden (Vienna beer 35 c). 

Second class, with good French and Italian cuisine : in the strangers' 
quarter between the Via del Corso and the Piazza di Spagna (PI. I, 17, 18) : 
Renaud, Via Frattina 97; Corradetti, Via della Croce 81 ; Panelli, Via della 
Croce 69; Succursale di Fagiano, ViaSistina3, above the Piazza di Spagna. 
— Near the Piazza Colonna and the Pantheon (PI. II, 18) : "Fagiano, Piazza 
Colonna, at the corner of the Via Colonna; *Le Venele (Venetian cuisine), 
Via Campo Marzio 69, with garden, to the N.W. of the Piazza Colonna; 
Benato (p. 116; N. Italian cuisine), Via delle Coppelle 16, to the W. of 
the Piazza Colonna; Falcone (Roman cuisine), Piazza Caprettari 83b, near 
S. Eustachio, to the W. of the Pantheon. 

The following are cheaper houses: Cervigni, Via Nazionale 246, near 
the Piazza delle Terme ; "Pietro Micca, Via S. Andrea delle Fratte 35 and 
Via Mercede 27 (Piedmontese cookery), to the S. of the Piazza di Spagna; 
Rosetta, Via Giustiniani 22 and Vicolo della Rosetta 1, nearly opposite 
the Pantheon. — The cuisine and wine at the following are perhaps as 
good as at those just enumerated, but the rooms are not so clean : "Passelto, 
Piazza Tor Sanguigna 17, with another entrance at 52 Circo Agonale; 
Bucci, Via delle Coppelle 54, to the W. of the Piazza Colonna (for fish 
and 'zuppa alia marinara'); Fiorelli, Via delle Colonnette 4, to the W. of 
the Via del Corso and to the N. of S. Carlo al Corso, unpretending but 
well spoken of; Iratt. Europea, Piazza Rusticucci 21 & 26, opposite St. 
Peter's, convenient for visitors to the Vatican, but mediocre. 

Beer (birra). The Birrerie are large and well-fitted up. Comelio, see 
above; Fr. Morteo (Vienna beer), Via Nazionale 46-48, opposite S. Vitale 
(PI. II, 24); Saverio Albrecht, Via di S. Giuseppe a Capo le Case 24 (Munich 
beer) to the S. of the Piazza di Spagna ; Qambrinus-Halle, Via del Corso 393, 
to the N. of the Piazza Colonna (Munich beer), with a new hall, entrance 
Via del Giardino 77 (not for ladies at night). 

Tuscan Wine Houses (comp. p. six). The best are Caselli, Via dell' 
Impresa 25, with a branch at Via del Tritone 172 B; Campagnoli, Via della 
Missione 5, behind the Chamber of Deputies. 

Provision Dealers, etc. Meals are supplied to private houses by nearly 
all the Trattorie and by Bricchi, Via Capo le Case 71 ; Giorgio, Via Bocca 
di Leone 5. — Mention may also be made of the Rosticcekie , where 
freshly cooked meat and poultry may be bought by the pound for dinner 
or supper : Canepa , Via Venti Settembre 22 ; Polotti, Via Venezia 10 ; Met, 



118 Prelim. Information. ROME. Post and Telegraph. 

Via Tomacelli 158, and others. — English and Viennese Bakers : Colalucci, 
Via del Babuino 94; Donati (biscuits), Via Principe Umberto 145; Lais, 
Via della Croce 49; Perego, Via Nazionale 143; Valan, Via del Babuino 
100 and Via Condotti 79a. — Vaocherie (dairies; fresh milk, cream, butter, 
and eggs daily) : Via Venti Settembre 141, with branch-establishment at 
Via Sistina 105 ; Via Muratte 84 ; Via del Tritone 151. — Grocers : Casoni, 
Piazza di Spagna 32; Caetrati, Piazza Trevi89; Parenti, Piazza di Spagna 
46; Nolegen, Via Due Macelli90; Achino, Monte Citorio 116. — Preserved 
Meats, etc.: Albertini, Via Nazionale 65 and Via Crociferi 28; Dagnino, 
Via del Tritone 54-56; Gwerrini, Via Frattina 109; Valazza, Via Muratte 
11. — Fruit Shops: Gangalanti, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 19; Posidoro, 
Via del Tritone 179 ; Melano, Via della Croce 9. 

Osterie (wine-houses , comp. p. xix). The following have a good 
name for their wine at present : Jacobini, with buffet, Via di Pietra 66 and 
Via Quattro Fontane 114 (wine of Genzano) ; Ostini , Piazza Colonna (Gen- 
zano) ; Palombella (Montefiascone , p. 71) , Via della Palombella 2 ; San- 
tovetti, Via del Quirinale 21 (Frascati); Salvatori, Via Ufflci del Vicario 
22 ; the Osterie, Via Belsiana 86 and Via Sistina 29 (Marino wine) ; Bottiglieria 
Romana, Via Umilta 74(Orvieto); Scagnetti, Via Metastasio 21, beside the 
theatre of that name. There are also favourite Osterie outside the Porta 
Pia and the other gates, and by the Ponte Molle (p. 335); comp. also 
p. 128. — Sicilian wine may be obtained on the ships at the Ripa Grande 
and in the Via del Porto in Trastavere. 

Foreign wines are sold at the restaurants (p. 117), and by Presenzini, 
Via della Croce 78; Burnel <fc Ouichard Aini, Via Frattina 116. Also by 
the Liquorish: Falchetto, Via del Corso 228, Piazza Sciarra; Qiacosa, Via 
della Maddalena 17-19; Gran Cairo, Via del Tritone 182; Pasquale Attili, 
Via del Tritone 88 (open till 2 a.m.); Cornelio, see p. 117; American Bar, 
Via del Corso 329. — Hungarian wine at Via del Corso 269. — Mineral- 
Waters may be obtained from Caff ar el, Corso 20, and Manzoni, Via Pietra 90. 

Tobacco (comp. p. xix) at the Regia dei Tabacchi, corner of the Via del 
Corso and Piazza Sciarra; foreign cigars 25 c. and upwards. 

c. Post and Telegraph Offices. Carriages. Saddle Horses. Porters. 

Post Office (comp. Introd., p. xxi), Piazza S. Silvestro, open from 
8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (PI. I, 18 ; p. 162; also entered from the Via della Vite). 
Poste Restanle letters ('ferma in posta') are delivered at several windows for 
the different initials under the arcades in the court, on the right. Under 
the arcades on the left is a writing-room. Branch Offices: at the Railway- 
station (open till 10.30 p.m.), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 43 (open till 
10 p.m.), Piazza di Spagna, Borgo Nuovo 138, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 161, 
Via Alessandrina 77 (open 8-8). — Parcel Post at the general post-office 
and Piazza di Monte Citorio 132 (9-6). 

Telegraph Office, open day and night, in the General Post Office building, 
Piazza S. Silvestro (PI. I, 18; p. 162). Branch Officet: Piazza Aracceli 3, 
Via Venti Settembre 118, Borgo Nuovo 138 (in summer 7-9, in winter 8-9) ; 
also at the Railway-station (open night and day). 

Omnibuses, Tramways, and Cabs, see Appendix. 

Carriage Hirers. Belli, Via Margutta 27; Piscitelli, Vicolo degli Avignon- 
esi 7. Charges vary according to the season, but the average may be placed 
at 30 fr. a day. The best carriages are obtained at the larger hotels, where, 
however, the charge is sometimes as high as 50 fr. a day. Gratuity to the 
coachman extra. — Saddle Horses. Cairoli, Via Margutta 38; Francesangeli, 
Via Principe Umberto 133; Pieretti, Palazzo Rospigliosi (p. 151). Charge 
about 10 fr. for half-a-day; ostler's fee 1 fr. — Riding-School: G. Fennini 
<& Co., outside the Porta del Popolo, to the left of the entrance to the 
Villa Borgbese. 

Porters (Fattorini Pubblici). The best are those of the Impresa Ro- 
mana, Vicolo Sciarra 60, with the name on their caps and a brass number 
on their coats. Porter with letter or luggage under 33lbs., 25-75 c. accord- 
ing to the distance. There are also several other companies. 



Physicians. ROME. Prelim. Information. 119 

d. Embassies and Consulates. Bankers. Physicans and Chemists. 
Hospitals. Baths, etc. 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
he mentioned : British Embassy, Lord Vivian, Via Venti Settembre, near 
Porta Pia; American Legation, Hon. W. Potter, Via Nazionale 13 (office- 
hours 10-1). — British Consulate: A. Router Franz, Esq., consul, Piazza 
S. Claudio 96. American Consulate : Son. Augustus 0. Bourn, consul-gen- 
eral, Via Nazionale 13 (office-hours 10-2). 

Bankers. English: Thos. Cook & Son, Piazza di Spagna IB.; Maquay 
Hooker, & Co., Piazza di Spagna 20 ; F. Montague- Handley, Piazza di Spagna 
79; Roesler- Franz, Piazza S. Claudio 96; Plowden <fc Co., Piazza S. Claudio 
166 — Italian : Cerasi, Via del Babuino 51 ; R. Ranaldi & Co. , Via Con- 
dotti 20. — German : Nast-Kolb & Schumacher , Via della Mercede 9 ; Schmitt 
<fc Co., Via della Vite 7; Pucci, Noerrenberg, & Co., Palazzo Chigi, Piazza 
Colonna; Fueter, Tognola, & Co., Via Due Macelli 79; Wagniere & Co., Via 
delle Muratte 70. — Monet Changers : Corbucci, Piazza di Spagna 87 ; others 
in the Corso, Via Condotti, etc. 

Physicians. English: Charles, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 72; Gason, 
Via S. Sebastianello 8; Leslie Milne, Piazza Barberini 47; Miles, Via Sal- 
lustiana E; Spurway, Bocca di Leone 22; Thompson (American), Via Due 
Macelli 60; Young, Via Venti Settembre 7. — Scandinavian: Bull, Piazza 
di Spagna 20; Munthe, Piazza di Spagna 26. — German: Erhardt, Piazza 
di Spagna 20; Erhardt jun. Piazza di Spagna 26; Yon Fleischl, Via degli 
Artisti 38; Von Kranichfeld, Piazza di Spagna 45 II; Prof. Molesehott, Via 
Volturno 58; Neuhaus, Via di Porta Pinciana 34; Weber, Piazza Trinita 
dei Monti 18; Wittmer, Via delle Quattro Fontane 17. — Italian: Bacelli, 
(consulting physician), Piazza Campitelli 2; Bartolini, Via Capo le Case 47; 
Galassi, Piazza Capretari 70; Montechiari, Piazza Pilotta 1A; Occhini, Pa- 
lazzo Moroni, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino. — Homojopaths, to be heard 
of at the chemists. — Surgeons: Marchiafava, Via Torre Argentina 47 ; 
Durante, Via S. Basilio 50; Pasquali, Corso Vitt. Eman. 305. — Oculists: 
Dantone, Piazza Monte Citorio 121; Businelli, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 252 
(1-2). — Aueists : Egidi, Via Pietra 70; Be Rossi, Corso Vitt. Eman. 229. 
— Dentists: Adler, Via Nazionale 114; Chamberlain, Via Poli 37; Curtis 
Piazza di Spagna 93, 1st floor; Van Marter, Via Nazionale 87 (all Ameri- 
cans) ; Martin, Via della Vite 46. 

Chemists: Sinimberghi, Evans, & Co., Via Condotti 64-66, patronised 
by the English and American embassies; Roberts & Co., Piazza di S. Lo- 
renzo in Lucina 36; Baker & Co. (proprietor G. P. Passarge), Piazza di 
Spagna 42; Borioni, Via del Babuino 98; Oarneri, Via del Gambero 39; 
Marignani, Via del Corso 435; other Italian chemists in every part of the 
town. — Surgical Instruments and Bandages: Immelen, Via Frattina 
134; Invernizzi, Via del Corso 48. — Sick Nurses may be obtained at Via 
Palermo 35 (10 fr. per day; English Roman Catholic) or on application 
to Miss Martin, Via Palestro 62 (5-7 fir.). 

Baths (l'/2-2 fr. ; fee 15-20 c.) at the hotels ; also Vicolo dAlibert 1, Via 
Belsiana 64, Via del Babuino 96, Via Ripetta 116 ; Via della Vite 29, opposite 
the post-office; Via Volturno 37. — River Bath at the Ponte Molle. — 
Hydropathic Establishments: Via Venezia 9A; Via Crociferi 44. 

Hairdressers : Giardinieri , Via del Corso 423 ; Lancia , Via S. Gia- 
como 12; Pasquali, Via Condotti 11; all with ladies' rooms. — Perfumers, 
Via del Corso: 390, 342, 343; Rimmel, 524; Brugia, 344. 

Lieux d'Aisance (10 c): Via Nazionale, beside the Exhibition of Art; 
Vicolo dello Sdrucciolo, near the Piazza Colonna; Via dei Pianellari, ad- 
joining the church of 8. Agostino (p. 178) ; Via Belsiana 22 ; Via del Man- 
cino, adjoining the Piazza Venezia (15 c.) ; Vicolo del Governo Vecchio ; Vi- 
colo Tribuna Tor de' Specchi ; Via Alessandrina ; Passeggiata di Ripetta ; 
in the colonnade of the Piazza of St. Peter, on the side next the Porta 
Angelica; outside the Porta del Popolo, to the left on the Pincio, etc. 



t20 Prelim. Information. ROME. Studios. 

e. Studios. Art Associations. Art Sealers . 

Studios. Painters : Aerni, Via Margutta 48 ; Alvarez, Vicolo S. Nicola di 
Tolentino 13 ; Brioschi, Palazzo Venezia ; H. Coleman, Via Margutta33 ; H. Gor- 
rodi, Via degli Incurabili 8; Effenberger, Vicolo S. Nicola di Tolentino 13; 
Ferrari, Via Margutta 55; Haseltine, Palazzo Altieri; Miss Higgins, Via 
Porta Pinciana 8; Miss Bosmer, Via Margutta 53; Kronberg (Swede) and 
LSwenthal, both Via Margutta 33; Miss Morley, Via Margutta 54; Navone, 
Passeggiata di Eipetta 35; Nerly, Via del Corso 4; Podesty, Palazzo Do- 
ria, Circo Agonale 13; Pradilla (Spaniard), Via Sistina 75; Roesler -Franz, 
Piaz/.a S. Claudio 96; Schlosser, Via Venti Settembre4; Sciuli, Piazza Mat- 
tei 10 ; L. Seitz, Piazza Cappuccini 6 ; Siemiradski (Pole), Via Gaeta 1 ; Sig- 
nora Stuart- Sindici, Via Margutta 54 ; Terry, Palazzo Odescalchi ; G. Tira- 
telli, Via Margutta 33; Vannutelli, Via Margutta 48; Vedder, Via S. Basilio 
20; Verhmni, Via Curtatone 8; Tillegas, Pal. Villegas, Viale Parioli; Weck- 
esser, Piazza Barberini 43. 

Sculptors : Amid, Passeggiata di Ripetta 20; L. Ansiglioni, Via Mar- 
gutta 55 ; R. Cauer, Via Brunetti 16 ; Chiaradia , Via Margutta 5 ; Dausch, 
Via S. Giacomo 18; Ezechiel, Piazza delle Terme 118; Galletti, Via 
Gesu e Maria 21 ; Gerhard, Passeggiata di Ripetta 33 ; R. S. Greenough, 
Piazza S. Bernardo 109; Prof. Guglielmi, Via Babuino 155; Guilleaume, 
director of the French Academy (p. 136); Hasselriis (Dane), Via Margutta 
51 A; C. B. Ives, Via Margutta 53 ; Jos. Kopf, Via Margutta 59; C. Maccassi, 
Piazza Sallustio ; Macdonald, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 22 b ; Monteverde, 
Piazza dell 1 Indipendenza; F. Schulze, Palazzo Barberini; F. Simmons, Vi- 
colo S. Nicola di Tolentino 73; Sommer, Via Margutta 54; Spies, Piazza 
S. Pietro in Vincoli 40 a; Story (American), Via S. Martino a Macao 7; 
Summers (English), Via Margutta 53 a; Volkmann, Piazza Dante 4. 

International Association of Artists, Via Margutta 53. — British 
Academy, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 22 A. — British and American 
Archaeological Society, Via S. Basilio 20, with a good library. 

Art Dealers. Societa Artistica, Via del Babuino 135; D'Alri, Via 
Condotti 7; E. Fischer, Via del Babuino 81 (these chiefly for pictures) ; An- 
dreoni], Piazza del Popolo 17 (marble and alabaster sculptures) ; G. San- 
giorgi, Palazzo Borghese (p. 177; auction-sales). See also Cameos, Casts, 
Copies of Bronzes, Engravings, etc. 

Artists' Materials. Corteselli, Via Sistina 150; Juliana, Via Babuino 
147; Zecca, Via Margutta 53a. — Stationers. Calzone, Via del Corso (en- 
trance in the Via Lata); Ricci, Via delTritonel3; Brenta, ViaSS. Apostoli24; 
Zampini, Via Frattina 51. 

Works of Art , both ancient and modern , are liable to government 
inspection on exportation (office in the Museum in Diocletian's Thermae). 
— Goods Agents: C. Stein, Via di Mercede 42; Giordani &■ Ferroni, Piazza 
Colonna 370a; Roesler- Franz , Via Condotti 6. — Packers ('Incassatori') : 
Ferroni, Via Ripetta 228; Vincenzo Giorgini, Via Rasella 20. 

f. Shops. 

Antiquities, Jewellery, etc. — Antiquities: Augusta Castellani, Piazza 
di Trevi 86 (see below) ; Martinetti, Via Bonella 74; Bernard, Via Sistina 21; 
Innocenti, Via del Babuino 77; Nod, Via Fontanella di Borghese 29. 

Cameos: Saulini, Via del Babuino 96; Angelid, Via Sistina 19; Ciap- 
poni, Via Sistina 129; Pianella, Via de' Maroniti 4, fourth floor; Neri & 
Co., Piazza di Spagna 60; Publio de Felici, Piazza di Spagna 98; Tombini, 
Via Condotti 2, Piazza di Spagna 74. 

Casts : Marsili , Via Frattina 16 ; Malpieri, Via del Corso 54 ; Padovelli, 
Via Porta Pinciana 46 A; Fedeli, Via Laurina 43 (Renaissance works). 

Copies of Ancient Bronzes and Marbles: Boschetti, Via Condotti 74; 
Rohrich, Via Due Macelli 62; Nelli, Via del Babuino 139; Rainaldi, Via 
del Babuino 51 A & 132 (large stock, fixed prices). 

Coral: Balzano, Via del Corso 247. 

Goldsmiths: "Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86, who also possesses an 
interesting collection of ancient golden ornaments, and executes imitations 



Shops. ROME. Prelim. Information. 121 

from Greek, Etruscan, and Byzantine models; Marchesini, corner of the 
Via delCorso and Via Condotti; Boni, Piazza S. Carlo , in the Corso ; Ansorge, 
Fasoli, Pierret, Piazza di Spagna 72, 95, & 20 ; Freschi, Via Condotti 56 ; 
Calvi, Via Sistina 15 (silver ornaments after ancient patterns). 

Jewellery, see Goldsmiths, Roman Pearls. 

Makble-Cutteks : Orlandi, Via Sistina 75 C ; Fabbi, Via Sistina 130; Pier- 
mattei, Via Sistina 81. 

Roman Pearls: Rey, Via del Babuino 122; Bartolini, Via Frattina 97; 
Lacchini, Piazza di Spagna 69. 



Booksellers. Spithoever-, Piazza di Spagna 84 ; piale, Piazza di Spagna 1 ; 
Loescher & Co., Palazzo Simonetti, Via del Corso 307, entered from Via del 
Collegio Romano ; Libreria Centrale, Pal. Bernini, Via del Corso 146 ; Eng- 
lish, German, and French books at all these. Fratelli Bocca, Via del Corso 
217; Fratelli Treves, Via del Corso 383; Paravia & Co., Via Nazionale 15 
and Piazza SS. Apostoli 56-65. — Religious works and music, Via di Pro- 
paganda Fide 6. — Maps at Bossfs, Via del Corso 401, at Spithoever'' s, and 
Loeicher's (see above). — Old Books at Menozzps , Pal. Borghese, at San- 
giorgi's the art-dealer (p. 120); Bocccfs, Via del Giardino 110; also at 
Spithoever' s and Loescher's. — Bookbinders. Olingler, Via della Mercede 42 ; 
Olivieri, Piazza di Spagna 87 ; Sanlinelli, Via Pie di Marmo. 

Lending Libraries. Pile's, Piazza di Spagna 1, with over 20,000 English, 
French, German, and Italian works on history, art, etc. (one vol. 3, three 
vols. 5 fr. monthly); Loescher's (see above; one book weekly 1, monthly 
3 fr.). — Reading Rooms. Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1 (English and American 
newspapers; per week 2, per month 5 fr.). 

Music Sellers. Successors Landsberg, Via Condotti 85, 1st floor (pianos 
and music for sale or hire); Bossola, Via del Corso 140; Venturini, Via del 
Corso 387; Ricordi, Via del Corso 392 ; Barlolo, Via Condotti 70. — Strings : 
Berti, Via Tor Argentina 19 ; Ceccherini, Via Fontanella di Borghese 56 ; 
Rwfini, Via della Lungara 18. — Teachers of music and singing may be 
heard of at the booksellers' or at the music-shops. 

Photographs: Alinari <& Cook, Via del Corso 90 ; Spithoever (see above ; 
Braun's and Anderson's photographs); Loescher (see above); Libreria Cen- 
trale (see above; Brogi's photographs): Molins, Via Condotti 80 (views 
of the Parker Collection, for archaeologists) ; Hefner, Via Frattina 133 (Si- 
melli's photographs) ; Moscioni, Via Condotti 10a; Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1. 

Photographs for artistic purposes : Gugl. PUichow, Via Sardegna 34. 
Reproduction of sketches, pictures,etc. : Ttiminelli, Via Condotti 21. — Por- 
traits: Alessandri, Via del Corso 12; Le Lieure, Vicolo del Mortaro 19; 
Montabone, Piazza di Spagna 9 and Via Nazionale 188; Schemboche, Via di 
Mercede 54; Suscipi, Via Quirinale; Stuani, Via Belsiana 29; Della Valle, 
Via della Croce 67. 

Engravings at the Regia Calcografia, formerly the Stamperia Camerale 
(moderate prices), Via della Stamperia 6 (PI. I, 21 ; p. 138). 



Articles de Voyage, etc.: Barfoot (English saddlery), Via del Babuino 
150Dandl52; Chiara, Via Giustiniani 17 ; De' Angeli, Via Capo le Casa 94; 
Old England, Via Nazionale 115; Deskfani, Via del Tritone 204. 

Clothing (see also Tailors). For Gentlemen : Guastalla, Via del Corso 
335 (large shop); Savonelli dc Co., Via delCorso 300; Fratelli Bocconi, Via 
del Corso, adjoining the Piazza Colonna; Old England, Via Nazionale 115; 
Old Scotland, Via del Plebiscito 114; Unione Militare, Via in Lucina. — 
Ladies' Deebs and Millinery: Fratelli Pontecorvo, Via del Corso 172; Mas- 
soni, Via del Corso 307; Cornpagnie Lyonnaise, Via del Corso 473; Cata- 
rina Tua, Via del Corso 526; Gennari. Via del Corso 307; Block, Piazza di 
Spagna 31; Madame Boudrot, Via Condotti 80 ; Mazza & Milani, Via delCorso 
60; Mauro, Via del Corso 477; Antonia Lupa, Via del Corso 28; Ville de 
Lyon, Via dei Prefetti 48-52; Paventa, Via del Tritone 212; Gillardi, Via 
del Corso 417; Costanza Federico, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 26, first floor 
(for moderate requirements). — See Haberdashery. 



122 Prelim. Information. ROME. Church Festivals. 

Drapers: Todros , Via del Corso 418; Schostal, Via del Corso 158; 
Outset, Via del Corso 244 ; Guasialla, Via Colonna 20. 

Furniture (carved; see also Upholsterers). Barberito, Via Sistina 130; 
Wort, Via Fontanella Borghese 29-34. — Intarsia: Zuccarelli, Via del 
Babuino 34. 

Gloves, Collars, and Neck-ties: Chanal, Via del Corso 143; also 
at Via del Corso 227; Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 39; Via della Vite 10; 
Via Frattina 15. 

Haberdashery: Salvi, Palazzo Sciarra, Via del Corso 328; Masini, Via 
del Corso 309; Carsana, Via del Corso 136; Borgia, Via dei Prefetti 19. 

Hatters: Bessi, Via Nazionale 137; Miller, Via Condotti 16; Vigano, 
Via Marco Minghetti and Via Cavour 75; Monti (straw-hat warehouse), 
Via Metastasio 10. 

Lamps : Ditmar, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 13. — Tea and Coffee Machines, 
etc. : Faucillon, Via Propaganda 23. 

Mosaics : Roccheggiani, Via Condotti 14. Mosaics and cameos, at moderate 
prices, at Piazza Borghese 106 and Piazza di Spagna 77. 

Porcelain : Ginori, Via del Tritone 25. 

Opticians: Hirsch, Priotti, Suscipi, Via del Corso Nos. 402, 419, 157. 

Roman Shawls: Agostini, Via Maddalena 30 A; Bianchi, Piazza della 
Minerva 69; Amadori, Via del Corso 316; Steffoni, Piazza di Spagna 63; 
Fontana, Via del Babuino 106; The Roman Silk Manufacturing Co., Piazza 
del Popolo 18. 

Shoemakers: Berardi, Via Fontanella di Borghese 36; Qiangrandi, 
Via Frattina 79; Jesi, Via del Corso 129; Rubini, id. 223; Renner, Via 
dei Cappuccini 15 ; Patetta, Via Due Macelli30; Crema Rovatti, ViaNazionale, 
beside the Piazza Venezia (cheap); Fratelli Munster, Via del Corso 162. 

Small Wares, etc.: Merico Cagiali, Via del Corso 167-169; Janetti, 
Via Condotti 18 ; A. Cagiali, Via del Corso 250 ; Finzi & Bianchelli, Via del 
Corso 377; Old England, Via Nazionale 115; Beretta, Via Condotti 49; Sar- 
teur,Yi& del Corso 265. 

Tailors: Schraider, Piazza di Spagna 5; Mattina, Via del Corso 107, 
first floor; <?. Segre, Piazza diTrevi 83; Foa & Guastalla, Via del Corso 105. 

Umbrellas, Sun-shades, and Fans : Oilardini, Via del Corso If 5; Motta, 
Via del Corso 334; Guattari, Via del Corso 411. 

Upholsterers: Levera, Via del Corso 395; Peyron & Co., Corso Vit- 
torio Emanuele 53; Fit. Baas & Figli, Via Condotti 46, at the corner of 
the Via del Corso. — Cabinet-makers: Kremer, Monte Caprino, in the 
German Archseological Institute (p. 212); Mangold, Via del Babuino 70; 
Giffers, Vicolo del Falcone. 

Watchmakers: Kobell, Via delle Convertite 15, near the post-office; 
Kolbauer, Via Due Macelli 108; Gondret, Via del Corso 144; Hammann, 
Via del Corso 406; Kohlmann, Via Condotti 69 ; Conti, Piazza di Spagna 53. 

g. Church Festivals. English Churches. 
Church Festivals. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of 
Italy on 20th Sept., 1870, the public ceremonies at which the Pope for- 
merly officiated in person, such as those of the Holy Week, the benedictions, 
and the public processions including that of the Fete de Dieu, have been 
discontinued. The Pope still officiates on high festivals in the Sistine 
Chapel, but visitors are not admitted without an introduction from very 
high quarters. (Gentlemen are required to wear uniform or evening 
dress. Ladies must be dressed in black, with black veils or caps.) Music 
in St. Peter's, see p. 276. Details of the various festivals are contained 
in the Diario Romano, published annually (60 c; festivals no longer celebrated 
are marked by asterisks). The best work on the ceremonies of the Holy 
Week and their signification is the Manuale delle cerimonie che hanno luogo 
nella setlimana sanla e neW oltava di pasqua al Vaticano (1 fr. ; also a French 
edition), obtainable at the bookshops mentioned at p. 121. Details are also 
given in the Roman Herald (p. 159) and in bills displayed in the windows 
at Piale's (p. 121). Bills posted at the parochial churches give infor- 
mation concerning the ceremonies and illuminations connected with the 
,Quarant'ore' or exhibition of the Holy of Holies for twenty-four hours. 



Church Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 123 

The following are the principal festivals to which the public are ad- 
mitted: — 
January 1. Gesii (p. 187): High Mass at 10.30 a.m. with illumination. 

— 6. Epiphany. £. Andrea delta Valle (p. 188): at 10.30 a.m. ex- 

hibition of the group of the Adoration of the Magi, 
presented by Prince Torlonia. 

— — S. Atanasio dei Oreci (PI. 1, 17), Via del Babuino : 

High Mass according to the Greek ritual, 10 a.m. 

— 17. S. Anastasia on the Palatine (p. 241): benediction of domestic 

animals. 

— 18. S. Prisca on the Aventine (p. 245). 

— 20. S. Giorgio in Vetabro (p. 239), or S. Sebastiano alia Polveriera 

on the Palatine (PI. II, 19, 22). 

— 21. S. Agnese Fuori (p. 340) : dedication of lambs in the morning. 

— — S. Agnese, Circo Agonale (p. 185): Massatl0.45 a.m. (good music). 

— 25. S. Paolo Fuori (p. 350). 

— 30. SS. Martin & Luke, in the Forum (p. 228). 

February 1. S. Glemenle (p. 252): Illumination of the lower church from 
3 p.m. 

— 2. Candlemas. St. Peter's (p. 269): Mass at 9.45 a.m., with Te 

Deum and dedication of candles. 

— — S. Biagio delta Pagnotta (p. 194), Via Giulia : Armenian service 

at 10.30 a.m. 
On Ash Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent , celebrated Lent ser- 
mons in Gesii (p. 187), S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 182), S. Lorenzo 
in Damaso (p. 190), and other churches. 
March. 9. S. Francesca Romana (p. 223): Mass at 10. 45 a.m. ; before 11 
a.m. and after 3 p.m. the dwelling of the saint in the nunnery, 
Via Tor de' Specchi (PI. II, 17), is open. 

— 12. S. Gregorio Magna (p. 249): Mass at 10.15 a.m.; side-chapels 

open. 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (p. 189) in com- 

memoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Neri. 

— 25. Annunciation. S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 182) : Mass at 10. 

45 a.m. 

— 31. S. BaVbina (p. 246). 

Holt Week. — Palm Sunday. St. Peter's (p. 269): At 10 a.m., after Mass, 
procession and consecration of palms. 

— Wednesday. Lamentations and Miserere in all churches 2 hrs. before Ave 

Maria; interesting only in St. Peter's (p. 269; relics of the 
Passion displayed) and in S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 256; best 
singing). 

— Boly Thursday. Lamentations, Miserere, etc. as on Wednesday; washing 

of the altar after the Miserere. 

— Good Friday. At 10a.m. Entombment in all churches; most interesting 

at St. Peter's (p. 269) and Gesii (p. 187); the groups remain 
on view until Sat. evening. — Lamentations, Miserere, etc. 
2 hrs. before Ave Maria, as above. — In the evening at 5. 
Marcello al Corso (p. 164), the Seven Sorrows of Mary (often 
crowded). 

— Saturday. At all churches between 7 and 8 a.m. lighting of the holy 

fire. — In the Baptistery of the Lateran (p. 256): Baptism of 

converted Jews and heathens ; Consecration of priests. 
Easter Day. High Mass in St. Peter's (p. 269), at the high altar at 10 a.m. 

Exhibition of the Passion relics. 
Ascension. S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 256): Mass at 10 a.m. 
Corpus Domini. Processions at the churches, most magnificent at St. Peter's 

(p. 269), S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 256), and Gesu (p. 187). 
April 23. 5. Giorgio in Velabro (p. 239). 
— 29, 30. S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 182): Chapel of S. Catharine open 

to women. 
May 1. SS. Apostoli (p. 172). 



1 24 Prelim. Information. ROME. Church Festivals. 

May 3. S. Croce in Qerusalemme (p. 157): Mass at 10.45 a.m.; exhi- 
bition of relics of the Cross. 

— 6. S. Giovanni a Porta Latina (p. 248). 

— 12. S. Nereo ed Achillea, outside the Porta S. Sehastiana (p. 217; cel- 

ebrated Easter lights). 

— 14. S. Alessio (p. 242), on the Aventine. 

— 26. S. Maria in Vallicella (Chiesa Nuova , p. 191): Festival of S. 

Philip Neri, whose dwelling is open. 
June 24. S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 256) : Mass at 10 a.m. 

— 26. SS. Giovanni e Paolo on the Cselian (p. 250) : lower church open. 

— 29. SS. Peter and Paul. — St. Peter's (p. 269): Mass at 10 a.m. 

celebration formerly by the Pope. 

— 30. S. Paolo Fuori (p. 350). 

Aug. 1. S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 159): St. Peter in Vinculis. 

— 5. S. Maria Maggiore (p. 153) : S. Maria della Neve. 

— 10. S. Lorenzo in Miranda (p. 221). S. Lorenzo Fuori (p. 341). 

— 25. S. Luigi dei Francesi (p. 184): Mass at 10.30 a.m. 

— 29. S. fiabina (p. 242), on the Aventine. 

Sept. 27. SS. Cosma e Damiano, in the Forum (p. 222). 

— 29. S. Angela in Pescheria (p. 196). 

Oct. 18. SS. Martina e Luca (p. 228), in the Forum. 

Nov. 2. All Souls' Day (Giorno de' Morti). S. Maria della Concezione 
(Capuchin church; p. 139). 

— 4. S. Carlo al Corso (p. 160); Mass at 10.45 a.m. 

— 8. Quattro Coronati, on the Cselian (p. 255). 

— 9. S. Teodoro, on the- Palatine (p. 239). 

— 12. S. Martina ai Monti (p. 158). 

— 21, 22. S. Cecilia in Traslevere (p. 323): Music at 10.15 a.m. 

— 22. Illumination of the Catacombs of Callislus (p. 359); Mass with 

vocal quartet at 9.30 a.m. 

— 23. & Clemente (p. 252): Illumination of the lower church from 

3 p.m. 
Dec. 2. S. Bibiana, on the Esquiline (p. 155). 

— 5. S. Saba, on the Aventine (p. 245). 

— 6. S. Nicola in Carcere (p. 196), near the Piazza Montanara; dis- 

tribution of gifts to poor children in the sacristy in the morn- 
ing. 

— 24, 25. S. Maria Maggiore (p. 153), Exhibition of the Holy Manger. 

— 25. Christmas Day. 5. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 199): Mass at 10 a.m., 

procession with the 'Santo Bambino' ; beginning of recitations 
by children, continued daily till Jan. 6. 

— 26. S. Stefano Rotondo (p. 251) : German sermon. 

— 27. S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 256) : Exhibition of the heads of 

SS. Peter and Paul. 

— 28. #. Paolo Fuori (p. 350). 

— 31. Ambrosian Song of Praise at all churches. 

English Churches. All Saints, Via Babuino 154 (superseding the old 
Anglican Church near the Porto del Popolo); services at 8. 30 a.m., 11 a.m., 
and 3 p.m., in summer 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.; chaplain, Rev. F. N. Oxenham, 
Piazza del Popolo 18. — Trinity Church, Piazza S. Silvestro, opposite the 
Post Office (p. 161); services at 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.: chaplain, Rev. Pelhatn 
Stokes. — American Episcopal Church of St. Paul, a handsome brick edifice 
by Street, Via Nazionale; services at 8.30 a.m., 10.45 a.m., and 4 p.m.; 
rector, Rev. Dr. JVevin, Via Napoli 58. — Scottish Presbyterian Church, Via 
Venti Settembre 7 , near the Quattro Fontane ; services at 11 a.m. and 
3 p.m.; minister, Rev. Dr. Gray, Via Venti Settembre 7, 2nd floor. — 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Piazza Poli 2; services on Sun. 11 a.m. ; Pastor, 
Rev. E. E. Powell. — Wesleyan Methodist Church, Via della Scrofa 64; mi- 
nister, Rev. Henry Piggolt, Via delle Copelle 28. — American Baptist 
Church, Via Teatro Valle 37; minister, Rev. Mr. Egan. 

Italian Protestant Churches. Waldensian Church (Rev. Sig. Prochet), 
Via Nazionale 107. — Free Italian Church (Signor Gavazzi), Via Panico 43, 



Collections, Villas etc. ROME. Prelim. Information. 1 25 

opposite the church of S. Angelo. — Episcopal Methodist Church, Piazza 
Poli 2. — Baptist Chapel, Piazza San Lorenzo in Lncina. — Baptist Church, 
Via Urbana 154. 

h. Principal Libraries. 

1. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, see p. 310. Permessi issued by 
the Cardinal-Secretary of State directed to the prefects of the library. 
Readers admitted from Oct. 1st to Easter 9-1 , from Easter to 29th June 
8-12 o'clock; the library is closed on Sun., Thurs., and holidays. 

2. Public Libraries, open on the days. mentioned below from 9 to 3, 
the Biblioteca Angelica, however, only from 9 to 2. Admittance see the 
placard in the Bibl. Vittorio Emanuele. — ' Biblioteca Alessandrina, in the 
Sapienza (p. 183; over 10,000 printed vols.), daily, 1st Nov.-30th June also 
7-10 p.m. — Biblioteca Angelica (p. 179; over 100,000 vols, and 2945 MSS.), 
closed on Sun. and Thurs. and in Oct. — Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 183; 
one of the largest in Rome, with 200,000 vols, and 1000 MSS.), daily, ex- 
cept Sundays. — Biblioteca Centrale Vittorio Emanuele (p. 167), from Nov. 
to May also 7-10 p.m. , closed for a short time at midsummer (besides the 
large public reading-room and well-supplied newspaper-room, there is a 
'Sala Riservata' with an excellent reference-library, for the use of which 
a permesso is necessary). This library (500,000 vols, and several thousand 
MSS.) was formed in 1871 from the library of the Jesuits and suppressed 
convents, and is yearly increased by the purchase of new works, in which 
the other libraries are generally deficient. The institution is admirably 
managed in the interest of readers and it is the only library in Rome in 
which books are lent out (on the security of the embassy or consulate; 
farther particulars in the Uffizio dei Prestiti, on the first floor of the 
library). The director is Commendatore Conle Bom Onoli. 

3. Private Libraries: Biblioteca -Barberina (p. 143; 7000 MSS.; many 
of Greek and Latin authors, Dante, etc.), open to the public on Thurs. 9-2 ; 
closed in Oct. — Biblioteca S. Cecilia, Via de' Greci 18, daily 9-3 (music). 
— Biblioteca Chisiana (p. 162; valuable MSS.), admission by permesso, ob- 
tainable through the traveller's consul, 10-12; closed in summer. — Biblio- 
teca Corsiniana (p. 317), open to the public daily, except Sun. and Wed., 
Nov. to March 1-4, Apr. to July 2-5. — Biblioteca Sarti, in the Academy 
of St. Luke (p. 223), daily except Sat. and Sun., in summer 8-2, in winter 
9-3. — Biblioteca Vallicellana (p. 191 ; founded by St. Philip Neri, now owned 
by the Societa Romana di Storia Patna; valuable MSS.), open on Tues., 
Thurs., and Sat., 10-3. — Biblioteca Lancisiana (medical works), in the 
Hospital of S. Spirito (p. 268), daily, 9.30-2.30. 

i. Best time for visiting Churches and Hours of Admission to Public 
and Private Collections, Villas, etc. 

Changes in the arrangements take place so frequently that the follow- 
ing data make no pretence to absolute accuracy. Even the lists of sights 
contained in some of the daily newspapers are not always trustworthy 
(best in some English papers, p. 129; and the bills in Piale's windows, 
p. 121). Intending visitors should therefore make additional enquiry. 

The '■Permessi' necessary for visitors to several collections may either 
be obtained personally in the ways described below or through the consuls 
(p. 119) or bankers. — Free Tickets for artists etc. and admission of 
Scholars, see p. xx; Public Holidays on which the collections are closed, 
see p. xx ; Fees, see p. xn. 

Churches (comp. p. xx) are closed from 12 till 3. The five pa- 
triarchal churches, however, S.Pietro in Vaticano (p. 269), 8. Gio- 
vanni in Laterano (p. 256), S. Maria Maggiore (p. 158), S. Paolo 
Fuori (p. 350), and S. Lorenzo Fuori (p. 341), as well as the two 
pilgrim-churches, S. Croce in Oerusalemme (p. 157) , and S. Seba- 
stino , on the Via Appia (p. 347) are open all day. Many of the 
smaller and remoter churches are accessible only by means of the 
sacristans, except on the festivals of their titular saints. 



126 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 



Sun. and 
holidays 



Monday 



Tuesday 



Accademia di S. Luca (p. 228) .... 

Albani, Villa (p. 336) < „ , ^ 

Barberini, Gallery (p. 142) 

Boncampagni, Museo (p. 140) 

Borghese,Villa(v^2T)(f^} ' " ' .\ .* " 
" ' vr J \Antiques and Paintings 

Capitoline Museum (p. 206) 

Castello S. Angelo (p. 266) 

Catacombs of S. Callistus (p. 359) . . . 

Colonna, Gallery (p. 174) 

Conservatory Palace of (p. 201) .... 

Corsini, Gallery (p. 316) 

Doria, Gallery (p. 170) 

— Pamphilj, Villa (p. 353) 

Farnesina, Villa (p. 314) 

Forum Romanurn (p. 213) 

Galleria a" Arte Moderna (p. 149) .... 

Lateran, Collections of the (p. 258) . . . 

Maltese Villa and 8. Maria Aventina (p. 243) 

Mattel, Villa (p. 251) 



Medici, Villa, Garden and Casts (p. 136) 
Museo Artistico Industriale (p. 138). . . 

— Kircheriano, Etnografico fy Preistorico 

(P- 167) 

— Nanonale ( Terme di Diocleziano ; p. 146) 
Palatine (p. 232) 

St. Peters, Dome of (p. 277) 

Quirinale, Palazzo del (p. 150) .... 

Rospiyliosi, Casino (p. 151) 

Thermae of Caracalla (p. 246) 

— of Titus (p. 227) 

Torlonia, Gallery (p. 176) 

1. Sistine Chapel, Raphael's 
Vatican Stanze and Loggie. Picture 

Collections J Gallery 

(pp. 279, | 2. Sculpture, Etruscan, and 
296,310) Egyptian Museum . . . 

. 3. Library 

Villa di Papa Giulio (p. 334) 

Wolkonsky, Villa (p. 264) 



9-12, 2-5 



10-1 

9, 11, 1, 3 

All day 

10-1 



All day 



9-3 

9-3 

9-1 

after 9 a.m. 



12-3 

afterlOa.m 
afterlOa.m. 



9-3 



12-5 



10-3 
), 11, 1, 3 
All day 

10-3 
9-3 

after lp.m. 

All day 

9-3 

10-3 



9-3 



9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

after 9 a.m 

8-11 



after 9 a.m 
after 9 a.m 



10-3 

10-3 
10-3 
9-3 



9-3 



12-5 

9-12, 2-6 

after 1 p.m. 

1-4 or 5 

10-3 

9, 11, 1,3 

All day 

11-3 

10-3' 

10-2 



All day 
9-3 
10-3 



9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

after 9 a.m. 

8-11 



after 9 a.m. 
after 9 a.m. 
11-2 



10-3 

10-3 
10-3 
9-3 



Collections, Villas, etc. ROME. Prelim. Information. 127 



Wednesday 



Thursday 



Friday 



Saturday 



Admission free except where 
otherwise stated. 



9-3 



12-5 



10-3 
9, 11, 1, 3 
All day 

10-3 



All day 

10-3 

9 a.m. 

till dusk 



8-12, 2-5 
9-3 

9-3 
9-3 

after 9 a.m 

8-11 



9-3 
after 9 a.m 
after 9 a.m 



10-3 

10-3 

10-3 

9-3 

after 12 

uoon 



9-3 



12-5 

9-12, 2-5 

after 1 p.m. 

1-4 or 5 

10-3 
9, 11, 1, 3 

All day 

11-3 

10-3 
9-3 



All day 
9-3 
10-3 



2.30 p.m. 

till dusk 

9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

after 9 a.m. 

8-11 

12-3 

after 9 a.m 
after 9 a.m 



10-3 

10-3 

10-3 

9-3 



9-3 



12-5 



10-3 
9,11, 1, 3 
All day 

10-3 

10-2 
after 1 p.m. 

All day 
9-3 
10-3 



9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

after 9 a.m 

8-11 



12-5 

after 1 p.m 

1-4 or 5 

10-3 

, 11, 1,3 
All day 

11-3 

10-3 

9-3 



All day 

9-3 

10-2 
9 a.m. 

till dusk 



8-12, 2-5 
9-3 

9-3 

9-3 

after 9 a.m, 

8-11 



/by special permission of Prince 
\ Torlonia (p. 176). 
July and Aug. 11-5. 



lfr. 



after 9 a.m. 
after 9 a.m. 
11-2 



10-3 

10-3 

10-3 

9-3 



9-3 

after 9 a.m 

after 9 a.m 



10-2 

10-2 
10-2 
9-3 
after 12 

noon 



Adm. 

Adm. Y2 fr-> Sun. free. 

Permessi, see p. 267. 

1 fr. ; closed in midsummer. 



Adm. Y2 fr-> Sun. free. 

( On Wed. or Sat. if Tues. or Frid. 
I be a holiday. 
Permessi for the Casino, see p. 353. 
10-3 on 1st and 15th of each month; 

closed June-Oetober. 
Closed 12-3 in midsummer. 

Adm. 1 jz fr. 

From 15th July to 14th Septr. 9-1 ; 
adm. 1 fr., Sat. free. 



Visitors sign the visitors' book. 



Adm. 1 fr., Sun. free. 

Adm. 1 fr., Sun. free. 

f Adm. 1 fr., Sun. free; closed 12-3 

\ in midsummer. 

Permessi, see p. 277. 
/Permessi (10-12)in the Ministero della 
<. Casa Reale, Via del Quirinale, next 
Uo S. Andrea (PI. II, 2i), first floor. 

Adm. 1 fr., Sun. free. 



From June 15th. to Sept. 14tli, 
9-1; permessi, see p. 279. 

! v From June 15 to Sept. 14, 9-1 ; adm. 
1 fr., Sat. free. Etruscan Mu- 
seum closed on Sat. 
Reading in the Library, see p. 125. 
Adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. free. 
Permessi at the consulates. 



128 Prelim. Information. ROME. Newspapers. 

The Parks of the Villa Borghese (p. 327) and the Villa Doria 
Pamphilj (p. 353), may be visited by carriage ; but only two-horse 
carriages or one-horse carriages ■without numbers are admitted to 
the latter. Carriages may also be taken for visits to the picturesque 
Passeggiata Margherita (p. 321) and the Via Appia (p. 345; exact 
bargain advisable). The gardens on the Pincio (p. 135), with their 
fine view of Rome, are usually crowded in the evening by both 
natives and foreigners. — In the height of summer, the band plays 
in the Piazza Colonna (p. 162), instead of on the Pincio. 

Besides the above-mentioned Passeggiata Margherita and the 
Pincio, the best View Points are the Palatine (p. 232) and the 
Monte Testaccio (p. 244) on the left bank of the Tiber, and on the 
right bankS. Pielro in Montorio, from which our panorama is taken 
(p. 320 ; best time about an hour before sunset). 

j. Theatres. Popular Festivals. Street Scenes. Garrison. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxi). Teatro Argentina or Teatro Comunale (PI. II, 
14; p. 194), Via di Tor Argentina, near S. Andrea della Valle. — Teatro 
Costanzi (PI. II, 27), Via Firenze ; Teatro Valle (PI. II, 15) , near the 
Sapienza, for dramas. Teatro Drammatico Nazionale (PI. II, 21 ; p. 149), 
Via Nazionale, near the Piazza Colonna. — Besides these there are the 
smaller theatres : Teatro Metastasio (PI. I, 15), Via di Pallacorda, near 
the Via della Scrofa, for vaudevilles with 'Puleinella' (performances about 
6 and 9; for gentlemen only); Teatro Manzoni (PI. II, 27), Via Urbana 
153; Teatro Quirino (PI. II, 18, 21), Via delle Vergini, for small operettas 
and ballet. 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest) : — 

January 5th, the day before Epiphany, celebrated in the evening in 
the Piazza Navona (Circo Agonale, p. 184); array of booths and prodigious 
din of toy-trumpets, rattles, etc. (the so-called 'Befana* 1 ). 

The Carnival lasts from the second Saturday before Ash Wednes- 
day to Shrove Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Via del 
Gorso, accompanied by the. throwing of bouquets and confetti, and con- 
cluding with the Moccoli (taper) evening. It has gradually declined in in- 
terest since 1870, and has latterly degenerated into a mere popular merry- 
making. Ladies are recommended to avoid the Corso during the prin- 
cipal days. 

The October Festival, in the vintage-season, once famous, is celebrated 
with singing, dancing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates (e.g. 
at the Monte Testaccio, the Porta Pia, Ponte Molle). 

The Festa dello Statoto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced 
since the annexation of Rome , is on the first Sunday in June. Military 
parade in the forenoon in the Piazza deir Indipendenza or the Campo 
Militare (p. 144). In the evening fireworks ('Girandola , ) in the Piazza del 
Popolo and elsewhere. — On the anniversary of the Foundation op Rome 
(21st April), it has of late been usual to illuminate the Colosseum and the 
Forum with Bengal fire. 

Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna and the Via Sistina 
(PI. I, 20, 21, pp. 137, 138) are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly 
Neapolitans, whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and 
pictures. — The favourite haunts of the country-people especially on Sun- 
days are in front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 18, p. 180), the Piazza Montanara 
(PI. II, 16; p. 196), and the market-place of the Campo di Fiori (PI. II, 
14; p. 192). 

Newspapers, very numerous, 5-10 c. per number. The most popular 
with visitors are: Italic (in French; 10c); Fanfulla (similar to the Paris 
Figaro); Opinione, Riforma, Popolo Romano, Diritto, Tribuna, Mestaggero. 



Division of Time. ROME. Prelim. Information. 129 

Osservatore Romano (10 a), Moniteur de Rome (10 c), and Voce delta Verita, 
these three clerical. Rugantino is a comic paper in the local dialect. — 
The Roman Herald (20 c.) s>nd the Roman Times (20 c.) published on Sat., 
and the Roman News and Directory (20 c. ; 1st and 15th of each month) 
are English papers (the last at Piale's, p. 121), containing the most reli- 
able list of the sights of the day and of the approaching church festivals. 
f. The Garrison of Rome consists of 4 regiments of Infantry (wearing 
the 'giubba', or dark blue coat common to the whole army, grey trousers, 
white leather belts , and caps) ; 2 regiments of Granatieri (or Grenadiers -, 
infantry uniform, with a burning grenade on the cap to distinguish them); 
1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen (dark blue uniform with crimson 
facings, large plumed caps worn on one side , forming an elite corps like 
the Austrian Kaiserjager) ; 1 regiment of Cavalry (dark blue uniform, light 
grey trousers, and helmets ; the Lanzieri wear fur caps and trousers faced 
with black) ; 1 brigade of Field Artillery and 1 brigade of Fortress Ar- 
tillery (dark blue uniform with yellow facings) ; and 1 brigade of Engineers 
(dark blue uniform with crimson facings). To these we may add the Cara- 
binieri, or gensdarmes (p. xvi). — The royal body-gnard (Guardie del Re), 
about 75 men strong, is recruited from the last (dark blue uniform with 
silver buttons and red facings, dark blue trousers with a wide red stripe 
for the foot guards, and grey trousers with black stripes for the horse- 
guards, who in full dress wear white leather breeches and high boots and 
cuirass, metal helmets, etc.). 

A Fortnight's Visit. 

To obtain even a hasty glimpse of the sights of Rome a stay of 
at least 14-16 days in the 'Eternal City' is necessary. The visitor 
who has but a fortnight at his disposal will be assisted to make the 
best use of his time by the plan suggested below, which however 
he must supplement by a careful study of the tabular statement of 
hours and days of admission pp. 126, 127. A free use of cabs will 
also be found necessary. 

1st Day. The first part of this had better be devoted to what may 
be called an ' Orientation Drive" 1 . 

Engage a cab for 2-3 hrs. (tariff, see Appendix) and drive down the 
Corso as far as the Piazza di Venezia, then to the Foro Trajano and 
through the Via Alessandrina and Via Bonella to the Forum Romanum, 
past the Colosseum, through the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano to the 
Piazza in front of the church, then through the Via Merulana, passing 
8. Maria Maggiore , through the Via Ag. Depretis (Quattro Fontane) and 
the Via Nazionale to the Piazza Venezia, then through the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele to the Via Tor Argentina, through the last street to the 
Ponte Garibaldi, crossing it to Trastevere, passing S. Maria in Trastevere, 
and through the Lungara to the Piazza di S. Pietro; then cross the 
Ponte S. Angelo, and through the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, and the Via 
Aracoeli to the Piazza in Aracoeli at the foot of the Capitol, where the cab 
may he dismissed. Ascend to the Piazza del Campidoglio (p. 200), visit the 
Capitoline Museum (p. 202) and the Forum Romanum (p. 213), and lastly 
spend the evening on the Pincio (p. 135). 

2nd Day. St. Peter's (p. 269) and the Dome (not after 11 a. m.) ; An- 
tiques at the Vatican (p. 296) ; Walk from S. Onofrio (p. 313) along the 
Passeggiata Margherita (p. 321) to S. Pietro in Montorio (p. 319), whence 
the sunset should be viewed. 

3bo Day. Piazza Colonna (p. 162); Temple of Neptune (p. 163); Pan- 
theon (p. 180); S.Maria sopra Minerva (p. 182); Museo Kircheriano (p. 167); 
Galleria Doria (p. 170); Palazzo Venezia (p. 164); Palatine (p. 232). 

4th Day. Palazzo Giraud (p. 267); Sistine Chapel (p. 280); Raphael's 
Stanze and Loggie (pp. 234, 291); Paintings in the Vatican (p. 292). Ex- 
cursion to Ponte Molle (pp. 327, 335) or visit the Villa Doria Pamphilj 
(P. 353). 

Baedekek. Italy II. 11th Edition. 9 



130 Prelim. Information. ROME. Division of Time. 

5th Day. Piazza del Qiiirinale (p. 150; also Casino Rospigliosi if pos- 
sible, p. 151); Galleria Colonna (p. 174); Fora of the Emperors (p. 227); 
S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 159) ; Thermae of Titus (p. 227); Colosseum (p. 224) ; 
Arch of Constantine (p. 226). 

6th Day. Piazza Navona (p. 184); S. Maria dell' Anima (p. 185); S. 
Maria della Pace (p. 186); S. Agostino (p. 178); Palazzo Borghese (p. 177); 
after 1 p. m., Villa Borghese, with its antiques and paintings (p. 327); 
S. Maria del Popolo (p. 134). 

7th Day. Piazza and Palazzo Barberini (pp. 139, 142)); Museo Boncom- 
pagni (p. 140), S. Maria degli Angeli, and Thermae of Diocletian (Museum, 
pp. 145, 146) ; S. Agnese Fuori (p. 340). 

8th Day. S. Clemente (p. 252) ; Lateran (Museum, Church, and Bap- 
tistery, pp. 256 seq); S. Maria Maggiore (p. 153); S. Prassede (p. 157); S. 
Lorenzo Fuori (p. 341). 

9th Day. Gesii (p. 187); Palazzo Massimi (p. 189); Cancelleria (p, 190); 
Palazzo Farnese (p. 193) ; Galleria Corsini (p. 316 ; also Villa Farnesina, if 
possible, p. 314); S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 322); return across the Isola 
Tiberina (p. 197); Theatre of Marcellus (p. 196); Portico of Octavia (p. 196); 
Fontana delle Tartarughe (p. 194). 

10th Day. From the Forum Romanum to the Janus Quadrifons (p. 239) ; 
Cloaca Maxima (p. 239); Ponte Rotto and the two adjoining ancient tem- 
ples (p. 240); walk over the Aventine (S. Sabina, p. 242); Pyramid of 
Cestius (p. 244); Monte Testaccio (p. 244); tramway to S. Paolo Fuori (p. 350) 
and back. 

11th Day. S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 200); collections in the Palace of 
the Conservatori (p. 202); Thermae of Caracalla (p. 246); Via Appia, 
within and without the city (pp. 245, 345), and the Catacombs of Callistus 
(p. 359). 

Other two or three days should be devoted to revisiting the collections 
of antiquities in the Vatican and the Capitol and the Borghese Gallery. 
Lastly, a day should certainly be devoted to the Alban Mts. (p. 361), and 
another to Tivoli (p. 371). These excursions should not be postponed till 
the end of the visitor's stay at Rome. They may be made on a Sunday, 
which is not a good day for sight-seeing. 



Rome (Roma in Latin and Italian), known even in antiquity as 
'the Eternal City', once the capital of the ancient world, afterwards 
of the spiritual empire of the popes, and since 1871 the capital of 
the kingdom of Italy, with 438,100 inhab. (30st June, 1892; less 
than Naples), is situated (41° 53'54"N. lat., 12° 29" E. long., 
meridian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic plain, which ex- 
tends from Capo Linaro , S. of Civita Vecchia , to the Promontorio 
Circeo, a distance of about 85 M., and between the Apennines and 
the sea, a width of 25 M. The Tiber, the largest river in the Italian 
peninsula, intersects the city from N. to S. in three wide curves. 
The water of the Tiber is turbid (the 'flavus Tiberis' of Horace). 
The average width of the river is about 65yds. and its depth 20 ft., 
but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft. The navigation of the 
river , by means of which the commerce of ancient Rome was 
carried on in both directions, with transmarine nations as well 
as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively insignificant. An 
artificial channel has been constructed for the river within the city 



Seven Hills. ROME. . Topography. 1 31 

since 1876. Nine bridges span the stream in Rome and others are 
projected. 

The city proper lies on the Left Bank of the Tiber, partly on 
the plain, the ancient Campus Martins, and partly on the surround- 
ing hills. Modern Rome is principally confined to the plain, while 
the Heights on which the ancient city stood were almost unin- 
habited in the middle ages and following centuries (comp. p. 132"), 
and have only recently begun to be re-occupied. These are the far- 
famed Seven Hills of Rome {comp. the Plan of Ancient Rome, p. 197). 
The least extensive, but historically most important, is the Capi- 
toline (165 ft.), which rises near the Tiber and the island. It con- 
sists of a narrow ridge extending from S.W. to N.E., culminating 
in two summits, separated by a depression. Contiguous to the Ca- 
pitoline, in a N.E. direction, and separated from it by a depression 
occupied by Trajan's Forum, extends the long Quirinal (170 ft.). 
On the N. a valley, in which the Piazza Barberini is situated, sepa- 
rates the Quirinal from the Pineio (165 ft.), which was not origin- 
ally part of the city (comp. p. 132). To the E. of the Quirinal, 
but considerably less extensive, rises the Viminal (175 ft.). Both of 
these may be regarded as spurs of the third and more important 
height , the Esquiline (245 ft.), which, forming the common basis 
of these two, extends from the Pineio on the N. to the Cselius. Its 
present distinguishing feature is the conspicuous church of S. Maria 
Maggiore; while S. Pietro in Vincoli and the ruins of the Thermae 
of Titus mark the ancient quarters which stood on the hill where 
it approaches the Viminal, Palatine, and Caelius. To the S. E. of 
the Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the 
isolated Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the 
emperors, and on the low ground between these hills lies the 
ancient Forum. Farther S., close to the river, separated from the 
Palatine by the depression (70 ft.) in which the Circus Maximus 
lay, is the Aventine (150ft.). Lastly, to the S.E. of the Palatine 
and to the E. of the Aventine, is the long Caelius (165 ft.); in the 
low ground between the Cslius, Palatine, and Esquiline is situated 
the Colosseum ; and farther E., by the city-wall, between the Caelius 
and Esquiline, is the Lateran. 

On the Right Bank of the Tiber lies the smaller part of the 
city, divided into two halves : on the N. the Borgo around the Vati- 
can and St. Peter's, encircled with a wall by Leo IV. in 852; and 
to the S., on the river and the slopes of the Janiculum, Trastevere. 
These two portions are connected by the long Via della Lungara. 

The wall enclosing this area, which was inhabited during the 
imperial epoch by l ] /2-2 million souls, has i length of about 10 M. 
on the left bank and is pierced by 13 gates. It is constructed of 
brick, and on the outside about 55 ft. high. The greater part of it 
dates from 271 to 276. It was begun by the Emp. Aurelian, com- 
pleted by Probus , and restored by Honorius, Theodoric, Belisarins, 



1 32 Topography. ROME. Districts. 

Nasses, and several popes. The wall on the right hank dates mainly 
from the time of Pope Urban VIII. — Since 1870 Rome has been 
fortified by a series of detached forts forming a circle of about 30 M. 
in circumference round the city. 



The following description of Rome is arranged in accordance 
•with a division of the city into four districts, the extent of which is 
marked with blue lines on the clue-map at the end of the Handbook. 
To each of these its buildings lend a distinct historical character ; 
though numerous monuments from all periods of Roman history are 
scattered throughout the entire city. 

I. The Hills to the North and East : Pincio, Quirinal, Viminal, 
and Esquiline, the more modern city, the N. part of which is the 
strangers' quarter. 

II. Rome on the Tiber (left bank), the city of the middle ages 
and following centuries, with the Via del Corso as its main thorough- 
fare; now much altered hy the construction of new streets. 

III. Southern Quarters, containing the chief monuments of an- 
tiquity. 

IV. The Right Bank of the Tiber, including the Vatican, St. 
Peter's, and Trastevere. 

/. The Hills to the North and East: Pincio, 

Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline. 

The Pincio, the most N. height in modern Rome, lay outside the 
city until the building of Aurelian's wall (p. 131) and played no 
conspicuous part in history ; but the Quirinal, adjoining it on the 
S.E., is mentioned in the earliest traditions of Rome. On the Quiri- 
nal lay the Sabine town whose union with that on the Palatine formed 
the city of Rome. The Servian Wall (p. xxvii) ran along the N.W. 
side of the Quirinal, and then to the S.E. and E. behind the Baths 
of Diocletian and the railway-station, enclosing besides the Quiri- 
nal, the Viminal (to the S.E.), and a part of the Esquiline. Accord- 
ing to the division of the city by Augustus (p. xxx), this quarter 
comprised two districts, the Alia Semita (Quirinal) and the Esqui- 
liae (Esquiline). The building of Aurelian's wall shows that this 
quarter was afterwards extended. In the middle ages these hills 
were thinly populated and formed a single region only, named the 
Rione Monti, the most spacious of the fourteen quarters in the 
city. Its inhabitants, called Montigiani, differed, like those of 
Trastevere, in some of their characteristics from the other Romans. 
In the latter half of the 16th cent. Pius IV. constructed the street 
from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta Pia. The second main 
street, intersecting this one and leading from the Pincio to S. 
Maria Maggiore, was made by Sixtus V., who also provided the 
hills with water. With the exception of these inhabited quarters 



a. Piazza del Popolo. ROME. Topography. 133 

almost the entire E. part of Rome was until lately occupied by- 
vineyards and gardens. But the selection of the city as the capital 
of the kingdom of Italy in 1870 gave a strong impulse to its ex- 
tension, and this quarter has assumed quite a new aspect within 
the last twenty years. 

The region known for ages as the Strangers' Quarter lies at the 
W. base and on the slope of the Pincio, its central point being the 
Piazza di Spagna (p. 137). Thence it stretches N. to the Piazza 
del Popolo, W. to the Corso (p. 160), and E. (within the last de- 
cade) over the Quirinal to the railway-station. — Our description 
starts from the Piazza del Popolo, at the W. base of the Pincio. 

a. Piazza del Popolo. Monte Pincio. Piazza di Spagna. 

The N. entrance to Rome is formed by the Porta del Popolo 
(PI. I, 13), through which, before the construction of the railroad, 
most visitors approached the Eternal City. It lies at the beginning 
of the main highway which connects Rome with Tuscany, Umbria, 
and N. and E. Italy generally. The gate was constructed in 1561 
by Vignola, and the side towards the town by Bernini in 1655, on 
the occasion of the entry of Queen Christina of Sweden. In 1878 
it was enlarged by the addition of two side-portals. The gate is 
named after the adjoining church of S. Maria del Popolo. — Out- 
side the gate, on the right, is the Villa Borghese, see p. 327. 

Within the gate lies the handsome *Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 
13, 16), adorned with an Obelisk between four water-spouting lions, 
which was erected by Augustus in B. C, 10 in the Circus Maximus in 
commemoration of the subjugation of Egypt, and dedicated to the 
Sun. The hieroglyphic inscription mentions the names of Menep- 
tah I. (1326 B. C.) and Ramses III. (1273 B. C). The obelisk was 
removed to its present position by order of Sixtus V. in 1589. The 
shaft is 78 ft. in height, and the whole monument with the pedestal 
and cross 118 ft. — On the W. and E. the Piazza is bounded by 
arched walls with groups of Neptune and Tritons , and of Roma 
between the Tiber and the Anio. The street behind the "W. wall 
leads to the new Ponte Margherita (PI. I, 14), affording the shortest 
route between the Piazza del Popolo and the Vatican (p. 269). On 
the E. wall are approaches to the Pincio (p. 135). 

Omnibuses from the Piazza del Popolo : to the Piazza di Venezia (p. 164), 
every 5 min., in the morning via the Corso, after 3 p.m. (4 p.m. in sum- 
mer) via the side-streets to the E. (Piazza di Spagna; Piazza Trevi); to 
the Via Cavour (p. 157; terminus near the railway-station), every 10 min. 
via the Piazza di Spagna and the Piazza Barberini. Tkamwats run from 
the same Piazza to the Piazza S t Cosimato (p. 323), hy the Via di Ripetta, 
the Piazza Navona, and the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, and past Piazza B. 
Cairoli; to the Ponte Molk (p. 327). 

Three streets diverge from the Piazza del Popolo on the S.: to 
the right the Via di Ripetta, parallel with the river (p. 177), in the 
centre the Via del Corso (p. 160) ; and to the left the Via del Ba- 
buino leading to the Piazza di Spagna (p. 137). — Between the 



134 J. N. and E. Hills. ROME. a. Piazza del Popolo, 

two latter streets stands the church of S. Maria in Monte Santo, and 
between the two former that of S. Maria de' Miracoli , both dating 
from the latter half of the 17th cent., with domes and vestibules, 
designed by Rainaldi, and completed by Bernini and C. Fontana. 

*S. Maria del Popolo (PI. 1, 16) is said to have been founded by 
Pope Paschalis II. in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, 
the burial-place of Nero, which was haunted by evil spirits, and was 
entirely re-erected under Sixtus IV. in 1477-80. The interior, 
decorated by Bernini in the baroque style, consists of nave, aisles, 
transept, and octagonal dome, and contains handsome monuments 
of the 15th cent, and other works of art. (The sacristan shows the 
choir and chapels ; fee Y2 ft- > best light in the morning). 

Right Aisle. The 1st Chapel , formerly della Bovere, now Venuli, was 
painted in 1485 by Pinturicchio : "Altar- piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ ; 
in the lunettes, life of St. Jerome. On the left, the tomb of Cardinal Cristof. 
della Rovere, partly by Mino da Fieeole, right, that of Cardinal di Castro 
(1506) ; on the pillar to the left, a bust of F. Catel, the painter (d. 1857), by 
Troschel. — In the 2nd Chapel (Capella Cibo) : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by C. Maratta. — 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinturicchio: above the altar, 
Madonna with saints; on the left, Assumption of the Virgin; in the lunettes, 
scenes from the life of Mary; in the predelle representations of martyrs in 
grisaille ; on the right, tomb of Giov. della Rovere (d. 1483) ; on the left, 
recumbent bronze figure of Cardinal Pietro Foscari (d. 1485), by Ant. Polla- 
juolo (?). — In the 4th Chapel, decorated by Pinturicchio in 1489, marble 
sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the altai : St. Catharine be- 
tween St. Anthony of Padua and St. Vincent; right, tomb of Marcantonio 
Albertoni (d. 1485) ; left, that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 

Right Tbansept. On the right, tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage, at the end of which is the sac- 
risty, containing the former canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI., by 
Andrea Bregno (1473), with an ancient Madonna of the Sienese school and 
the beautiful monuments of (left) Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), and (right) 
Bishop Gomiel. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel, on the left and right of the altar, two ciboria 
by Andrea Bregno (15th cent.); left, tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicino (erected 
1501). By an adjacent pillar the baroque monument of a Princess Chigi, by 
Posi (1771). — The "2nd Chapel (Capp. Chigi) was constructed under the 
direction of Raphael by Agostino Chigi in honour of St. Mary of Loreto, in 
the form of a Greek cross, with a lofty dome, in the style a0ected for 
such structures in the 16th century. On the vaulting of the dome are 
"Mosaics by Aloisio delta Pace (1516-24), from Raphael's cartoons. Around 
the central circular scene, which represents the Creator surrounded by 
angels, are grouped seven planet symbols and a genius leaning on a globe, 
separated by ornamental divisions. Each planet is represented by an an- 
cient deity: Diana, Luna, Mercury, Venus, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and 
Saturn. They are pourtrayed in half-figure with appropriate action, and 
each is enclosed within a segment of the zodiac, on which rests an angel, 
either pointing to the Creator above or in the act of adoration. This asso- 
ciation of gods and angels recalls the prophets and sibyls of Michael 
Angelo, each of whom is also accompanied by a genius. But Raphael's 
composition is entirely independent, with a distinct significance of its own, 
and one of a kind which shows the master's power in its highest mani- 
festation. — To the left is the tomb of Agostino Chigi, by Lorenzetto, 
restored in 1652 by Bernini, to the right, the tomb of his brother Sigis- 
mondo Chigi, also by Lorenzetto. The altar-piece, a Nativity of the Virgin 
with God the Father and angels above, is a late work by Sebastiano del 
Piombo, the other pictures by Salviali and Franc. Vanni. The bronze relief 
over the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, by Lorenzetto was until 
1652 beside Agost. Chigi's tomb. In the niches four statues of prophets: 



£ the Pincio. ROME. J. N. and E. Hills. 135 

beside the altar (left) "Jonah, probably designed by Raphael, and (right) 
Habakkuk, by Bernini; at the entrance, (left) Daniel, by Bernini and Al- 
gardi, and (right) Elijah by Lorenzetto. 

Left Tkansept : Tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (15th cent.)- The 
onter chapel, to the left of the choir, contains a statue of St. Bibiana, by 
Bernini, from the church mentioned on p. 155. 

In the Choib: "Ceiling- frescoes by Pinturicchio, probably executed about 
1505): Coronation of the Virgin, the Four Evangelists, and the Four Fathers 
of the church, Gregory, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine, in excellent pre- 
servation , and long deservedly admired for the skilful distribution of 
space. Beneath are the "Tombs of the cardinals Girolamo Basso della Rovere 
and Ascanio Sforza by Andrea Sansovino, erected by order of Julius II. 
(1505-7). The same pope caused the two fine stained-glass windows to be 
executed by Claude and Guillaume de Marseille. 

The church gives a title to a cardinal. In the adjacent suppressed 
Augustine monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome (1510). 

If we ascend the Pincio by the approaches named at p. 133 (gates 
closed one hour after Ave Maria) , we observe in the first circular 
space two granite columns (eolumnae rostratae) from the temple of 
Venus and Roma (p. 224), adorned with the prows of ships (mod- 
ern); in the niches three marble statues, above, captive Dacians, 
imitations of antiques. Beyond these, a large relief. Halfway up are 
an antique granite basin, with a fountain, and an Equestrian Statue 
of Victor Emmanuel II., erected in 1878, under a loggia. 

The *Pincio (PL I, 16, 17, 20), the collis hortorum, or 'hill of 
gardens', of the ancients, was called Mom Pincius from a palace of 
the Pincii, an influential family of the later period of the empire. 
Here were once the famous gardens of Lucullus, in which Messalina, 
the wife of Claudius, afterwards celebrated her orgies. A vineyard 
belonging to the monastery of S. Maria del Popolo was converted 
by Gius. Valadier, the Roman architect, during the Napoleonic 
regime (1809-14), into the beautiful pleasure-grounds. This is a 
fashionable resort in the evening, about 2 hrs. before sunset when 
the military band plays (p. 128); the Italians then pay and receive 
visits in their carriages, presenting a gay and characteristic scene. 
— The projecting terrace above the Piazza del Popolo (150 ft.) 
commands a magnificent *Vie-w of modern Rome. 

Beyond the Piazza del Popolo and the new quarter on the Prati di 
Castello, on the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. Peter's, 
adjoining which is the Vatican to the right, and near it the city-wall. 
Among the hills which bound the horizon, the point planted with cypresses 
to the right is Monte Mario. To the left of St. Peter's , close to the Tiber, 
which is not visible , is the round castle of S. Angelo , with the bronze 
angel which crowns it. The pines on the height to the left of the castle 
belong to the Villa Lante on the Janiculum, with the Passeggiata Mar- 
gherita. Farther to the left, on the height, the facade of the Acqua Paola, 
adorned with a cross. Between the spectator and the river is a labyrinth of 
houses and churches. The following points serve as landmarks. Of the 
two nearest churches that with the two towers to the right is S. Griacomo 
in the Corso, that with the dome to the left, S. Carlo in the Corso ; behind 
the former is the round glass roof of the Mausoleum of Augustus, and 
between the two appears the flat dome of the Pantheon, beyond which a 
part of the Campagna is visible. To the left of this, on the height in the 
distance, rises the long, undecorated side of the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, 



1 36 /. N. and E. Hills. ROME. a. The Pincio, 

and behind it appears the tower of the senatorial palace on the Capitol. The 
scaffolding for the Victor Emmanuel monument is also seen in the neigh- 
bourhood. On the right side of the Capitol the upper part of the column of 
M. Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna is visible. Adjacent to the Capitol, on the 
left, is the Villa Mills on the Palatine. Farther to the left a low tower by 
the Quirinal, the so-called Torre di Milizie. To the extreme left, and less 
distant, is the extensive royal palace on the Quirinal. 

Near the middle of the gardens, beside Spillmanns' Cafe, rises 
an Obelisk, ^hich Hadrian once erected to the memory of Anti- 
nous. It lay in a vigna near the Amphitheatrum Castrense (p. 264) 
until the 17th cent.; and was erected here in 1822. The -various 
walks are embellished with busts of distinguished Italians. To the 
right of the walk leading to the S. exit is a monument by Ercole 
Rosa, erected in 1883 to the memory of the brothers Cairoli of 
Pavia, who fell in battle near Rome in 1867 and 1870. The mon- 
ument to the left, in the form of a globe, commemorates Oalileo 
Qalilei, who was confined from 1630 to 1633, at the instance of the 
Inquisition, in the Villa Medici. — The exit is closed by an iron gate. 

Leaving the Pincio by this S. gate , we observe to the left the 
Villa Medici. In front of it is an avenue of evergreen-oaks and a 
fountain, whence a celebrated view of St. Peter's, most striking 
towards evening or by moonlight, is obtained. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, 17, 20), erected in 1540 by Annibale 
Lippi for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano, came into possession of 
Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici about 1600, and afterwards belonged 
to the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French academy of 
art, founded by Louis XIV., was transferred hither (comp. p. 164). 
Ancient reliefs are built into the walls of the tastefully decorated 
garden-facade of the villa (adm. see pp. 126, 127; by the gate to 
the left, or by the staircase to the right in the house). The wing 
contains a Collection of Casts, comprising many from statues not 
preserved at Rome, e.g. from the Parthenon of Athens, which are 
valuable for students. To the right, in the garden, between two 
columns with an architrave, is an antique statue with an admirable 
head from some other work, perhaps by Scopas. From the terrace 
(20-25 c. to the gardener who opens the door) we enter the upper 
garden, from the highest point of which, the Belvedere, a fine view, 
now somewhat circumscribed, is enjoyed. 

The street passing the front of the Academy ends in the Piazza 
dblla Trinita (PI. I, 20, 21), where to the left rises the church 
of S. Trinita de' Monti. The Obelisk in front of it, a conspicuous 
object from many points, is an ancient imitation of that in the 
Piazza del Popolo, and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

S. Trinita de' Monti (PI. I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. of 
France in 1495, and plundered during the French Revolution, was 
restored by Mazois in 1816 by order of Louis XVIII. It is open on 
Sundays only, before 9 a.m., and in the evening at Vespers (1 hi. 
before Ave Maria), when the nuns of the convent connected with 



£ Piazza di Spagna. ROME. 1. N. and E. Bills. 137 

the church (Dames du Sacre" Cceur), for whom Mendelssohn com- 
posed several pieces, perform choral service with organ-accompani- 
ment. When the door is closed , visitors ascend a side-staircase on 
the left, and ring at a door under a metal roof. 

Left, 2nd Chapel: "Descent from the Cross, altar-piece al fresco, by 
Daniele da Volterra, his master-piece (freely restored and scarcely ever in 
a good light) ; the excellence of the drawing and composition (still better 
seen in the study at the Lateran, p. 263) is attributed to the aid of Michael 
Angelo. 3rd Chapel : Madonna, altar-piece by Ph. Veit. 4th Chapel : St. 
Joseph, by Langlois. 6th Chapel : Christ, the Wise and Foolish Virgins, and 
Return of the Prodigal, an* altar-piece by Seitz. — Right , 3rd Chapel : 
Assumption of the Virgin, Dan. da Volterra. 5th Chapel : Presentation in 
the Temple, Adoration of the Magi, Adoration of the Shepherds, of the School 
of Raphael. 6th Chapel : Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the Holy Ghost, 
School of Perugino. — In the Transept, which is supported by Gothic arches, 
paintings by Perm del Vaga and F. Zucchero. 

To the S.E. from the Piazza the broad Via Sistina (p. 138) runs 
to the left, and to the right the small Via Qregoriana, which ends 
in the cross-street, Via Capo le Case. — Lift from the Piazza di 
Spagna, see below. 

The Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20, 21 ; 'Gradinata di S. Trinita 
de' Monti'), which descends from S. Trinita to the Piazza di Spagna 
by 135 steps , was constructed by Al. Specchi and De Sanctis in 
1721-25. Models for artists with their picturesque costumes frequent 
its vicinity. To the left of the steps as we descend is the house 
where John Keats died in 1821 (marked by an inscription). At the 
foot of the steps is La Bareaccia (barque) , a tasteless fountain by 
Bernini. — The Via del Babuino, leading to the N., is mentioned on 
p. 133; the Via Condotti, leading to the W. opposite the steps, on 
p. 176. At the N.E. corner of the piazza, at the end of the Vicolo del 
Bottino, next the Hotel deLondres, is a new lift (every 10 min.; 5 c.) 
to the Pincio. 

The Piazza di Spagna (PL I, 17, 18; 82 ft.) derives its name 
from the Palazzo di Spagna, in the S. part of the W. side, which 
has been the Spanish embassy since the 17th century. In front of 
the embassy rises the Column of the Immaeolata, erected by Pius IX. 
in honour of the 'Immaculate Conception of the Virgin' , a dogma 
promulgated in 1854; on the top of the cipolline column stands the 
bronze statue of Mary ; beneath are Moses , David , Isaiah , and 
Ezekiel. — The small E. expansion of the Piazza at this point is 
known as the Piazza Mignanelli. 

To the S. is the Colleyio di Propaganda Fide (PI. I, 21), founded 
in 1622 by Gregory XV., and extended by his successor Urban VIII. 
(whence 'Collegium Urbanum 1 ), an establishment for the propagation 
of the Roman Catholic faith, where pupils of many different nation- 
alities are educated as missionaries. The printing -office of the 
college was formerly celebrated as the richest in type for foreign 
languages. 

The Piazza di Spagna is the starting-point of Omnibuses to S. Pietro 
in Vaticano via the Piazza Borghese and the Ponte S. Angelo, leaving the 
Piazza Mignanelli (see above) every 10 min. — The omnibuses from the 



138 I. N. and E. Hill$. ROME. a. Piasza di Spagna. 

Piazza del Popolo to the Piazza Venezia pass this point in the afternoon 
(comp. p. 133); and it is also on the routes of the omnibuses from the 
Piazza del Popolo to the Via Cavour (p. 133), and from the Porta Pia (p. 339) 
to the Piazza Cola di Rienzo (p. 267). 

To the S.E. from the Piazza di Spagna run the Via de' Due 
Macelli, to the left of the Propaganda, and to the right the Via. di 
Propaganda. The latter leads to the church of S. Andrea delleFratte 
at the corner of the Via di Capo le Case, the next cross-street. 

S. Andrea delle Fratte (PI. I, 21) is by G. B. Ouerra (1612); 
the dome and campanile are by Borromini; the facade was added 
in 1826 by Oius. Valadier. 

The pictures in the interior are poor works of the 17th cent.: the 
two angels to the right and left of the choir, by Bernini , were originally 
destined for the Ponte S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the right is (on 
the right side) the monument of Lady Falconnet by Miss Hosmer; on the 
last pillar to the right, in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist 
R. Schadow (d. 1822), by E. Wolff. In the 3rd Chapel to the left, is the tomb 
of Angelica Kauffmann (d. 1807). The Danish archaeologist Zoega (d. 1809) 
and a converted prince of Morocco are also interred in this church. 

In the Via di Capo le Case stands the church of 8. Giuseppe a 
Capo le Case (PI. I, 21), adjoining -which is the Musbo Artistico- 
Industriale, an unimportant collection of terracottas , majolica, 
glass, ivory and wood carving, and other products of the artistic in- 
dustries of Italy (adm. pp. 126, 127). Descriptive labels are attached 
to the articles exhibited. 

We follow the Via di Propaganda farther, and then turn to 
the left into the Via del Nazareno (PI. I, 21). To the right in 
this street is an antique arch of masonry belonging to the Aqua 
Virgo, with a long inscription to the effect that the emperor Claud- 
ius restored the aqueduct that had been 'disarranged' by his pre- 
decessor Caligula (comp. p. 163). The Via del Nazareno brings us 
to the new Via del Tritone (PI. I, 21), the great thoroughfare 
between the quarter on the N. hills and the Via del Corso, which 
ends to the left (E.) in the Piazza Barberini (p. 139), and to the 
right (W.) in the Piazza Colonna (p. 162). 

The Via del Nazareno is continued to the S. by the winding 
Via della Stamperia (PI. I, 21), which passes the Ministry of 
Agriculture and the royal Engraving Establishment (Regia Calco- 
grafia, p. 121), and ends at the Fontana Trevi (p. 162). 

b. Via Sistina. The Ludovisi Quarter. Quattro Fontane. 
Via Venti Settembre. 

The Via Sistina (PI. I, 21), which begins above the Scala di 
Spagna and runs thence to the S.E., was, as already mentioned on 
p. 132, one of the new streets constructed by Sixtus V. From the 
top of the Pincio it descends into the hollow between that hill and 
the Quirinal, then, with its continuation the Via Quattro Fontane 
(p. 142), crosses first the crest of the Quirinal and, beyond another 
hollow, that of the Viminal, and finally, under the name of Via 
Agostino Depretis, ends on the Esquiline at the church of S. Maria 



b. Via Sistina. ROME. I. N. and E. Hills. 139 

Maggiore (p. i 53), which fills in the vista from the higher points 
along the entire line of street. 

To the right, immediately at the beginning of the street, close 
to the Piazza S. Trinita de' Monti, Via Sistina 64, is the Casa Zuc- 
cheri, once the house of the family of the artists of that name, and 
adorned with some frescoes by Federigo ZuccheTO. The frescoes 
by Cornelius, Overbeds, and other German artists (1816), which 
weie formely here, were removed to the National Gallery at Berlin 
in 1888. 

The Corso di Porta Pinciana, which diverges to the left farther 
on, forms the W. boundary of the new Ludovisi Quarter and leads 
to the Porta Pinciana (p. 142). 

To the right, at the end of the Via Sistina, diverges the Via 
del Tritone (p. 138), while on the slope ascending to the left lies 
the Piazza Babbebini (PI. I, 21, 24), the chief decoration of which 
is the *Fontana del Tritone, by Bernini, with a Triton blowing a 
conch. — Opposite the S. side of the fountain is an annexe of the 
Palazzo Barberini, the chief facade of which is in the Via Quattro 
Fontane; see p. 142. 

The following Omnibuses pass the Piazza Barberini : From the Piazza 
S. Pantaleo (p. Ib9) to the Porta Salaria (p. 336}, via the Piazza Venezia, 
Fontana Trevi, Via Veneto, and Via Boncampagni. — From the Cancel- 
kria (p. 190) to the Castro Pretorio (p. 144), via the Piazza Navona, Pan- 
theon, Via del Tritone, and Piazza dell' lndipendenza. — From the Can- 
celleria (p. 190) to the Porta Pia. — From the Piazza del Popolo to the 
Via Cavour (comp. p. 133). — From the Piazza S. Silvestro (p. 161) to the 
Piazza Vittorio EmanueU (p. 155), via the Via del Tritone and Via Quat- 
tro Fontane. 

To the left of the Piazza Barberini rises the Piazza de' Cappuc- 
cini, in which is situated the church of S. Maria della Concezione 
(PI. I, 21, 24), or dei Cappuccini, founded in 1624 by Card. 
Barberini. 

In the interior, over the door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in the ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 272), by Franc. Beretta. 1st Chapel on the right : "St. 
Michael, a famous work by Guido Reni ; in the 3rd, remains of frescoes by 
Domeniohino. Over the high-altar a copy of an Ascension by Lanfranco, 
now destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of the steps to the choir lies the 
founder of the church, Card. Barberini ('hie jacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); on 
the left the tomb of Alex. Sobiesky (d. 1714), son of John III. of Poland. 
Last chapel on the left: Altar-piece by Sacchi; in the first, one by Pietro 
da Cortona. 

Beneath the church are four Burial Vaults (shown by one of the 
monks; fee •/» fr.), decorated in a ghastly manner with the bones of about 
4000 departed Capuchins. Each vault contains a tomb with earth from 
Jerusalem. In the case of a new interment, the bones which had been 
longest undisturbed were used in the manner indicated. The vaults are 
illuminated on 2nd Nov. (All Souls 1 Day), after Ave Maria. 

The Via Veneto (omnibus, see above), winding up the hill 
from the Piazza de' Cappuccini, leads to the new quarter which has 
sprung up since 1885 on the grounds of the former Villa Ludovisi. 
In this street, a short distance before its intersection with the Via 
Ludovisi and the Via Boncampagni, rises, on the right, the hand- 
some new — 



140 J. N. and E. Hills. ROME. 6. TheLudovisi Quarter; 

Palazzo Boncompagni - Pionibino (PI. I, 23), containing the 
**Museo Boncampagni, consisting of the antiques formerly in 
the Villa Ludovisi. The collection was founded by Cardinal Ludo- 
vico Ludovisi, a nephew of Gregory XV. (1595-1632), and came 
by inheritance to the princes of Pionibino (Boncompagni-Ludo- 
visi). Some of the chief works (Gaul and his wife; Orestes and 
Electra) were perhaps found in the grounds of the Villa itself, 
where more recently the Throne of Venus was discovered, and 
were used as adornments for the Gardens of Sallust (p. 142). The 
earlier examples have been restored by Al. Algardi. Catalogue by 
C. L. Visconti, 1891. Admission see pp. 126, 127. Fee 1/2 fr - 

The collection is arranged on the ground-floor, to the left. Over 
the door: 1. Judgment of Paris, a relief; the lower half and the 
end to the right have been restored after an engraving by Mark 
Antony, for which a sketch by Raphael has been used. — 1st Com- 
partment to the left, with a large marble basin in the middle : 
74. Herma of Mercury; 75. Portrait-statue, according to the inscrip- 
tion, carved by Zenon of Aphrodisias (2nd cent. A.D.); opposite, 
83. Statue of Antoninus Pius; to the right, by the pillar: *80. 
Relief-bust of Medusa ('.'), more probably a sleeping Erinys. 

2nd Compartment. In the corners, Hermje; 52. Draped Diony- 
sus; 56. Pallas; 62. Theseus. — **59. Juno Ludovisi, the most 
celebrated and certainly one of the most beautiful heads of Juno 
known. Goethe wrote that 'no words can give any idea of it; it is 
like a poem of Homer'. The head was not orginally intended to be 
exhibited alone, but was designed for a colossal statue. The former 
theory that the type was derived from a celebrated work by Poly- 
cletus in the Herseum in Argos cannot be maintained; more pro- 
bably it corresponds to the ideal elaborated by the later Attic 
School in the 4th cent. B.C. — *67. Bronze Head of an elderly 
Roman (the title Scipio Africanus or Julius Caesar is erroneous). 
59. Hermes as god of eloquence (logios), in the same attitude as the 
so-called Germanicus in the Louvre. (The right arm is erroneously 
restored; and in the left hand should be a herald's baton of metal 
instead of a purse.) 57. Athene Parthenos, the largest and one of the 
most faithful copies extant of the celebrated work of Phidias, exe- 
cuted, according to the inscription, by Antiochos (or Metiochos) of 
Athens (about the beginning of the imperial epoch). The statue 
has been freely and unskilfully retouched and the arms erroneously 
restored (the outstretched right hand held a goddess of victory, and 
the left hand rested on the rim of the shield). 

3rd Compartment. *43. A Gaul and his Wife, a colossal group. 
The Gaul, hard pressed by the foe, has found time to deal his wife 
the fatal blow, and now stabs himself in a mortal part. His coun- 
tenance, turned towards his pursuers, expresses defiant satisfaction 
in the thought that he will not fall into the hands of his foes alive. 
This group probably formed the centre of a cycle of statues, the 



Museo Boncampagni. ROME. I. N. and E. Hills. 141 

right extremity of 'which was occupied by the Dying Gaul in the 
Capitoline Museum (p. 208), and of which the bronze originals 
were placed on the Acropolis of Pergamum in honour of the -victory 
of Attalus I. (241-197 B.C.; comp. p. xlvi; the right arm is 
erroneously restored, it should not conceal the profile of the Gaul, 
and the hand should grasp the hilt of the sword from the other 
side). — 42. Fragment of a statue of a Hyksos king (Egypt; about 
2000 B.C.); 41. Dionysus leaning on a satyr. — *39. So-called 
Group of Orestes and Eleetra, according to the inscription by Mene- 
laus, pupil of Stephanos, of the school of Pasiteles (1st cent. B.C.; 
comp. p. xlviii). This group has also been described as Theseus and 
jEthra, Penelope and Telemachus, Merope and Cresphontes, but 
most probably it is a sepulchral group without mythological refe- 
rence. — By the window behind No. 43 : 33. Archaic colossal Head 
of a Goddess, usually called Hera, but probably connected with the 
throne mentioned below and in that case Venus Erycina. 32. Satyr 
presenting Wine ; instead of a bunch of grapes the right hand should 
hold a jug. — 24. Tree-trunk with attributes of Bacchus ; a purely 
decorative work and not the shaft of a candelabrum ; the top was 
formed of a fir-cone ; 25. Apollo. — Opposite : *36. Warrior repos- 
ing, perhaps one of a pair of statues placed as symbolical guardians 
beside a doorway. — *37. Ares reposing; the dreamy and pensive 
pose of the god is explained by the presence of the little god of 
love. The group is imperfect on the left side; though it is impos- 
sible to say whether another figure originally stood here or not (per- 
haps Aphrodite touching the shoulder of the god). 

Corridor (beside No. 38): to the left, 12. Archaic draped statue 
of a Woman, a work of the early Peloponnesian school, and not un- 
like the Vesta Giustiniani and the so-called Dancer from Hercula- 
neum ; 10. Colossal sarcophagus, with a battle between barbarians 
and Romans (3rd cent. A.D.) ; 7. Sarcophagus, with a battle of bar- 
barians. — Upon the last, no number : *Marble Throne for a Colos- 
sal Statue of Aphrodite. The back (now facing the spectator) shows 
the birth of the goddess from the sea; on the right side, a veiled 
matron offering incense from a censer, and on the left side, a nude 
girl blowing a flute, the reference being to the double conception 
of Aphrodite as Urania and Pandemos (amor sacro e profano). This 
admirable specimen of the developed archaic art was discovered in 
1886 during excavations in the Villa Ludovisi on the spot where a 
celebrated temple of Venus Erycina stood in antiquity. The colossal 
head (No. 33 ; see above) was found in the 17th cent., also most 
probably in the grounds of the Villa ; and it has therefore been sup- 
posed that it belonged to the acrolithiu statue (i.e. a statue of wood 
with head, hands, and feet of stone) of the goddess worshipped in 
the temple. 

Beyond the Palazzo Piombino, the Via Veneto leads to the Porta 
Pinciana (PI. I, 20, 23), re-opened in 1888. In the Via Lombardia, 



142 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. b. Via Quattro Fontane, 

the second side-street on the left, is the entrance to the Casino 
dell' Aubora, belonging to the Villa Ludovisi (open before 9 a.m.). 
On the ground-floor is a ceiling-painting of * Aurora, and on the 
first-floor Fama, both by Quercino. 

The district on which the present Ludovisi quarter now stands was 
occupied in antiquity by the splendid Gardens of Sallust, the historian, 
which were afterwards acquired by the emperors. The numerous edifices 
in these gardens are now represented by a large domed building with 
eight niches at the E. end of the Via Sallustiana, called without found- 
ation 'Tempio di Venere', but most probably a nymphreum. 



From the Piazza Barberini (p. 139), the Via Sistina is continued 
by the Via Quattbo Fontane (PI. I, II, 24), in which, to the left, 
at the corner of the piazza, is the handsome — 

* Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 24), begun by Maderna under Ur- 
ban VIII., and completed by Bernini (p. lxxi). The court, laid out as 
a garden, contains a marble statue of Thorvaldsen, byE. Wolff, after 
a work by the master himself, erected here, near his studio, by Ms 
pupils and friends. — The principal staircase is to the left under 
the arcades ; built into it is a Greek tomb-relief (top half modern) ; 
on the landing of the first floor, a lion in high-relief, from Tivoli. 
A number of mediocre ancient sculptures are distributed throughout 
the courts and other parts of the building. — At the top of the 
staircase is the Sculpture Saloon, containing, among a number of 
ancient and modern works, an admirable *Statue by a Greek master, 
near the entrance, representing a woman 'with one arm extended. 
This was formerly supposed to be a nymph, a Dido, or a Laodamia ; 
but it more probably represents a suppliant for protection at an 
altar, grasping a twig (now broken off) in the right hand. 

At the right end of the arcades a winding staircase (13 steps, 
then to the right) ascends to the Gallbbia Baebbrini (admission, 
pp. 126, 127; catalogues for the use of visitors). — This may be 
called the gallery of disappointment. In Raphael's Fornarina we 
expect to find a beauty radiant with the charms of youth, whereas 
her features present an almost haggard appearance, to which the 
ill -preserved condition of the picture further contributes. In 
Ouido Bents Beatrice Oenci we hope to see a countenance Judith- 
cike, and characterised by stern resolve, instead of which we en- 
lounter a pale, delicate face. Lastly, when we inspect Duress 
Christ among the Scribes, we are almost tempted to doubt its 
authenticity ; the numerous heads are ungrouped, some of them 
resemble caricatures, and it is in the execution of the hands alone 
that the workmanship of the great master is apparent. 

I. Boom : 16. Pomarancio, Magdalen ; 20. Parmigianino, Betrothal of St. 
Catharine. — II. Room : 33. After Raphael, Madonna; 36. Innocenzo da Imola, 
Madonna; 38. Titian, Cardinal Pietro Bembo, painted about 1540 but re- 
touched ; 53. Franc. Francia (?), Madonna with St. Jerome ; 59. Sodoma (?), 
Madonna; 64. School of Giov. Bellini, Madonna; 65. Sacchi, Urban VIII.; 
68. Mengs, Portrait of his daughter ; 69. Pontormo (after Morelli), Pygma- 
lion ; 72. Franc. Francia (?), Madonna ; 73. Masaccio (?), Portrait. — III. RooB : 



& Via Venti Settembre. ROME. I. N. and E. Hills. 143 

TO. Imitator of Palma Vecchio (not Titian), 'La Schiava', female portrait . 
CI. Lorrain, 79. Castel Gandolfo, 78. Acqua Acetosa, 80. Landscape; 81t 
Bronzino (?), Portrait ; *82. Dilrer, Christ among the Scribes, painted at 
Venice in five days in 1506 ('opus quinque dierum'); *86. Raphael, Portrai- 
of the so-called Fornarina , so frequently copied, sadly injured; 85. S. Oae- 
tano, Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of Beatrice ; 87. Spanish School, Anna Co, 
lonna; *88. Outdo Reni, Beatrice Cenci (so-called; p. 195); 90. N. Poussin, 
Death of Germanicus ; 92. Claude Lorrain, Sea-piece; 94. And. del Sarto, 
Holy Family; 96. Rembrandt{1), Philosopher; 97. School of Sandro Botticelli 
Annunciation. 

On the highest floor is the Biblioteca Barberina (adm. see p. 125) which 
contains 7000 MSS., a number of ancient bronze cistas from Palestrina, 
miniatures by Oiulio Glovio (a pupil of Raphael), a volume of architectonic 
sketches by Oiuliano da Sangallo, etc. Librarian, the Abbi Pieralisi. 

The Via Quattro Fontane ascends the Quirinal, at the top of 
which it intersects the street made by Pius IV. (p. 132), which leads 
from the Piazza del Quirinale to the N.E. along the ridge of the 
Quirinal to the Porta Pia. At the point of intersection are the 
Quattro Fontane (PI. I, 24), the four fountains after which the 
street is named. To the right, in the Via Quirinale (p. 150), is the 
small church of S. Carlo oxS.Carlino, built by Borromini in the most 
extravagantly 'baroque' style. Straight on, in the direction of S. 
Maria Maggiore, the street descends to the Via Nazionale (p. 148). 

The Via Venti Settembre (PL I, 24, 27, 26), leading to the 
N.E. from the Quattro Fontane, derives its name from the entry of 
theltalian troops on Sept. 20th, 1870, which made Rome the capital 
of the united kingdom of Italy. 

Several lines of Omnibuses traverse the Via Venti Settembre, notably 
those starting from the Porta Pia (p. 339). 1. From the Porte Pia to the 
Piazza delta Cancelleria (p. 190),- every 10 min., via Piazza Barberini, Pi- 
azza Colonna, and Piazza Navone (Circo Agonale, p. 184). — 2. From 
Porta Pia to Piazza Cola di Rienzo (p. 267), every 12 min., via, Piazza Bar- 
berini, Piazza di Spagna, and Piazza Borghese. — 3. From Piazza delQui- 
rinale (p. 150) to 8. Agnese Fuori (p. 340). 

The corner-house in this street, to the right, at the Quattro Fon- 
tane, is the Palazzo Albani, originally built by Dom. Fontana, and 
afterwards inhabited by Cardinal Al. Albani, the friend ofWinckel- 
mann. Farther on, to the right, is the large new War Office. — The 
Via S. Nicola di Tolentino leads to the left to the Ludovisi quarter 
(p. 139), passing the church of the same name, adorned with 17th 
cent, frescoes and sculptures. 

In the Piazza S.Bernardo, which opens on the right, is the round 
church of S. Bernardo (PI. I, 24), originally one of the corner- 
halls of the Thermae of Diocletian (p. 145), consecrated in 1600. 
The vaulting is ancient, but, like the Pantheon, was originally open 
in the centre. 

Opposite, on the other side of the Via Venti Settembre, is the 
ancient church of S. Susanna (PI. I, 24), altered to its present 
form in 1600 by C. Maderna. Paintings from the history of St. Su- 
sanna (martyred under Diocletian) and of Susanna of the Apocrypha, 
by Baldassare Croce and Cesare Nebbia. — Farther on, on the same 



144 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. 6. Via Venti Settembre. 

side of the street, is the church of S. Maria della Vittoria (PI. I, 
24), so called from an image of the "Virgin which is said to have 
been instrumental in gaining the victory for the imperial troops at 
the battle of the 'White Hill' near Prague (1620), afterwards de- 
posited here, but burned in 1833. The church, with the exception of 
the facade, was designed by C. Maderna. 

In the 2nd Chape] on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant 
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes (the ecstasy and 'Stigmata' of St. Francis) 
by Domenichino. By the 3rd altar on the left is the notorious group of St. 
Theresa by Bernini (covered ; 25 c). In the 3rd Chapel on the left, the Trinity 
by Ouercino. The apse was gorgeously restored on 1884 at the cost of 
Prince Al. Torlonia, and adorned with frescoes by Serra (Procession after 
the battle of the White Hill). 

At the opposite corner, where the Piazza delle Terme opens, 
is the conspicuous Fontanonb dell' Acqtja Felice (PI. I, 24), 
erected by Domenieo Fontana under Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti). 
The badly-executed Moses, an imitation of Michael Angelo , is by 
Prospero Bresciavo, who is said to have died of vexation on account 
of his failure; at the sides Aaron and Gideon by Oiov. Batt. della 
Porta and Flaminio Vacca ; in front four modern lions (originals in 
the Vatican, p. 307). The Acqua Felice was conducted hither in 
1583 from Colonna in the Alban Mts., a distance of 13 M. 

The Via Venti Settembre proceeds, past the Finance Office built 
by Canevari, and the statue (by Ferrari) of Quint. Sella (d. 1884), 
statesman and several times minister of finance, to the Porta Pia 
(p. 339; 15-20 min. from the Quattro Fontane). 

Projecting in a quadrangular form from the town-wall at the N.E. 
angle of the town is the Campo Militare or Castro Pretorio (PI. I, 29, 32), 
the camp of the Praetorians of imperial Rome, originally established by 
Tiberius, but destroyed by Constantine so far as it did not form part of 
the town-wall. At the end to the N., and on the side, traces of gates are 
still distinguished; the wall was skirted by a passage, under which are 
several small cliambers. The Campo, which has been enclosed by a wall, 
is again devoted to military purposes. 

Omnibus to the Piazza della CancelUria, see p. 190. 

c. Piazza delle Terme. ViaNazionale. Via & Piazza del Quirinale. 

On the E. side of the Piazza delle Terme and the adjoining 
Piazza dei Cinque Cento (PL I, 27) is the Eailway Station, con- 
structed by Miriere and Bianohi in 1872. Opposite the arrival-plat- 
form begins the wide Via Cavour, leading to the Piazza dell' Esqui- 
lino and the Forum (see p. 157). — In front of the main facade of 
the station, which faces the Thermae of Diocletian, is a Monument 
to the 500 Italian soldiers who were surprised and slain at Dogali 
by the Abyssinians in 1886. A small obelisk from the temple of 
Isis (p. 167), found in 1882, has been incorporated in this monu- 
ment. — Excavations to the E. of the station have revealed the most 
important extant fragment of the Wall of Servius (p. xxvii), a work 
of hewn masonry 40 ft. in height. This wall could formerly be traced 
to the Arch of Gallienus (p. 155), but has now been covered up, ex- 
cept the portions mentioned on pp. 149, 155, 156, 199, and 244, 



e. Piazza delle Terme. EOME. J. Jf. and E. Hills. 145 

The Piazza delle Terme and Piazza dei Cinque Cento are the starting- 
points for two lines of Tramways. 1. To the Piazza Venezia (p. 164) via 
the Via Nazionale, every 4 min. — 2. To the Campo Verano (Cemetery, 
p. 342), via. the Via di Porta S. Lorenzo and the Porta S. Lorenzo, where 
we join the tramway to Tivoli, every 15-25 min. — 3. This point is also 
passed by the tramway from the Piazza Venezia (p. 164) to tne Piazza S. 
Giovanni in Later ano (p. 255), via, the Via Nazionale, VialePrinc. Margherita, 
Via Carlo Alberto, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, and Via Merulana, every , /4hr. 

The Thermae of Diocletian (PI. I, 27), which give name to the 
piazza, were the most extensive therm* in Rome, and were completed 
by Diocletian and his co-regent Maximian in 305-6 A.D. The prin- 
cipal building was enclosed by a wall, the outline of the round 
central portion ('exedra') of which, is preserved by the new houses 
at the beginning of the Via Nazionale (p. 148). The corners of the 
containing-wall were occupied by circular domed structures, one of 
which is now the church of S. Bernardo (p. 143), and another is 
built into the prison on the ViaViminale. The circumference of the 
baths is said to have been about 2000 yds., or half as much again 
as that of the Baths of Caracalla (p. 246), and the number of daily 
bathers 3000. The front faced the E., and the circular part, men- 
tioned above, was at the back. Tradition ascribes the execution of 
the work to condemned Christians, in memory of whom the church 
of St. Cyriacus, no longer existing, was erected here as early as the 
5th century. 

Pius IV. entrusted Michael Angelo with the task of converting 
part of the Thermae into a. Carthusian Convent. The large vaulted 
central hall, the former Tepidarium, was accordingly converted into 
the church of *S. Maria degli Angeli (PI. I, 27), which was con- 
secrated on Aug. 5th, 1561 . The present transept was then the nave, 
the portal was on the end on the right, and the high-altar placed on 
the left. In 1749 Vanvitelli disfigured the church by converting the 
nave into the transept, placing the entrance on the W. side (opposite 
the fountain, p. 148), and other injudicious alterations. 

A small Rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the right is that of 
the painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). The first tomb on the left is that of 
Salvator Rosa (d. 1673). In the Chapel, Christ appearing to Mary Magda- 
len, an altar-piece by Arrigo Fiammingo. 

We next enter the great Transept. The niche on the right in the passage 
contains a colossal statue of St. Bruno, by Houdon; in the chapel on the left, 
the Delivery of the Keys, an excellent altar-piece by Girol. Muziano. The 
transept (formerly the nave) is 100 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, and 90 ft. high. 
Of the 16 columns, each 45 ft. in height , eight are antique , of oriental 
granite, which were barbarously white- washed by Vanvitelli, and the 
others were built of brick when the church was restored. — Most of the 
large pictures were brought from St. Peter's, where they are replaced by 
copies in mosaic. In the right half (on the pavement the meridian of Rome, 
laid down by Bianchini in 1703) : on the right, Crucifixion of St. Peter by 
Ricciolini; Fall of Simon Magus, after Franc. Vanni (original in St. Peter's) ; on 
the left, St. Jerome among the hermits, an excellent work by Muziano (land- 
scape by Bril) ; Miracles of St. Peter , Baglioni. At the narrow end : chapel 
of B. Niccold Albergati. In the left half: on the left, Mass of St. Basil with 
the Emperor Valens, Subleyras; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. Battoni; on 
the right, Immaculate Conception, P. Bianchi; Resuscitation of Tabitha, P. 
Cottanzi. At the narrow end : chapel of St. Bruno. 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. 10 



146 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. c. Piazza delle Terme; 

In the Tribune ; right, Komanelli, Mary's first visit to the Temple ; Do- 
menichino. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (painted in oil on the wall); left, 
Pomarancio, Death of Ananias and Sapphira ; Maratta, Baptism of Christ. The 
choir contains two monuments (1. Pius IV., r. Ant. Serbelloni), designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

The remaining parts of the Thermae, formerly occupied by the 
Carthusians, now accommodate various charitable and educational 
institutions and the newly opened — 

*Museo Nazionale alle Terme Diocleziane (PI. I, 27). The 
present entrance to the museum is by the door to the right in 
the corner opposite the railway-station (marked 'Ospizio Margherita 
per i Poveri Ciechi' ; to the left in the court) ; but the entrance 
afterwards will be from the Yia della Cernaia, on the other side. 
The Museum is intended for the reception of antiques discovered 
on public property within the city -limits. The mo t important 
discoveries hitherto have been made on the Palatine and in the 
course of excavations beside the Tiber. The arrangement etc. of 
the exhibits are naturally liable to frequent alterations. Director, 
Prof. E. de Ruggiero. Admission see p. 126, 127. 

We first ascend at the end of the corridor to the — 

First Floor. — Room ]. : Sculptures from the tomb of C. Sul- 
picius Platorinus, a man of rank of the time of Augustus, found in 
1880 in the garden of the Villa Farnesina (p. 314; a drawing of the 
monument hangs near the exit-door) ; richly decorated marble urns, 
a statue probably of Sulpicia Platorina, daughter of the above- 
mentioned ; excellent bust of a girl, probably Minatia Polla, whose 
urn was found in the tomb. This room also contains stucco-reliefs 
from the Roman house discovered in the same garden (see Room IV. 
and Cloisters). — Room II. *Bronze Figure of a Pugilist, evidently 
represented as conversing with a comrade or an umpire, an admirable 
work of the Hellenistic period. The realism of this repulsive figure 
extends even to the marks of injury received in fighting; attention 
should also be paid to the accurately reproduced covering of the hand 
of strong leather bands fastened with metal hooks. This statue was 
found in 1884 during the building of the TeatroNazionale (p. 149), as 
was also the Nudebronze figure of a Man leaning onastaff, described as 
another athlete, or, with less probability, as a Hellenistic prince. Here 
also are several fragments of gilded draped (imperial) statues and three 
archaistic female Hermae, in black marble, from the Palatine. — 
Room III. Bronze Statue of Dionysus, found in 1885 in the Tiber 
beside the Ponte Garibaldi, apparently Campauian work of the 3rd 
cent. B.C. The colour-effect of the different materials shouldbe noted; 
the eyes of marble, the lips of red copper, the diadem with silver or- 
namentation. The depressed right hand held a two-handled beaker. 
Basalt Figure of a Youth, from the Palatine; Wings and helmet of 
a gilded bronze statue of Victory, found in 1891 beside the Ponte 
Sisto, originally part of the decorations of the Pons Valentiniani 
(p. 319) ; Votive hand, in bronze; Bacchic double herma, in bronze. 



Museo Nazionale, ROME. /. N. and E. Hills. 147 

Boom IV. : Admirable stucco-reliefs from the Roman house in 
the Farnesina garden, some with ornamental designs, others with 
figures, masterly in conception. — Room V. : ** Marble Statue of 
a kneeling Youth, found in Nero's Villa at Subiaco, an admirable 
Greek original of the period of Alexander the Great; subject not 
yet identified. Head of a sleeping Woman (Ariadne ?), found, beside 
the preceding; Marble Statue of Dionysus, found in 1881 in Ha- 
drian's Villa near Tivoli, a copy of a Greek bronze original of about 
the 5th cent. B.C. (the" tree-trunk to the right was added by the 
copyist). The glass-case contains large glass vessels and votive frag- 
ments from the celebrated temple of ^Esculapius on the island in 
the TibeT. — An adjoining cabinet (locked; the custodian opens it 
on request) contains a Hermaphrodite, found at the Teatro Costanzi 
in 1879, the best extant specimen of this type. 

Another room, soon to be opened, contains the most valuable discover- 
ies in the Atrium Vestae (p. 220): Statues of priestesses; imperial busts, 
including a beautiful youthful portrait of Marcus Aurelius ; also a treasure 
trove buried in the Atrium Vestae under Pope Marinus n. (942-946), con- 
sisting of 830 English coins, sent to Rome as 'Peter's Pence', bearing the 
stamps of Alfred the Great (871-901), Edward I. (901-924), Athelstane (921-940), 
Edmund I. (940-946), etc. 

On the Ground - Floor our attention is first claimed by the 
Carthusian Cloisters, constructed after Michael Angela's designs, con- 
verted to military purposes in 1870, but recently restored and 
opened on three sides. 

The fourth or W. wing, in which the partition- walls between 
the columns have been allowed to remain, contains some interesting 
*Frescoes and Mosaics, and some sculptures. 

The finest Paintings are those from the Roman house discovered in 
the garden of the Villa Farnesina (p. 314). A plan of the excavations is 
exhibited; and the pictures are indicated by letters corresponding to the 
rooms in which they were found. — A. Corridor; ornamental designs on 
a white ground. D. Bedroom; paintings on a red ground; the painter's 
name Seleukos (almost illegible) is here scratched on the paintings. — E. 
Bedroom, also with red walls. — C. Hall with black walls and a clever 
running frieze of figures (scenes from a court of justice). — The most 
interesting and best preserved are the decorations of B. Bedroom with red 
walls, which imitate a room hung with easel-pictures. The owner was 
an admirer of ancient pictures; thus, e.g., the adornment of the Aphro- 
dite (B, 5) corresponds with the archaistic style of Greek art in the 5th 
cent. B.C. ; the smaller paintings, a Woman with a lyre, and a Girl, seem 
somewhat later in style; while the central picture on the other wall, the 
Education of Bacchus, appears to be an eminent example of the art of 
the Augustan age. The numerous Egyptian motives (Isis, Jupiter Am- 
nion, etc.) in the subsidiary figures and ornamentation should be noted. 
— F. Corridor, with less careful square pictures on a white ground. — 
The following frescoes were found in 1876 in a columbarium near the 
Ponte Maggiore brought into use again in the 3rd cent. A.D. and disfigured by 
a second coat of stucco. They represent scenes from the stories of ^Eneas 
and Romulus; e.g. Betrothal of jEneas and Lavinia, Building of the walls 
of Lavinium; Battle on the Numicus between the Laurentini andRutuli; 
Apotheosis of JEneas; Mars and Rhea Silvia ; Romulus and Remus exposed 
on the Tiber. 

Mosaics. The large Nile landscape on the back - wall was found on 
the Aventine. The others, on the window-wall, come from a Roman villa 

10* 



148 /. N. and E. Hills. ROME. c. Piazza delle Ternle, 

near Baccano (p. 77): four charioteers in the colours of four parties (fac" 
Hones), five muses with their names inscribed beside them, mythological 
scenes (e.g. Jupiter and Ganymede, Ulysses escaping from the care of 
Polyphemus, Punishment of Marsyas, Contest of Erjs and Pan). — Mosaic 
picture of a recumbent corpse, with the legend Tinudt octuxov, 'know thyself 1 , 
from a tomb on the Via Appia; tamer of wild beasts, found in the Castro 
Pretorio; six fish, very delicately coloured ; "Masks and Victories, belonging 
to the large round mosaic in the Sala a Croce Greca in the Vatican (p. 296). 
Sculptures. Torso of Minerva with the ^Egis, found in the Tiber; Rape 
of Cora (or of an Amazon?), fragment of a life-size group; Replica of the 
Juno Barberini (p. 299), Head of a dying Persian, both from the Palatine. 

The first (S.) of the three open wings of the Cloisters contains 
fine architectural fragments; seven busts of celebrated charioteers 
of about the time of Hadrian, found in a Roman villa outside the 
Porta Portese ; etc. Four cabinets lighted from above are being built 
here to contain the bronze and marble works now in Room V. (p. 147), 
and also a Statue of Apollo, found in the Tiber, a copy of a Greek 
original perhaps by Phidias. — The second wing contains inscriptions 
and portrait-heads. — In the third wing are a statue of Venus and 
a statue of a Roman matron (both found in the Tiber, with evident 
traces of painting), a fine vase with reliefs of the Eleusinian mys- 
teries, etc. — In the court in the centre is a collection of architec- 
tural and sculptured fragments, including numerous boundary- 
stones dating from the Tiber regulation- works of Augustus, Trajan, 
and other emperors. Round the fountain in the middle are seven 
colossal heads of animals from a fountain found near Trajan's Forum. 
On the S. side are several sarcophagi, of which the last but one has 
Toliefs from the history of Medea. The cypresses are said to have 
been planted by Michael Angelo. 

In the middle of the Piazza delle Terme, opposite the entrance 
to S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 145) is a Fountain, fed by the Aqua 
Marcia (p. 345), which sends up a copious and lofty jet, especially 
conspicuous at night, when the piazza is lighted by electricity. 

Opposite the entrance of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli 
(p. 145), and through the middle of the circular wall of the Ther- 
mie, runs the broad Via Nazionale (PI. I, 27 ; II, 24, 20), not begun 
before 1870, now one of the busiest streets of the city, and during 
the season as thronged with passengers and vehicles as the Corso 
itself (Tramways, Nos. 1 & 3, p. 2 of the Appendix). On the right 
the Via Torino leads to 8. Bernardo (p. 143). In the Via Nazionale, 
to the left, stands the Hotel Quirinale and, farther on, theAmerican 
Episcopal Church of St. Paul, a Gothic structure built by Street in 
1879, with chimes (p. 124). The most important cross-street is 
the Via Quattro Fontane — Via Agoslino Depretis, which leads on 
the right to the Pal. Barberini (p. 142) and on the left to S. Maria 
Maggiore (p. 153). 

To the left in the Via Nazionale (No. 154) is the Qalleria Tene- 
rani (Wed., 1-4; at other times, fee), a complete collection of the 
original models of the sculptor P. Tenerani (d. 1869). — To the right 



£ Via Nazionale. ROME. I. N. and E. Hills. 149 

is the small church of »S. Vitale, on a site considerably lower than 
the new street-level. Farther on, on the same side, is the hand- 
some building of the — 

Galleria d'Arte Moderna (PL II, 24), built in 1880-83 by 
Piacentini, and mostly arranged for exhibitions. A modest side- 
entrance admits to the 'Gallery of Modern Art', the nucleus of a 
collection of Italian art of the 19th cent. (adm. see pp. 126, 127). 

Room I. Gangeri, Fulvia, a marble statue. Paintings : Vanni, Plague 
at Siena; Nono, Refugium Peccatorum ; Patini, The heir. — CoekidorII.: 
De Nittis, Races in the Bois de Boulogne ; Zezzos, Lane in Venice. The 
adjoining cabinet contains a death-mask of Canova, etc. — Corridor HI. 
and Cabinet: B. Piscelli, Drawings from Roman history ; Ciardi, Messidor; 
Metritis de Maria, Moonlight. — Room IV. Bronzes: Maccagnani, Boy en- 
tering a bath; Maraini, Sappho; Qasbarra, Juggler. Paintings: Micheth, 
II Voto (procession in a village church in the Abruzzi) ; Cammerano, Battle 
of S. Martino ; Fattori, Custozza ; Faustini, Cycle of scenes from the life 
of Christ. 

Farther on, to the right is the Palazzo Hiiffer and to the left are 
the new building of the Banca Romana and the high-lying gar- 
dens of the Villa Aldobrandini. 

At the beginning of the Via del Quirinale (p. 150; to the 
right), the Via Nazionale expands into the triangular Piazza Mag- 
nanapoli (PI. II, 20), in the middle of which, within a railing, is 
a fragment of the Servian Wall (p. 144). Another fragment, with 
a well-preserved small gateway, has been built into the Pal. Anto- 
nelli, on the right (No. 158; staircase on the right of the court). 
— To the S., behind the 17th cent, church of S. Caterina di Siena, 
rises the Torre delle Milhie, erected about 1200 by the sons of 
Petrus Alexius, also called Torre di Nerone, because Nero is popu- 
larly believed to have witnessed the conflagration of Rome from 
the top. — In the S.E. angle of the little piazza at the beginning 
of the Via Panisperna is the church of SS. Domenico e Sisto, with 
its lofty flight of steps, built by Vincenzo della Greca about 1640. 
The Via Panisperna leads to S. Maria Maggiore (comp. p. 153). In 
this street, to the left, is the church of S. Agata in Suhura (PI. II, M), 
dating from the 5th cent., but restored in 1633, and now possessing 12 
granite columns only of the original edifice. It belongs to a seminary 
for Irish priests, and contains the Monument of Daniel O'Connell (d. 184 f; 
who bequeathed his heart to this church), with a relief by Benzoni, 
erected in 1856. The tomb of John Lascaris, author of the first modern 
Greek grammar (d. 1535), is also in this church. 

The Via Nazionale now descends the slopes of the Quirinal 
(95 ft.) in a wide curve. The flight of steps on the left descends 
to Trajan's Forum (p. 230). Farther on, to the left, is a mediaeval 
tower of the Colonna, with immured fragments from the Forum of 
Trajan. At the next corner, to the left, stands a new Waldensian 
Church , and to the right the Teatro Drammatico Nazionale. The 
cross-street diverging at this point to the right (N.) is the Via 
Pilotta (pp. 163, 174), which skirts the rear of the Palazzo Colonna 
(with the entrance to the Galleria Colonna , p. 174) and leads to 
the Fontana Trevi. 



150 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. c. Piazza del Quirinale, 

The Via Nazionale passes the S. facade of the Pal. Colonna and 
then the S. end of the long Piazza SS. Apostoli (p. 173) to the 
Piazza di Venezia (p. 164). 



From the intersection of the Via Nazionale with the Via Quattro 
Fontane - Via Agostino Depretis, we now proceed to the N.W. as 
far as the Quattro Fontane (p. 143), and turn to the left. We thus 
enter the Via del Quirinale (PI. II, 24, 21), which, at first parallel 
with the Via Nazionale, afterwards curves round to join it. 

To the right in the Via del Quirinale are buildings connected 
with the royal palace; to the left the church of S. Andrea al 
Quirinale, elliptical in ground-plan, built by Bernini in 1678 and 
richly decorated. In the adjoining Jesuit Noviciate is the room of 
St. Stanislaus Kostka, with the much admired statue of the saint 
on his death-bed, executed in coloured marble by Legros. 

At the end of the street, to the right, lies the royal palace, the 
chief facade of which is in the Piazza del Quirinale (PI. II, 21). 
In the centre of the piazza are a Fountain with an antique granite 
basin, erected in 1818 and fed by the Acqua Felice, an Obelisk, 
48 ft. high, removed hither from the mausoleum of Augustus (p. 178) 
in 1787, and the two colossal marble **Horse Tamers. These ad- 
mirable groups are works of the imperial age, copied from originals 
of the school of Lysippus (p. xliv). They once stood in front of 
the Thermo: of Constantine, of which remains have been discovered 
in the Via della Dataria which descends hence, probably in such a 
way that the horses stood on each side in the doorway, while the 
Dioscuri (18 ft. high) were outside the entrance. They have never 
been buried nor concealed from view ; and for centuries the piazza 
derived its name from them (Monte Cavallo). The inscriptions on 
the pedestals, Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis, date from about 
the 4th cent. A.D. In the middle ages these were supposed to be 
the names of two philosophers, who, having divined the thoughts 
of Tiberius, were honoured by the erection of these monuments in 
recognition of their wisdom. 

The piazza commands a fine view of the town, to the W., 
with the dome of St. Peter's in the background. The Via della Da- 
taria (see above), reached from the N.W. corner of the piazza by a 
flight of steps, is continued totheN.W. to the Fontana Trevi (p. 163). 

The Piazza del Quirinale is the starting-point of Omnibuses to S. Agnese 
Fuori (No. 4, p. 1 of the Appendix). 

The Palazzo Regio del Quirinale (PL II, 21), was begun in 1574 
under Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio and largely added to under 
subsequent popes, who frequently occupied it in summer on account 
of its lofty and healthful situation, by Bom. Fontana, Bernini, 
Ferd. Fuga, etc. Since 1870 it has been the residence of the king 
of Italy, and during his presence the greater part is not shown to 
the public. 



§ Via del Quirinale. ROME. I.N. and E. Hills. 151 

Permessi and admission, see pp. 126, 127. —Visitors show their permessi 
to the porter and ascend the wide staircase to the left at the end of the 
vestibule. An interesting fresco hy Melozzo da Forli (p. 92) has been 
built into the wall on the landing, representing Christ in a cloud of angels 
(formerly in the church of SS. Apostoli, p. 173). — At the top of the stair- 
case we write our names in a book, and obtain an escort (1 fr.). Adjacent 
to the Sala Regia, with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saraceni, is the Cap- 
pella Paolina, erected by Carlo Maderna, and decorated with gilded stucco- 
work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in SS. Vincenzo ed 
Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (p. 352) and with tapestry of the 18th century. 
The chapel contains a latge number of wreaths and addresses sent by 
Italians in all parts of the world on the occasion of Victor Emanuel's II. 
death. — To the right lies a suite of Deawing and Reception Rooms, adorned 
with pictures and tapestry, chiefly modern. The reception-room of the 
ambassadors, beyond the throne-room, contains several portrait of sov- 
ereigns and princes. In the 10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's 
villa (quite concealed by the carpet). In the 14th, a fine ceiling-painting 
by Overbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. in 1848: Christ 
eluding the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a precipice (Luke iv. 
28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. — Towards the garden are 
the Royal Guest-Chambers. The frieze of the former audience-chamber 
here is a cast of Tkorvaldsen's Triumphal Procession of Alexander the 
Great, ordered by Napoleon I. for this saloon. After 1815 the original was 
removed to the Villa Sommariva, now Carlotta, on the Lake of Como, the 
property of the Marchese Sommariva. In the small Chapel dell' Annunziata 
an Annunciation, an altar-piece by Quido Rent. 

The Garden, which is not shown, was tastefully laid out by C. Maderna. 

The E. side of the Piazza del Quirinale is occupied by the Con- 
sulta (now the Ministry of the Exterior), a palace built by Fuga for the 
tribunal charged with the internal administration of the Papal States. 

Immediately to the left in the continuation of the Via del Quiri- 
nale is the — 

*Palazzo Eospigliosi (PI. II, 21), erected in 1603 by Card. 
Seipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Thermae 
of Constantine. It afterwards became the property of the princes 
Eospigliosi, and now belongs partly to the princes Pallavicini. It is 
the seat of the French envoy to the Vatican. The palace (adm. on 
special introduction only) contains a beautiful CI. Lorrain (Temple 
of Venus), etc., but the chief treasures of art are preserved in an 
adjoining building, the Casino Rospigliosi (pp. 126, 127; 25-50 c.) 

We enter the court by a gate and then ascend the steps to the left. 

Along the external wall of the Casino are placed ancient sarcophagus- 
reliefs (Meleager and the boar, Emperor hunting, Rape of Proserpine, 
etc.). — By the door to the right we enter the — 

Pkincipal Hall. ! -- : Ceiling-painting by Guido Reni: Aurora strewing 
flowers before the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by 
dancing Horse, the master's finest work. The colouring deserves special 
notice. The strongest light is thrown upon the figure of Apollo, whose 
hair and flesh are of golden hue. Of a corresponding tint are the yellowish- 
red robes of the nymph nearest to Apollo. The colours are then gradually 
shaded off from blue to white, and from green to white, while the dun- 
coloured horses accord with the clouds (p. lxxi). Opposite the entrance is 
a mirror, in which the painting may be conveniently inspected. — On the 
frieze, landscapes by Paul Bril, and on the ends of the sides, Triumph of 
Fama and Cupid (from Petrarch), by Tempesta. Right wall : Statue of Athene 
Tritogeneia with a Triton ; Van Dyck, Fine portrait. 

Room on the Right. In the centre a bronze steed (antiquity doubtful). 
Opposite the entrance, Domenichino, Fall of man. Left wall : Lorenzo Lotto, 



152 J. N. and E. Hills. ROME. c. Via del Quirinale. 

Triumph of Chastity. Right wall : Dutch School, Portrait ; Domenichino, Venus 
and Cupid ; "Luca Signorelli, Holy Family. Entrance-wall : L. Carracci (?), 
Samson. — Room to the Left: entrance-wall, over the door, Passignano, 
Pieta; Ouido Reni, Andromeda; Portrait of N. Poussin, a copy of the ori- 
ginal in the Louvre. Left wall : Dan. da Volterra , Bearing of the Cross. 
In the corner a bronze bust of Sept. Severus. On these two walls and the 
following: Christ and the Apostles, thirteen pictures, by Rubens (1617), 
studio-replicas of the paintings executed by him in 1604 for Madrid ; Domen- 
ichino, Triumph of David. 

No. 12 Via del Quirinale, opposite the Pal. Rospigliosi, is the 
entrance to the garden of the Pal. Colonna (p. 175). — Farther on, to 
the right, is the church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale (PI. II, 21), 
erected at the beginning of the 16th century. 

In the Dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino : David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Q,ueen of Sheba, Judith, Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the 2nd Chapel to the left, two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: Betrothal of St. Catharine, and Christ appearing 
to Mary Magdalen. 

The Via del Quirinale ends at the Via Nazionale (p. 148). 

d. From the Via Nazionale to S. Maria Maggiore and the Porta 
S. Lorenzo or Porta Maggiore. 

From the intersection (p. 148) of the Via Nazionale and the 
Via Quattro Fontane, the S.E. continuation of the latter, the Via 
Agostino Depbbtis (PI. I, II, 24), leads directly to the choir of 
S. Maria Maggiore. We turn to the right before reaching the sloping 
piazza in front of the latter, enter the Via Urbana, and in a few 
paces reach — 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 27; open till 9, Sun. till 10 a.m.;. 
custodian, Via Urbana 161, to be found from 1 to 4), traditionally 
the oldest church in Rome , erected on the spot where St. Pudens 
and his daughters Praxedis and Pudentiana, who entertained St. 
Peter, are said to have lived. The church, restored as early as the 
reign of Pope Siricius (384-398), has been frequently altered espe- 
cially in 1588, and has recently been modernised in very bad taste. 
In the facade, adorned with modern mosaics (St. Peter with SS. Pu- 
dens and Pudentiana ; on the left Pius I., on the right Gregory VII.), 
is an ancient portal borne by columns, which has also been restored. 
Pleasing campanile of the 9th century. 

Interior. The nave and aisles are of unequal length. In the pillars 
are still to be seen the ancient marble columns which originally supported 
the wall. The "Mosaics in the Tribune (4th cent.), Christ with the Apostles, 
and S. Praxedis and S. Pudentiana, with a rich architectural background, 
and above, the emblems of the Evangelists on each side of the cross, are 
among the finest in Rome (p. lviii; several of those on the right are 
modern). The Dome above the high-altar was painted by Pomarancio. The 
Aisles contain remains of an ancient mosaic pavement. In the left aisle 
is the Cappella Caetani, over the altar of which is an Adoration of the 
Magi, a relief in marble by Olivieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an 
altar with relics of the table at which St. Peter is said first to have read mass. 
Above it Christ and Peter, a group in marble by Giov. Batt. della Porta. 

Below the church are ancient vaults in a good style of architecture, 
which the custodian shows if desired. 

On the summit of the Viminal, not far off, stands the church of 



d. S. Maria Maggiore. EOME. I. N. and E. Hills. 153 

S. Lorenzo in Panispema (PI. II, 24), on the spot where St. Lawrence is 
said to have suffered martyrdom, an old edifice, but frequently restored. — 
Hence to the Via Nazionale, see p. 149. 

In the Piazza dbll' Esqtjilino (PI. II, 27), the square in front 
of the choir of S. Maria Maggiore, stands one of the two Obelisks 
which formerly rose in front of the mausoleum of Augustus, 48 ft. 
in height (the other is on the Quirinal, p. 150). It was erected 
here by Sixtus V. in 1587. — The piazza is intersected by the 
broad Via Cavour (p 157), which is carried down between the Es- 
quiline and "Viminal to the Forum Romanum. 

The facade of the church overlooks the Piazza S. Maria Mag- 
giore, embellished with a handsome Column from the basilica of 
Oonstantine, 16 ft. in circumference, and 46 ft. in height, placed 
here and crowned with a bronze figure of the Virgin by Paul V. 

The Piazza S. Maria Maggiore lies on the routes of the Omnibdses from 
the Via S. Apollinare (p. 153) to the Piazza Qugliebno Pepe (Porta S. Lorenzo, 
p. 341), and from the Piazza S. Pantaleo (p. 189) to the Piazza Vitt. Ema- 
nvele (p. 155) ; and on the Tramway from the Piazza Venezia (p. 164) to 
the Piazza S. Giovanni in Zaterano (p. 252). 

**S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 27), also named Basilica Liberiana, 
or S. Maria ad Nives, or S. Maria ad Praesepe, from the manger 
which it contains, is the largest of the eighty churches in Rome 
dedicated to the Virgin. It is one of the five patriarchal churches 
(p.xxxii), and has a special 'jubilee entrance'. According to a legend 
which cannot be traced farther back than the 13th cent., the Virgin 
appeared simultaneously in 352 A. D. to the devout Roman patri- 
cian Johannes and to Pope Liberius in their dreams, commanding 
them to erect a church to her on the spot where they should find 
snow on the following morning (5th Aug.). The Basilica Liberiana, 
which they are said to have built, was re-erected by Sixtus III. 
(432-40), who named the church 8. Maria Mater Dei, shortly after 
the Council of Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Vir- 
gin (430). Of this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns 
and mosaics is still preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was 
farther altered in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a new 
porch, Nicholas IV. a new tribune adorned with mosaics, and 
Gregory XI. gave the campanile its present form and its pointed 
roof. About the end of the 15th cent, began a new period in the 
history of the church, when the irregularities of the mediaeval ad- 
ditions were removed, and symmetrical straight lines were formed 
by the erection of accessory buildings and masking walls. The two 
large side-chapels, covered with domes, were added by Sixtus V. 
in 1586 and Paul V. in 1611. The exterior of the tribune was 
remodelled to its present form by Clement X., and the final resto- 
ration was entrusted by Benedict XIV. to Fuga. 

The Facade was designed by Fuga in 1743 ; the porch, with a 
loggia above it, opens in thTee arches. The five portals in this porch 
correspond with five entrances to the church (the last of which on 
the left, the Porta Santa, is now built nn). and with a niche on 



154 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. d. From 8. Maria Maggiore 

the right. To the right is a statue of Philip IV. of Spain. The loggia 
(staircase to the left in the vestibule ; one of the vergers opens the 
door) contains mosaics from an earlier facade, executed about 1300 
by Oaddo Oaddi (?) and Philippus Rusuti, restored in 1825. 

Above, in the centre, Christ enthroned, on the left the Virgin, SS. 
Paul, John, and James; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip, and John 
the Baptist. Below, on the left, the vision of Pope Liberius and the 
Patrician Johannes ; on the right, the meeting of the two, and the tracing 
of the site of the church on the snow. 

The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtus III., 93 yds. long 
and 19 yds. wide, and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich and 
imposing effect. The pavement of the Nave dates from the 12th cent. 
(p. lix) and the handsome ceiling was executed from designs by Oiul. da 
Sang alio, and richly gilded with the first gold brought from America. The 
architrave, adorned with mosaic, is supported by 42 Ionic columns, 38 in 
marble and 4 in granite, above which, and on the chancel arch, are ^Mo- 
saics of the time of Sixtus III., still antique in spiiit and interesting in sub- 
ject (p. lviii; good light early in the morning). Those on the arch appar- 
ently refer to Mary as the Mother of God; Annunciation, Infancy of Christ, 
Slaughter of the Innocents, etc. ; left wall, history of Abraham and Jacob; 
right wall, Moses and Joshua (a few of the pictures were restored in 1825). 
— In front of the chancel arch is the High-Altar, consisting of an ancient 
sarcophagus of porphyry, said to have been the tomb of the Patrician 
Johannes, and containing the remains of St. Matthew and other relics ; the 
canopy is borne by four columns of porphyry. In the apse of the Tribune 
are "Mosaics by Jacobus Torriti (1295) : Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, 
near whom are Pope Nicholas IV. and Card. Jac. Colonna (comp. p. lx). 

At the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 
on the left, and Clement IX. (d. 1669) on the right, erected by Sixtus V. and 
Clement X. respectively. Rigiit Aisle: First chapel: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 col- 
umns of porphyry, containing five boards from the 'Manger of the Infant 
Christ' (whence termed Cappella del Presepe). — In the Eight Transept is 
the sumptuous "Sistine Chapel, constructed by Dom. Fontana under Six- 
tus V., and gorgeously restored; in the niche on the left, an altar-piece 
(St. Jerome) by Bibera; on the right, occupying the whole wall, the mon- 
ument of Sixtus V., with a statue of the pope by Valsoldo; on the left, 
monument of Pius V. by Leonardo da Sarzana. Over the altar, a canopy 
in gilded bronze represents angels bearing the church ; in the 'Confessio' 
under the staircase a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini, and by the altar a 
relief of the Holy Family, by Cecchino da Pielrasanla (1480). — At the end 
of the right aisle, the Gothic monument of Card. Consalvi (Gunsalvus, d. 
1299) by Johannes Cosmos. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel (of theCesi): Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar- 
piece by Girol. da Sermoneta ; on the right and left two bronze statues to 
the memory of cardinals of the family. 2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), 
said to have been designed by Mich. Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by Sermoneta. — In the Left Transept, opposite the Sistine Chapel, 
is the Borghese Chapel, constructed by Flaminio Ponzio in 1611, and also 
covered with a dome. Over the altar, which is gorgeously decorated with 
lapis lazuli and agate, is an ancient and miraculous picture of the Virgin 
(almost black), painted according to tradition by St. Luke, which was car- 
ried by Gregory I. as early as 590 in solemn procession through the city. 
The frescoes in the large arches are by Guido Reni, Lanfranco, Cigoli, 
etc. The monuments of the Popes (1.) Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, d. 1621) 
and (r.) Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Bernini. The 
crypt contains tombs of the Borghese family. 

The neighbouring church of S. Prassede, see p. 157. 
To the S. and S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore run two 
new thoroughfares, the Via Merulana, on the right, leading to 



to the Porta S. Lorenzo. ROME. J. N. and E. Hills. 1 55 

theLateran (p. 256; y 4 hr. ; tramway No. 3, comp. Appendix), and 
the Via Carlo Alberto , on the left. In the latter, to the left, is 
the church of S. Antonio Abbate, with a portal of the 13th cent. ; 
interior uninteresting. S. Antonio is the tutelary saint of domestic 
animals. 

A cross-street leads to the right from the Via Cario Alberto to 
the church of 8. Vito and the simple Arch of Oallienus (PI. II, 29). 
This honorary arch was erected in 262 in honour of the Emp. Gal- 
lienus, 'on account of his bravery, surpassed only by his piety', by 
a certain M. Aurelius Victor. Farther on in the Via S. Vito is the 
Gothic church of S. Alfonso de 1 Liguori, built by a Mr. Douglas in 
1855; and beyond the Via Merulana are the churches of S. Prassede 
and S. Martino ai Monti (pp. 157, 158). 

The Via Mazzini and Via Rattazzi lead to the left from the Via 
Carlo Alberto to the Piazza Manfredo Fanti, adorned with gardens, 
in which stands an Aquarium (PI. II, 30), which, however, failed 
soon after its erection in 1885. A fragment of the wall of Servius 
is preserved in this piazza (comp. p. 144). 

The Via Carlo Alberto ends at the large Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI., II, 29), which is also embellished with flower-beds. 
Here, on the left, are considerable remains of a water-tower of the 
Aqua Julia, in the niches of which the so-called Trophies of Marius 
(p. 199) were formerly placed. The name Trofei di Mario has been 
commonly but groundlessly in use since the 16th century. Adjoin- 
ing, by the side of the street, is the so-called Porta Magica of the 
former Villa Palombaro. The cabalistic characters on the outside 
contain a formula for making gold, communicated in 1680 by a 
stranger to the Marchese M. Palombaro, who, however, was unable 
to decipher it, and caused it to be carved in marble at the entrance 
to his villa, in the hope that some passer-by might be able to solve 
the riddle. — At the N. angle of the piazza rises the church of 
S. Eusebio, re-erected in the 18th cent., with the exception of the 
campanile. The ceiling-painting, the transfiguration of St. Eusebius, 
is by Raphael Mengs; the high-altar-piece is by Bald. Croce. 

The Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the starting-point of Omniboses to 
the Piazza S. Silveslro (p. 161; and No. 7, p. 1 of the Appx.), and to 
S. Pantaleo (p. 1£9; and No. 10, p. 1 of the Appx.). 

About 4 min. to the E. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the 
church of S. Bibiana (PI. II, 32), consecrated in 470, and rebuilt 
for the last time in 1625 by Bernini. It contains eight antique 
columns ; above these are frescoes from the life of the saint, on the 
right by Ciampelli, on the left by Pietro da Cortona (modernised). 
To the left by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which the 
saint is said to have been scourged to death. — The Archi di S. 
Bibiana leads to the Porta di S. Lorenzo and the basilica of that 
name , which may be conveniently visited at this juncture (see 
?. 341). We may return in that case by tramway or omnibus (p. 341). 



156 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. d. From S. Maria Maggiore 

A short distance to the S.W. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, the so- 
called Auditorio di Mecenate (PI. II, 29), a building in 'opus reticulatutn', 
was discovered in 1874. This may have belonged to the Gardens of Maecenas. 
The oblong chamber, now used as a storehouse for newly discovered 
sculpturei, has a number of steps rising at the N. end, like the seats in 
an amphitheatre. The walls were decorated with paintings, which are now 
rapidly fading and of no general interest. Outside the S. and E. walls 
are seen fragments of the Servian Wall (p. xxvii). Adm. on Thurs., 9-11 and 
2-5. — Hence to S. Martino di Monti, see p. 158. 

The Vialb Princifessa Margherita (PI. II, 30, 32) leads from 
S. Bibiana to the N.W. to the Piazza Ouglielmo Pepe (with remains 
of the above-mentioned Aqua Julia ; omn. p. 341) and the (10 min.) 
Railway Station (p. 144). To the S.E. it leads in 5 min. to the so- 
called Temple of Minerva Medica (PI. II, 32), the ruin of an ancient 
Nymphaeum in the form of a decagon, 55 yds. in circumference, 
with deep niches in the walls, and originally covered with marble 
below and stucco above. Several ancient statues have been found here 
one of whic,h, the Minerva Giustiniani (p. 307), has given rise to 
the unfounded, appellation of 'Temple of Minerva'. In the middle 
ages the ruin was called Le Galluzze, a name which has been con- 
jectured to be a corruption of (the Thermae of) 'Gaius and Lucius 
Caesar', of whose existence, however, there is no other hint. The 
vaulting existed down to 1828. The interesting building dates from 
about the 3rd cent, after Christ. 

The Via Conte Verde, the middle street running from the S.E. 
side of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, leads to the church of S. Croce 
in Oerusalemme (p. 157); the Via Emanuele Filiberto, the street 
to the right, leads to the Lateran (p. 256); and the Via Principe 
Eugenio, on the left, to the Porta Maggiore. 

The *Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 34) was originally an archway 
belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus flowed 
through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the construction 
of both aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, the Claudia, 
42 M. in length, bringing water from the neighbourhood of Subiaco 
(p. 379), and the Anio Novus coming from the sources of the river of 
that name, a distance of 51 M. ; and also their restoration by Vespasian 
in 71, and by Titus in 81. Aurelian converted the monument into 
one of the gates of his city-wall; and the Colonnas used it in the 
middle ages as the nucleus of a fortification. The gate derives its 
name either from its imposing dimensions , or from the church of 
that name. It was purged of the later additions by Gregory XVI. 
Two roads diverged hence in antiquity : to the left the Via Prae- 
nestina, and to the right the Via Labicana, now named Via Casilina. 
Between these, outside the gate, was discovered in 1838 the remark- 
able Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, erected in imitation of grain- 
measures laid alternately in vertical and horizontal rows. 

The monument, dating from the close of the republic, was erected by 
the baker himself; and the principal inscription, repeated several times, 
is to the effect that — 'This is the monument of Marcos Vergilius Eury- 
saces, a public purveyor of bread and an official'. Some of the reliefs re- 



to 8. Croce in Qerusal. ROME. /. N. and E. Bills. 157 

present grinding, baking, and other parts of his trade, and others refer 
to his post of purveyor to the state. 

From this point to the Amphitheatrum Castrense and the Porta 
S. Giovanni, see p. 264; to the Campagna, see p. 343. 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme, passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and 
skirting the wall on the inside. — From S. Maria Maggiore to this 
church by the Via Conte Verde is a walk of 20 minutes. 

S. Croce in Gerusalenrrne (PI. II, 34), one of the seven pil- 
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the 
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of law, formerly stood here, is 
said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of her discovery 
of the Cross. As early as 433 a Council met here. The church was 
rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1 144, and was modernised under Benedict XIV. 
in 1743, by Oregorini, who added the poor facade. 

Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of 
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt 
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Csesarius. 
In the tribune are modernised frescoes of the Invention of the Cross, by 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. The church contains numerous relics, including the 
'Inscription on the Cross'. 

To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on 
the left is an altar with a marble relief (Pieta) ; at the sides are statuettes 
of Peter and Paul of the 12th century. On the right the chapel of St. Helena 
(to which ladies are admitted on 20th March only). On the vaulting are 
fine Mosaics, after Bald. Peruzzi, representing the Four Evangelists. In the 
centre, Christ. In the arch over the entrance, on the left St. Helena, right 
St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the left St. Peter, on the right St. Paul. 
The altar-statue of St. Helena is an exact copy of the Barberini Juno (p. 299), 
with a cross for the sceptre in the right hand, and a nail of the cross for 
the vase in the left. 

The Cistercian monastery formerly belonging to the church is now 
used as a barrack. 

On the other side of S. Croce is an apse with arched windows 
and the beginning of adjoining walls, perhaps relics of the Sessorium 
mentioned above. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a walk of 5 min. (p. 264). 

e. From S. Maria Maggiore to the Forum Romanum. 

The recently completed Via Cavour (PI. II, 27, 26, 23), begin- 
ning at the railway-station (p. 144) and crossing the Piazza dell' Es- 
quilino (p. 153) diagonally, is the most direct route from S. Maria 
Maggiore to the Forum Romanum. It contains nothing of interest. 

The Omnibuses to the Piazza del Popolo (p. 133; and No. 6, p. 1 of 
the Appx.) start in the Via Cavonr, near the railway-station. 

We follow the small Via S. Prassede, leading S. from the Piazza 
S. Maria Maggiore, in which is a side-entrance to the church of — 

*S. Prassede (PI. II, 26), mentioned in 491, erected by Paschalis I. 
in 822, and dedicated to St. Praxedis, the daughter of St. Pudens 
with whom Peter lodged at Rome (p. 152). It was restored by Nicho- 
las V. about 1450, again in 1832, and finally in 1869. 



158 1. N, and E. Hills. ROME. e. From 8. Maria Maggiore 

Interior (restored in bad taste). The nave is separated from the aisles 
by 16 granite columns (six others, bearing arches, having been replaced by 
pillars). The Mosaics (9th cent. ; p. IviiiJ deserve notice. On the triumphal 
arch the new Jerusalem guarded by angels, Christ in the centre, with angels 
on each side; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb, at the sides the seven 
candlesticks and the symbols of the Evangelists ; lower down the twenty- 
four elders (interesting for the naive mode in which the art accommo- 
dates itself to the spaces allotted to it; thus, in order to follow the curve 
of the arch, the arms of the foremost elders in the middle and upper rows 
gradually increase in length) ; in the round part of the apse, Christ sur 
rounded with saints (on the right Paul, Praxedis, and Pepe Paschalis with 
the church; on the left Peter, Pudentiana, and Zeno). On either side 
of the tribune are galleries. — Right Aisle. The 3rd chapel is the Chapel of 
St. Zeno (ladies admitted on the Sundays in Lent only; the sacristan 
opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns of black 
granite with ancient entablature. Above are mosaics (9th cent.): Christ 
and the Apostles, the Madonna and eight holy woman ; the figures of the 
two popes, to the right and left below, are auditions probably of the 13th 
century. On the vaulting in the interior a medallion with the head of 
Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between SS. 
Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the right in a niche, the column at which 
Christ is said to have been scourged. Above the niche to the left are four 
female portraits, the first, with a square nimbus being named Theodora 
Episcopa (Theodora, mother of Paschalis I., was buried in this chapel). 
The 4th chapel contains the tomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity 
of the right aisle the Cap. del Crocefisso contains the tomb of the French 
cardinal Anchera (d. 1286). — In the Left Aisle by the entrance-wall is a 
stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to have slept. The 2nd Cap. di S. 
Carlo Borromeo contains a chair and table once used by the saint. The 3rd 
Cap. Olgiati contains paintings by the Cav. d'Arpino. — The marble top 
of a well in the nave indicates the spot where St. Praxedis buried the 
two martyrs. 

The Conpebsio (keys kept by the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 
with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the right, 
and those of martyrs on the left. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic 
of the 13th century. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the 
sisters. — The Sackistt, at the end of the left aisle, contains a Scourg- 
ing by Giulio Romano. 

The former main entrance of S. Prassede is in the Via S. Mar- 
ttno ai Monti, on the S. side of the church, a side-street diverging 
from the Via Merulana (p. 154) not far from the church of S. Al- 
fonso de'Liguori (p. 155). The ViaS.Martino ends at the Via dello 
Statuto, which begins at the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 155) and 
joins the Via Cavour to the "W. Opposite the end of the Via S. Mar- 
tino, a short flight of steps ascends to the church of — 

S. Martino ai Monti (PL II, 26), erected by Symmachus about 
the year 500, adjacent to the Baths of Trajan and an old church of 
Pope Sylvester I. It was rebuilt in 844 by SergiusII. and Leo IV., 
gorgeously modernised about 1650, and again recently restored. 

The Interior, a basilica with a roof of straight beams, contains 24 an- 
tique columns. In the S. aisle six fine frescoes by Gasp. Poussin, from the 
life of Elijah, the patron of the order (marred by restoration). In theN. 
aisle six smaller landscapes, also interesting. Also two pictures represent- 
ing the interior of the old churches of the Lateran and of St. Peter. — The 
Presbyterium is eleven steps higher; below is the Crypt. From the latter 
we enter a large vault, probably once belonging to Thermae, but at an early 
period converted into a church. The vaulting bears traces of ancient paint- 
ing. This is supposed to be the site of Pope Sylvester's church, of the 
period of Constantine. 



to the Forum Romanum. ROME. /. N. and E. Hills. 1 59 

Behind the S. side ofS.Maitino ai Monti runs the ViadelleSette 
Sale, which derives its name from the Sette Sale (PI. II, 26), seven, 
or rather nine, parallel vaulted chambers on the top of the Esqui- 
line, which appear to have been used as reservoirs for the Thermae 
of Titus (p. 227; ring at the door of No. 11; fee i/ 2 fr 0- A littIe 
farther along this street to the W. are the piazza and church of — 

*S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23; 150 ft. above the sea-level), 
also named Basilica Eudoxiana after Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian II., 
who founded the church about the year 442, as a receptacle for the 
chains of St. Peter which had been presented by her to Pope Leo I. 
It was restored by Pelagius I. and Hadrian I., the vestibule added by 
Baccio Pintellip), and the whole is now modernised. Admission 
before 11 a.m. (Sun. before 12) and after 3 p.m. ; when closed, 
visitors ring at the adjacent door to the left, No. 4 (Y2 fr.). 

Inteeiok. The nave and aisles are separated by 20 antique Doric 
columns. To the left of the entrance, by the pillar, is the monument of 
the Florentine painters Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo (d. 1498). The fresco 
above it, representing the plague of 680, is attributed to the latter. The 
Left Aisle contains, on the pavement and wall, the monument (in the 
corner) of the learned Card. Nicolaus Cusanus (from Cues on the Moselle, 
d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter with keys and chains, on the left the 
donor (Nic. Cusanus), right an angel. — On the 2nd altar to the left a mosaic 
of the 7th cent, with St. Sebastian (bearded). At the end of the Right Aisle is 
the monument of Pope Julius II. (p. lxiii) by Michael Angelo, with the ** Statue 
of Moses, represented as on the point of springing from his seat, in indig- 
nation at the idulatry of the Jews (Moses is represented by mediaeval 
Christian artists with horns owing to an erroneous translation of Ex- 
odus xxxiv. 35). This .is one of Michael Angelo's most famous and most 
characteristic works ; he has sacrificed details in order to bring the total 
effect into more dominating prominence. The proportions of the figure are 
inexact; the small head, the powerful arms, and the gigantic tor.;o are 
certainly cut of harmony, while the robe hangs from the celebrated knee 
in quite impossible folds. But all the same the general effect is most im- 
posing. Besides the Moses, the statues of Rachel, and Leah (as symbols, 
on the left of meditative, on the right of active life) alone were executed 
by the great master, and even these were not entirely his own work- 
manship. The grouping only of the remainder was from his design. The 
figure of the pope (who is not interred here, comp. p. 274) by Maso del Bosco is 
a failure ; the prophet and the sibyl at the side are by Raf. da Montelupo. — 
To the right of the choir is St. Margaret, an altar-piece by Guercino. — 
The Choir contains an ancient marble seat from a bath, converted into 
an episcopal throne. A cabinet under the high-altar, with bronze doors 
(1477; erroneously attributed to the Pollajuoli), contains the chains of St. 
Peter, which are exhibited to the pious on 1st August. 

The adjacent monastery of the Canonici Regolari is now the seat 
of the physical and mathematical faculty of the university. The 
monastery-court, by Giuliano da Sangallo , is embellished with a 
fountain by Antonio da Sangallo. (Entrance by No. 5, to the right 
of the church.) — Opposite the facade of the church is the Collegium 
Maroniticum, with an old tower commanding a fine view. — On the 
N. side of the piazza are an old Franciscan monastery, now the 
R. Istituto Tecnico, and the church of S. Francesco di Paola. 

The Via Cavour (p. 157) leads hence to the N. ; but it is better 
to proceed to the S.E. from the church for a few paces and then turn 



160 II.E.ontheTiberfL.B.). ROME. a. The Via del Corso, 

to the right into the Via della Polveriera (straight on lie the Thermae 
of Titus, p. 227), which also leads to the Forum. 



II. Home on the Tiber (Left Bank). 

That part of the city which extends to the W. from the quarters 
on the hills as far as the river was uninhabited in the most ancient 
times (Campus Martius), but was gradually covered with buildings 
as Rome extended her sway, and as far back as the Republic, but 
more particularly in the reign of Augustus, it became the site of many 
palatial edifices. This new town of ancient Rome was almost the 
only inhabited district during the middle ages and following cen- 
turies, and it is still the most densely peopled quarter. The present 
government has undertaken the task of improving this quarter by 
the construction of new and broad streets ; but apart from these it 
still retains the characteristics of the mediaeval and Renaissance 
city in its network of narrow and dirty streets and lanes, enlivened 
by the busy traffic of the lower classes, and containing many highly 
interesting churches and palaces. The Via del Corso, the principal 
thoroughfare, is characterized by its imposing 'baroque' facades 
of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

a. The Via del Corso and Adjacent Side-Streets. 

Omnibuses, see pp. 133, 165, and Appendix, p. 1, No. 1. 

The *Via del Corso, usually called simply 'II Corso', which 
corresponds with the ancient Via Flaminia beginning at the Capitol 
as the Via Lata (comp. p. 164), is the central street of the three 
running to the S. from the Piazza del Popolo (p. 133). Its length 
from the Piazza del Popolo to the Piazza Venezia is 1650 yds., or 
nearly a mile. 

The N. part of the street is little frequented. No. 518, to the 
right , between the first two' cross-streets , is the Pal. Rondinini 
(PI. 1, 17), the court of which contains an unfinished Pietaby Michael 
Angelo, probably for his own tomb. No. 18, on the left side, was 
once inhabited by Goethe ; inscription : 'In questa casa immaginS e 
scrisse cose immortali Volfango Goethe. II Comune di Roma a 
memoria del grande ospite pose 1872'. 

On the right, farther on, is the church of S. Oiacomo in Augusta, 
or degli Incurabili, with a facade by C. Maderna. It belongs to the 
adjoining surgical hospital, which extends to the Via Ripetta. Nearly 
opposite, on the left, is the small Augustine church of Oesii e Maria, 
with facade by Girol. Rainaldi. — In the Via de 1 Ponteftci, the third 
transverse street from this point, to the right, is the Mausoleum of 
Augustus (p. 178). 

On the right, in an expansion of the Corso is S. Carlo al Corso 
(PI. I, 18), the national church of the Lombards, and the resort of 



<y Adjacent Side Streets. ROME. //. B. on the Tiber (L.B.). 161 

the fashionable world. It was begun in 1612 by Onorio Lunghi and 
continued by Martino Lunghi the Younger and Pietro da Cortona ; 
the tasteless facade was added in 1690 by Cardinal Omodei. Ceiling- 
paintings in the interior by Qiacinto Brandi. Over the high-altar 
is one of the finest works of Carlo Maratta : the Virgin recommend- 
ing S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ. (The heart of S. Carlo is depo- 
sited under this altar.) 

Beyond the Via de' Condotti leading to the Piazza di Spagna 
(p. 137), and the Via delta Fontanella di Borghese (p. 178) pro- 
longing the Via de' Condotti towards the W., begins the frequented 
part of the Corso, with numerous shops, and enlivened, especially 
towards evening, by crowds of carriages and foot-passengers. 

On the right, No. 418 A, is the spacious Palazzo Ruspoli, built 
by Ammanati in 1586, and now containing the Birreria Cornelio on 
the ground-floor (p. 117). 

To the left, at the corner of the Via Frattina (No. 151), is the 
Palazzo Bernini, the vestibule of which contains one of the most 
exaggerated specimens of Bernini's style , a large group repre- 
senting 'Time bringing the truth to light'. 

In a long piazza on the right rises S. Lorenzo in Lucina (PI. I, 
18), founded in the 4th cent., perhaps by a pious matron named 
Lucina, but frequently restored. The church and adjoining mon- 
astery have belonged since 1606 to the Minorites, to whom it owes 
its present form. The portico is supported by four columns ; at the 
door are two half-immured mediaeval lions. In the interior, by the 
2nd pillar to the right, is the tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1665), erected 
by Chateaubriand ; above the high-altar a Crucifixion by Ouido Beni. 

On the right, at the corner of the Piazza in Lucina and the 
Corso, is the Pal. Fiano (PI. I, 18). The passage to the court, en- 
tered from No. 4, Piazza in Lucina, contains some good reliefs of 
figures and ornamental designs from the Ara Paris, set up by 
Augustus in B.C. 9 (other remains in the Villa Medici, the Va- 
tican, and the Uffizi at Florence). In front of this palace a trium- 
phal arch of M. Aurelius spanned the Corso until 1662 (reliefs, 
see p. 202). An inscription on the house No. 167 on the left side, 
records that Alexander VII. levelled and widened the Corso for the 
horse-races, and removed the arch. 

The Via delle Convertite on the left leads to the Piazza di 
S. Silvestro (PI. I, 18), which is embellished with a monument 
to the poet Pietro Metastasio (b. at Assisi 1698, d. at Vienna 
1782), erected in 1886. In the N.W. corner of the piazza rises 
the venerable church of S. Silvestro in Capile, erected in honour 
of a piece of the head of John the Baptist still preserved here, by 
Paul I. (757-67) on the site of his own house. The entrance-court 
is ancient, but the church has been frequently rebuilt. The church 
is now possessed by English Roman Catholics. Part of the monastery 
formerly connected with the church has been converted into the 

Baedeker. Italy II. lltli Edition. \\ 



1 62 //. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). ROME. a. The Via del Corso, 

handsome Post and Telegraph Office, which has entrances from 
the piazza and the Via della Vite (p. 118). Another part of the 
old monastery contains the ministerial Office of Public Works. — 
Opposite S. Silvestro is the English Church of the Trinity (p. 124), 
erected in 1874, with a handsome facade in the early-Renaissance 
style. — At No. 11, Via di Mercede, which leads to the E. from the 
Piazza di S. Silvestro, is a tablet recording that Sir Walter Scott 
lived here when at Rome in 1832 

Omnibus from the Piazza di S. Silvestro to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, 
see p. 155. 

Farther on in the Via del Corso, to the right, is the Pal. Verospi 
(No. 374), now Tortonia (PI. 1, 18), erected by Onorio Lunghi, and 
restored by Alessandro Specchi. A loggia on the first floor is adorned 
with pleasing mythological frescoes by Fr. Albani. 

On the left, at the corner of the Via delle Convertite, is the 
large new Palazzo Marignoli, on the ground-floor of which is the 
Caffe Aragno. On the same side, is the large establishment of the 
Fratelli Bocconi, built in 1886-87, beside which begins the new 
Via deVTritone (p. 138). 

To the right, at the corner of the Piazza Colonna, is the exten- 
sive Pal. Chigi, begun in 1562 by Oiac. della Porta, and completed 
by C. Maderna. The small collection of antiques and pictures is 
not open to the public. Admission to the 'Bibliotheca Chisiana' 
see p. 125. 

The handsome Piazza Colonna (PI. II, 18), which here inter- 
rupts the Corso, is one of the busiest squares in Rome (military 
music on summer-evenings, comp. p. 125). In 1889, by the pulling 
down of the Palazzo Piombino, the piazza was extended on the E. 
as far the church of 8. Maria in Via, built by Mart. Lunghi the 
Elder in 1594. 

The *Column of Marcus Aurelius , rising in the centre of the 
piazza named after it, is embellished like that of Trajan with reliefs 
from the emperor's wars against the Marcomanni and other German 
tribes on the Danube. The column consists of 28 blocks, besides 
the basement and capital, in all 95 ft. (100 ancient Roman ft.) in 
height, and is approached by steps. In 1589 Sixtus V. caused the 
column to be restored and crowned with a statue of St. Paul, while 
he strengthened the basis and covered it with masonry. At that 
period it was ascribed to Antoninus Pius , after whom it was fre- 
quently but erroneously named. 

On the W. side of the piazza is a building with a portico of 
ancient Ionic columns from Veii, erected here in 1838 (trattorie on 
the ground-floor, see p. 117). 

The streets running to the W., on the Tight and left of the por- 
tico, lead to the Piazza di Monte Citorio (p. 179). — The street 
running to the S. leads to the left to the Piazza di Pietka (PI. II, 
18), on the S. side of which are eleven Corinthian columns, 41 ft. 



£ Adjacent Side Streets. ROME. //. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 1 63 

high, of a Temple of Neptune, built by Hadrian, which once possessed 
15 in its length and 8 in its breadth. The eleven extant columns 
belonged to the N. side of the temple. A portion of the wall of the 
cella is preserved in the adjoining building, once used as a custom- 
house (Dogana di Terra), now an exchange. The reliefs repre- 
senting conquered provinces, mentioned on p. 201, were among 
the decorations of the temple or the colonnade surrounding it. — 
The Via de' Pastini leads hence to the Pantheon (p. 180), while the 
Corso is regained by the* Via di Pietra to the left. 

As far to the E. from the Corso, at the end of the Via dbllb 
Muratte, which diverges opposite the above-named Via di Pietra, 
rises the *Fontana di Trevi (PI. II, 21), the most magnificent of 
the public fountains of Rome. It is erected against the S. side of 
the Palazzo Poll, and was completed from a design by Nice. Salvi 
(1735) in 1762. In the central niche is a figure of Neptune, by 
Pittro Bracci; at the sides, Health (left) and Fertility (right); in 
front, a large stone basin. 

The ancient Aqua Virgo, which issues here, was conducted by II. Agrippa 
from the Campagna, chiefly by a subterranean channel 14 M. in length, to 
supply his baths beside the Pantheon (p. 182), in B.C. 19. It enters the city 
near the Villa Medici (p. 136). The name originated in the tradition (which is 
perhaps not unconnected with the excellence of the water) that a girl once 
pointed out the spring to some thirsty soldiers. The fountain was restored 
by Claudius in 46 A. D. (to which fact the inscription mentioned on p. 138 
refers), and later by the popes Hadrian I. and Nicholas V. In 1453 the 
latter pope conducted hither the main stream of the aqueduct , and the 
fountain then exchanged its ancient name for its present name of Trevi 
(a corruption of 'Trivio'), which it derives from its three outlets. This 
aqueduct yields daily upwards of 13 million cubic feet of water, perhaps the 
best in Rome. The fountains in the Piazza di Spagna, the Piazza Navona, 
and the Piazza Farnese are supplied from the same source. — On quitting 
Rome, travellers partake of the water of this fountain, and throw a coin 
into the basin, in the pious belief that their return is thus ensured. 

The Via del Tritone (pp. 138, 162) to the N. is reached to the 
right and left of the fountain. Opposite the fountain is SS. Vincenzo 
ed Anastasio (PI. I, 21), erected in its present form, with a degraded 
facade, from designs by M. Lunghi the Younger, at the beginning 
of the 17th century. — The Via di S. Vincenzo, called farther on 
the Via de' Lucchesi. leads via the little Piazza Pilotta, in which, 
to the right, stands the Palazzo Muti Papazzurri, built by Mattia 
de' Rossi in 1644, to the Via Pilotta and the Palazzo Colonna 
(p. 174). (From the Via de' Lucchesi the Via della Dataria leads on 
the left to the Qulrinal; p. IliO.) 

Farther on in the Via del Corso, also on the left, where the 
street expands, we reach the *Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna (No. 239 ; 
PI. II, 18), the handsomest palace in the whole street, erected at 
the beginning of the 17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with a portal 
of later date. The picture gallery in this palace, the chief work in 
which was Raphael's Violin - player , dated 1518, has been in- 
accessible to the pub'ic for many years. 

11* 



164 II. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). ROME. a. The Via del Corso, 

Opposite is the imposing Cassa di Bisparmio or Savings-Bank, 
by Cipolla (1868). The first side-street on the right, leads to the 
church of S.Ignazio (p. 166), the next two side-streets to the Collegio 
Romano (Museo Kircheriano ; p. 166). No. 307 in the Via del Corso, 
between the two last side-streets, is the Palazzo Simonetti. Opposite, 
a little back from the street, is the church of — 

S. Marcello (PI. II, 18), mentioned as early as 499, re-erected by 
Jac. Sansovino in 1519, and entirely modernised in 1874. The facade 
(beginning of the 18th cent.) is by Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel on the right contains paintings by Perin del Vaga, 
completed after his death by Dan. da Volterra and Pellegrino da Modena, 
and the monument of Card. Consalvi (d. 1824), minister of Pius VII., by 
Rinaldo Rinaldi. Paintings in the Tribune by Giov. Baltista da Novara; 
those of the 2nd Chapel to the left by Fed. Zucchero. 

On the right, beyond the next side-streets, which lead to the 
right to the Collegio Romano (comp. above) and to the left to the 
Piazza SS. Apostoli (p. 173), is the small church of S. Maria in Via 
Lata, mentioned as early as the 7th cent., but in its present form 
dating from the 17th; tasteful facade by Pietro da Cortona (1660). 
From the vestibule a staircase ascends to an oratory (built by Vig- 
nola) in which St. Paul and St. Luke are said to have taught. The 
Via Lata (called Via Flaminia outside the town; p 336) was the 
ancient main street of the city, nearly corresponding with the 
present Corso. Below this church and the Palazzo Doria lie extensive 
ancient walls, which once belonged to the Smpta Julia, an edifice 
begun by Caesar and completed by Agrippa, for taking the votes of 
the national assembly, but afterwards used for games and as a 
market-place. 

Adjoining S. Maria in Via Lata is the beautiful Palazzo Doria 
(PI. II, 18), with a 17th cent, facade towards the Corso; see p. 170. 

Opposite rises the Palazzo Odewalchi, erected in 1887-88 in the 
Florentine style. Adjacent is the Pal. Salviati, by Carlo Rainaldi, 
occupied 1725-1800 by the French Academy of Art (p. 136). 

On the S. the Corso is terminated by the Piazza di Venezia 
(PI. II, 17; 48 ft. above the sea-level), in which the Via Nazionale 
(p. 148) ends to the left and the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 187) 
to the right. The corner-house on the right is the Pal. Bonaparte, 
formerly Rinuccini, erected by Mattia de' Rossi, where Madame Laetitia, 
mother of Napoleon I., died in 1836. The piazza is named after 
the imposing — 

*Palazzo di Venezia, begun about 1455 by Pope Paul II. (before 
his accession) in the Florentine style, in which the effect is produced 
by massiveness (p. lxi). The stones were obtained from the Colos- 
seum. The architect is uncertain ; but Vasari is certainly wrong in 
ascribing the design to Giuliano da Majano. Meo del Caprino and 
Francesco del Borgo di S. Sepolcro appear to have superintended its 
erection. The palace was presented in 1560 by Pius IV. to the Republic 
of Venice, with which it came in 1797 into the possession of Austria, 



& Adjacent Side Streets. ROME. II. B. on.the Tiber (L.B.). 165 

and it is still the residence of the Austrian ambassador to the Vatican. 
The handsome two-storied court with arcades is little more than 
begun (entrance in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, p. 187), and so also is 
a second and smaller court to the left of the other. 

The E. side of the Piazza di Venezia is occupied by the Palazzo 
Torlonia (PI. II, 17, 20 ; p. 176), the N. corner of which has been 
removed to make way for the Via Nazionale (p. 148), while the 
entire building is to be taken down within the next few years, to 
open a view of the Victor Emanuel Monument on the Capitol from 
the Corso (see below). The wing of the Palazzo Venezia on the S. 
side of the piazza is also to lose a portion for the same purpose. 

The Piazza di Venezia is one of the chief centres of the Omnibus 
traffic in Rome. It is the starting-point for the following lines : 1. To the 
Piazza del Popolo x every 5 min. (see p. 133). — 2. To S. Pietro in Vati- 
cano (p. 269), via the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and the Ponte S. Angelo, 
every o min. — 3. To the Piazza Cavour on the Prati di Castello (p. 267), 
via the Piazza del Pantheon and the Ponte di Eipetta. — The following 
lines of omnibuses also pass the piazza : 4. From the Via di 8. Apollinare 
(p. 179) to the Piazza Guglielmo Pepe (p. 156) and Porta S. Lorenzo (p. 341), 
via Trajan's Forum and S. Maria Maggiore, every 7 min. — 5. From the 
Piazza 8. Pantaleo (p. 189) to the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 155), via Trajan's 
Forum, S. Maria Maggiore, and the railway-station, every 6 min. — 6. From 
the Piazza 8. Pantaleo (p. 189) to the Piazza 8. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 255), 
via Trajan's Forum, Via del Colosseo, and Via S. Giovanni. — 7. From 
the Piazza 8. Pantaleo (p. 189) to the Porta Salaria (p. 336), via the Piazza 
Fontana di Trevi, Piazza Barberini, and Via Veneto. — The following 
Thamway lines also start hence (from the bottom of the Via Nazionale) : 

1. To the Piazza delle Terme (p. 144) and Via Volturno, every 4 min. — 

2. To the Piazza delle Terme (p. 144) and the Piazza S. Giovanni in Late- 
rano (p. 255), every 1/4 hr., both these lines running through the Via 
Nazionale. — 3. To 8. Francesco a Ripa (p. 324), via the Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
(p. 187). — 4. To the Piazza Bocca della Verita (p. 239) and S. Paolo Fuori 
(p. 350), via Trajan's Forum, Via Alessandrina , Forum Romanum, and 
Piazza della Consolazione. — 5. To S. Pietro in Valicano (p. 269). — 6. To 
the Piazza del Popolo (p. 133) and the Via Eipetta (p. 177). — 7. To the 
Stazione Trastevere (p. 324) via the Ponte Garibaldi (p. 322). 

The narrow lane beside the Palazzo Venezia , continuing the 
line of the Corso, derives its name Bipresa dei Barberi from the fact 
that the 'BaTbary' horses used in the races of the Carnival were 
stopped here. 

The N. Slope op the Capitol, in front of which we now stand, 
has been undergoing much alteration since 1885 ; several blocks of 
buildings have been pulled down to make room for the substructure 
of the Victor Emanuel Monument (p. 200). — To the S.W. the 
Via Giulio Romano leads to tie Piazza Aracceli (p. 199). — To the 
left, at the beginning of the Via di Marforio {Forum Martis or Forum 
Augusti), which leads hence S.E. to the Forum (p. 213), is the 
Tomb of Caius Poblicius Bibulus (Pi. II, 20), to whom the ground 
was granted by the Senate as a burial -place for himself and his 
family ('honoris virtutisque causa.', as the inscription records) 
towards the end of the republic. This point must therefore have 
lain outside the walls of Servius , interments within their limits 
having been prohibited. 



166 II.R.ontheTiberfL.B.). ROME. a.EndoftheViadelCorso. 

The streets running to the E. debouch in the Forum Trajanum 
(p. 230). — Turning to the W. , a few paces bring us to the small 
Piazza S. Marco, with its gardens, and to — 

S. Marco (PI. II, 17), incorporated in the S. side of the Pal. di 
Venezia. This church, said to date from the time of Constantine, was 
re-erected in 833 by Gregory IV., and adorned in 1455 by Giuliano 
da Majano (?) with a fine vestibule and probably with the coffered 
ceiling of the nave. The interior, restored in the 17th cent., was 
modernised by Card. Quirini in 1744. 

Vestibule. Roman and ancient Christian inscriptions, built into the 
walls. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner principal portal. The 
Interior is approached by a descent of several steps. With the exception 
of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling, all the older parts have been 
disfigured by restorations. The Tribune, with its handsome pavement 
(opus Alexandrinum), lies a few steps higher than the rest of the church. 
The mosaics (in the centre Christ; left, SS.Mark, Agapetus, and Agnes; right, 
SS. Felicianus and Mark escorting Gregory IV.) date from the most de- 
graded period of this art and have been justly described as 'utter carica- 
tures'. In the Right Aisle , 1st Chapel : altar-piece by Paltna Giovane, the 
Resurrection. 3rd Chap. : Adoration of the Magi, Maratta. At the end, ad- 
joining the tribune: Pope Mark, an admirable old picture, perhaps by Carlo 
Crivelli. In the Left Aisle, 2nd Chap.: altar-relief, Greg. Barbadigo distri- 
buting alms, by Ant. d'Este. 4t.h Chap. : St. Michael, Mola. — The Sacristy 
contains an altar and canopy by Mino da Fiesole and Giov. Dalmata. 

In the corner beside the church, is the so-called Madonna Lu- 
crezia, the mutilated marble bust of a colossal female statue (priestess 
of Isis) which carried on conversations with the Abbate Luigi 
(p. 188), similar to those of Pasquin with the Marforio (comp. p. 190). 

The Via di S. Marco terminates in the Via Aracali, which to 
the left leads to the Piazza Aracoeli (p. 199) and the Capitol, and 
to the right to the Piazza del Gesu (p. 187). 



b. Museo Kircheriano and Ethnographical and Prehistoric 
Museum. Doria, Colonua, and Torlonia Galleries. 

To the right and left from the S. end of the Via del Corso, 5-6 min. 
from the Piazza di Venezia, and in that piazza, are several interesting 
Collections. The Museo Kircheriano and Ethnographical and Prehistoric 
Museum is open daily ; the Doria and Torlonia Galleries on Tues. and Frid. 
only ; and the Colonna Gallery on Tues., Tburs., and Sat. (comp. pp. 126, 127). 

The Via del Caravita, which diverges to the "W. from the Corso 
beside the Savings-Bank (p. 164) in the S. of the Piazza Colonna, 
leads via. the small Piazza S. Ignazio (Pi. II, 18), almost to the 
Pantheon. In the Piazza S. Ignazio rises the Jesuit church of — 

S. Ignazio (PI. II, 18), designed by the Padre Orassi, with a 
facade by Algardi. The building was begun by Card. Ludovisi in 
1626, after the canonisation of the saint, but not completed till 1675. 

Interior. The impression is marred by the baroque decorations, 
which, however, are less obtrusive than in most Jesuit churches. The 
paintings on the vaulting, dome, and apse, and the picture over the high- 
altar are by the Padre Pozzo, an able master of perspective, by whom the 
chapel of St. Luigi Gonzaga, in the aisle to the right, was also designed. 



b. Museo Kircheriano. ROME. II. B. on the Tiber (L.B). 167 

The perspective of the paintings on the ceiling and dome is correctly seen 
from any point in the main axis of the nave whence the painted columns 
at the end of the nave or in the apse appear to be perpendicular. 

On the front of this church is a Time-Ball, regulated from the Obser- 
vatory (p. 170), the fall of which at noon is the signal for the discharge 
of the time gun at the Castello S. Angelo. 

The space between the Piazza S. Ignazio and the Piazza del Colle- 
gio Romano was occupied in antiquity by a famous Temple of Isis, 
and the excavations on this site have brought numerous remains 
of antiquity to light. Among these are the lions, sphinxes, and ca- 
nopi in the Capitoline Museum (p. 207), and the obelisks now in 
front of the Pantheon (p. 180J, S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 182), 
and the railway-station (p. 144). 

On the S. the choir of S. Ignazio adjoins the old Jesuit — 

Collegio Romano (PI. II, 18), where the higher branches of 
classics, mathematics, philosophy, etc., were taught, and degrees 
(laurea) conferred. The extensive building was erected at the end 
of the 16th cent., under Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V., by B. Am- 
manati. The massive principal facade looks S. towards the Piazza 
del Collegio Romano, where also is the entrance to the Liceo Ennio 
Quirino Visconti, established in this wing. — A side-entrance, on 
the E. side of the building, in the Via del Collegio Romano, paral- 
lel to the Corso, admits to the Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele (p. 125) 
and (up three flights of steps) to the — 

*Museo Kircheriano, founded by the learned Athanasius Kircher, 
born near Fulda in 1601, a Jesuit and teacher at Wiirzburg in 1618, 
afterwards professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, and 
celebrated for his historical, mathematical, and scientific researches 
(d. 1680). In 1876 the museum was united with a rich and much 
more extensive ^Ethnographical and Pre-historical Collection 
{Museo Etnografico-preistorico ; adm. pp. 126, 127). The director is 
Commendatore Pigorini. 

We first enter the old Museo Kirchekiano. — In the Corridor 
(PI. 2) to the left of the entrance are show-cases containing small 
articles in bronze, iron, ivory, and bone with a large collection of 
antique Roman and Italian bronze coins (aes grave). The cabinets 
by the walls contain terracotta figures (chiefly votive), lamps, clay 
vessels, and small objects in glass and ivory. In Case III, to the 
left: Silver goblets found in the mineral spring atVicarello (p. 392), 
among which are three in the form of milestones and inscribed with 
the names of the chief stations on the route from Gades (Cadiz) in 
Spain to Rome ; a book consisting of 7 plates of lead inscribed with 
mystical symbols (end of the 2nd cent. A.D.). — Opposite, 3rd Cab. 
to the right (No. VIII) : Large bronze tablet with a dedicatory in- 
scription to Minerva in the Faliscan dialect; above, an iron ring 
with a bronze label bearing the inscription 'I have run away, catch 
me, and restore me to my master, who will reward you with a so- 
lidus', generally supposed to have been intended for a slave, but 



168 II. R. on the Tiber (L.B.). ROME. b. Museo Kireheriano, 



more probably a dog-collar. — By the windows are terracotta reliefs, 
of the kind used in antiquity to decorate the walls of tombs and 
villas ; No. 40, Nile scene ; 107. Combats of animals in the circus. 

Room (PI. 1) at the 
beginning of the corridor. 
In the centre is the famous 
*Ficoronian Cista, named 
after its first owner (Fico- 
rini the antiquarian), and 
found near Palestrina in 
1744. It is a toilet-casket 
of cylindrical form , ad- 
dorned with admirably-en- 
graved designs from the 
story of the Argonauts, 
ranking among the most 
beautiful antique works of 
the kind. 

When the Argonauts on 
their voyage to Colchis 
reached the land of the Beb- 
rykes, the king Amycus pre- 
vented them using a spring 
of water until he had been 
vanquished by Pollux in a 
boxing-contest. The central 
point of the design (compare 
the copy hanging to the left 
of the door) represents the 
punishment of the vanquish- 
ed king, who is bound to a 
tree by the victor. To the 
right is Athene, above whom 
is a Nike with a victor's 
wreath for Pollux. In front 
are Jason and Hercules. Then 
appears the ship Argo ; the 
Greeks bathing in the spring, 
and an Argonaut practising 
boxing, mimicked by a cor- 
pulent Silenus. — The feet 
and the figures on the lid 
are of inferior workmanship ; 
on the latter the inscriptions: 
'Novios Plautios med Romai 
(me Romse) fecid', and 'Dindia 
Macolnia lileai dedif (comp. 
Introd.). 

Also in the centre is a 
fine ancient Bronze Chair 
(bisellium) inlaid with silver. — By the first window : Bronze figures 
of a Youth in whose extended arms was a large basin (fountain- 
figure). — The wall -cases contain Egyptian wooden and bronze 
statuettes, Etruscan idols, small bronze figures of the Roman period, 




fy Museo Pre-istorico. ROME. II. B. on the Tiber (L. B.). 169 

weapons, candelabra, etc. In Case III. is a fragment of a Greek 
mirror-case with a delicately worked relief of a contest of giants. 

The room (PI. 3) at the end of the corridor contains early- 
Christian tomhstones and sarcophagus-reliefs. In the centre is a 
piece of ancient wall found in the Psedagogium on thePalatine (comp. 
p. 238), with a caricature of the Crucifixion scratched upon it : a man 
with the head of an ass, affixed to a cross, with a praying figure at 
the side, and the words 'AXe^afAsvos aefkxe ftsov (Alexamenos wor- 
ships God). This probably represents the sarcastic wit of an im- 
perial page at the expense of some Christian companion. The ass's 
head is supposed to be a reference to the birth of Christ in a stable ; 
but it is clear (Tacitus, Hist. V, 3,4) that the worship of asses was 
attributed by the Romans to the Jews even before the birth of 
Christ. — The cabinets contain mediaeval and Oriental curiosities 
forming part of the original Kircher collection. 

In the long corridor opening opposite this room begins the Eth- 
nographical Collection (with explanatory labels). In the corri- 
dor (PI. 4) are objects from the Polar Regions and from North 
and South America. — The next five rooms (PI. 6-10) represent 
the South Sea Islands, which modern geographers divide into three 
groups, according to the origin of their inhabitants : Melanesia, 
Polynesia, and Micronesia. — In the next corridor (PI. 11), boats 
and other objects, from various countries. In the adjoining cabinet 
(PI. 11a): Embroidered mantle from Mexico, time of Fernando 
Cortez. — Then a series of rooms with articles from Australia 
(PI. 12); South Africa (PI. 13, 14); the Sudan and districts of the 
upp*er Kile (PI. 15, 16); Abyssinia and Shoa (PI. 16-19; numerous 
gifts from African chiefs to the king and queen of Italy), and 
other countries of East Africa (PI. 20, 21); Japan (PI. 22-25); 
Burma (PL 26) ; China (PL 27) ; Indo- China and India (Pl.28-31). 

The Peehistoeic Collection (mainly of Italian origin) begins 
here. Stone-age (PL 32-35); in Room 32 a., adjoining 32, are 
models of megalithic monuments (menhirs and dolmens) from Terra 
d'Otranto; a model of a Sardinian Nurugo, or conical tower sup- 
posed to have been erected by the aboriginal inhabitants of Sardinia 
as a refuge in case of hostile attack. — The following rooms (PL 
36-38) contain objects of the bronze age. — Weapons of the bronze 
and iron ages ; statuette of a warrior with double-horned helmet 
from Sardinia (PL 39). — Iron age (PL 40-42). 

The last room in this series (PL 43) contains the most impor- 
tant article in the collection, viz. the* Treasure of Praeneste, found 
in a tomb atPalestrina (p. 381) in 1877, probably once in the poss- 
ession of a ruler of Praeneste at the beginning of the 7th cent. B.C. 

The chief objects are exhibited in the Central Compartment: No. 1. 
Breast (or head) decoration, with 131 lions, horses, and various fantastic 
animals attached to it in rows, adorned with rows of minute gold points ; 
4, 5, 6. Cylinders of thin gold, ornamented with delicate granulated work. 
No. 2. Golden fibula ; 26. Fragments of a Silver bowl with gilt reliefs, in the 



170 II. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). ROME. 6. Museo Pre-istorico , 

Egyptian style: Victorious king and Arnmon-Ra,, History of Osiris; above 
the wing of the hawk in the interior design, in Phoenician letters, is the 
name of the maker or original possessor 'Esmunjai ben Asto'; 20. Two- 
handled Beaker of dull gold; 25. Flat Silver Bowl with gilded reliefs (royal 
hunting -scenes, horses, and birds). 23. Large Round Silver Qilt Goblet, 
with six snakes forming the handles; the bowl is decorated with rows 
of figures of armed men, wild beasts, and birds. 24. Silver-gilt bowl, 
the interior of which is enriched with two rows of horses, oxen, birds, 
and trees ; found adhering to an iron axe, much rusted, which has taken 
the impression of part of it. — In the central compartment also : 27, 28. 
Two daggers; blue glass bowl; ivory reliefs to be inlaid with wood; etc. 
In the Upper Compartment: 72. Very primitive Tripod of bronze and 
iron, with three human figures on the edge looking into the interior, and 
three animals; 81. Large bronze basis, in the form of a blun'ed cone. — 
In the Lower Compartment: 75. Fragments of a large Caldron of hammered 
bronze, with griffins' heads as handles; fragments of bronze plates, which 
were hung on the walls of the tomb. 

Finally come several rooms with American antiquities (PI. 44; 
Mexican masks, Peruvian vessels and masks) and with prehistoric 
relics from Switzerland, France , Scandinavia, and Russia (PL 45, 46). 

The small Observatory in the Collegio Romano, which acquired 
a European reputation under Padre Secchi (d. 1878), is shown in 
the morning to visitors with an introduction. 

From the small Piazza del Collegio Romano (PI. II, 18), the 
Via di Pie di Marmo leads to the "W. in a few minutes to S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (p. 182). Opposite the Collegio Romano, next to the 
choir of S. Maria in Via Lata (p. 164), rises the extensive — 

*Palazzo Doria (PL II, 18), one of the most magnificent pa- 
laces in Rome. The E. facade, by Valvasori, in the Corso, see p. 
164. The court in the interior is surrounded by arcades. The N. 
facade, by Pietro da Cortona, is in the Piazza del Collegio Romano ; 
and here (No. la) is the entrance to the — 

*Galleria Doria on the 1st floor (adm. pp. 126, 127 ; catalogues 
in each room ; fee i/ 2 fr.). In winter the galleries and other rooms 
are very cold. — The Doria Gallery resembles the other Roman 
collections in possessing examples of different schools, but the 
founders have shown a preference for works of the 17th century. The 
gems of the collection are in the three galleries. Among the most 
interesting of the older paintings, will be noted theMadonnas ofNic- 
colb Rondinelli, a little-known master of the close of the 15th cent, 
who has happily imitated the golden colouring of the old Venetians, 
and is one of Giov. Bellini's ablest followers. Raphael, the prince 
of cinquecentists, is represented by the portraits of two Venetian 
scholars, Andrea Navagero and Agostino Beazzano; but the authen- 
ticity of the work has been questioned, and the touch is certainly 
somewhat different from Raphael's usual style, although the vigorous 
tone and breadth of colouring may be accounted for by his habit of 
fresco painting. The Johanna of Aragon is a copy only. Titian's 
Daughter of Herodias, and a portrait by Lor. Lotto are admirable 
Venetian works. The portrait of Andrea Doria by Sebastian del 



$ Doria Gallery. ROME. II. B. ontke Tiber (L.B.). 171 

Piombo is not "Venetian in character, t>ut is interesting from the 
faculty displayed by the master of imparting an air of dignity to a 
forbidding subject. This -work, however, and the coldly aristocratic 
portrait of Gianettino Doria by A. Bronzino, have been removed from 
the gallery to the private apartments of the prince and are not shown 
to the public. The colouring of the portrait of Pope Innocent X., by 
Velazquez, is strikingly rich ; the skilful manner in which the three 
shades of red are blended should be particularly noticed. Oarofalo, 
though not a master of the highest rank, has produced an admirable 
work in his Nativity of Christ. The landscape-painters of the 
17th cent, are also well represented. In the landscapes of Anni- 
bale Carraeci we observe a conflict between historic and scenic ima- 



Ingresgi 




Via del Corso 



gination , and the obtrusion of the former at the expense of har- 
mony of effect. The pictures by Salvator Rosa are not among his 
best works, but Claude Lorrairis landscapes, are justly admired. 
His 'mill' , and the landscape with the temple of Apollo, may be 
regarded as models of ideal landscape ; the effect is produced by 
the beauty of the lines and the skilful gradations of distance. — 
The Netherlands Schools of the 15th and 17th cent, are scantily 
represented, but some of the pictures, as Memling's Descent from 
the Cross (not at present in the gallery), and Lievms' Sacrifice of 
Isaac, are worthy rivals of their Italian neighbours. 

"We traverse a room with unimportant paintings of the 16-17th 
cent., and turning to the right enter the — 



172 II. B. on the Tiber (L. B.). ROME. 6. Doria Gallery, 

II. Galleky. *114. A. Bronzino (?), Portrait of Machiavelli; 
446. Sofonisba Anguissola ('?), 'Titian and his wife'; *265. Correggio, 
Triumph of Virtue, unfinished, dead -colouring in tempera (accord- 
ing to Morelli a French copy of a painting in the Louvre with slight 
alterations) ; 313. Old copy of Oiorgione's Concert (in the Pitti Gal- 
lery) ; 322, 328, 332, 348. Jan Breughel the Elder, Four elements; 
*312. Qarofalo, Nativity (an early work) ; 355. not Titian, Portrait 
of a poet ; 358. Raphael, Johanna of Aragon, Netherlandish copy : 
131. Titian, Portrait; 233. Rubens, Portrait of his confessor (an early 
work) ; 336. Bonifazio I., Holy Family in a landscape (an early work); 
*517. Titian (not Pordenone), Daughter of Herodias with the head 
of John the Baptist (early work) ; *315, 111. Rondinelli, Madonnas; 
between them, 334. Jan Lievens, Sacrifice of Isaac; 154. Rubens (?), 
Portrait; 307. Style of Quinten Malays, Money-changers disputing; 
159. Lor. Lotto, St. Jerome; 220. Dosso Dossi, Christ expelling the 
money-changers; 447. Pordenone, Portrait. — A few steps now de- 
scend to the — 

I. Room : also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the 
collection are frequently brought. Antiquities: in the middle, a Cen- 
taur in pietra dura and rosso antico (freely restored) ; four Sarco- 
phagi, with (No. 1) the hunt of Meleager, (3) history of Marsyas, (6) 
Diana and Endymion, and (under the second window) procession of 
Bacchus. Two fine circular altars ; 2. Duplicate of the so-called 
Diana of Gabii in the Louvre ; 4. Archaistic statue of the bearded 
Dionysus ; no number, Ulysses in the flock of Polyphemus ; and a 
number of statuettes, some of fine quality. Pictures: 50, 51, 56, 57, 
59, 60. Landscapes by Oasp. Poussin and his followers. — We now 
retrace our steps and turn to the right into the — 

I. Gallery. 98. Oiov. Bellini (Rondinelli?), Holy Family; 558. 
School of Giov. Bellini, Madonna and saints; 215. Mazzolino, Christ 
in the Temple ; 317. 6. Romano, Copy of a Holy Family by Raphael. 
By the window opposite: 522. School of Mantegna (?), Bearing of 
the Cross. Farther to the right: 359. Nic. Poussin, Copy of the 
Aldobrandine Nuptials (p. 312); 274. Brueghel. Creation of the 
animals ; 241. Saraceni, Repose on the Flight into Egypt; 228. Qaro- 
falo , Visit of the Virgin to Elizabeth (retouched); 266. Claude 
Lorrain, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt; 250. Honthorst, Lot 
and his daughters; 131. School of Titian, Portrait; 302. Sassoferrato, 
Holy Family; 283. Ann. Carracci, Mary Magdalen; 206. Qarofalo, 
Holy Family. 

To the right are a number of rooms. — Room 9. *487. Lor. 
Costa, Holy Family ; *269. Qarofalo, Holy Family. — Room 8. Se- 
veral interesting antique portrait-heads; landscapes by Momper, 
Tempesta, and Orrizonte; fruit-pieces by Weenix. — Room 7. 314. 
Lod. Carracci, Holy Family; in the corner, fine marble head of 
Serapis. 444. Borgognone and C. Maratta, Capture of the town of 
Castro in 1649, one of the chief military exploits of Pope Innocent X.; 



& SS. Apostoli. ROME. //. R. onrthe Tiber (L. B.). 173 

106. Lod. Carracci, St. Sebastian. — Room 6. 428. Mazzolino, 
Massacre of the Innocents ; Salvator Rosa, 305.Belisarius, 446. Land- 
scape. — We return and straight on is the — 

IV. Gallery. To the right : Jacob wrestling with the angel, a 
group in marble, of Bernini's school. Also a few unimportant antique 
Roman sculptures. — The adjoining Corner Cabinet contains 
the gems of the collection: **289. Velazquez, Pope Innocent X.; 
361. Jac. Tintoretto (Titian ?), Portrait of an old man ; **130. Raphael, 
Navagero and Beazzano , of the master's Roman period; 148. Ru- 
bens (?), Portrait; *109. Bonifazio, Portrait. 

III. Gallery. 549. Dosso Dossi, Vannozza, mother of Cesare 
and Lucrezia Borgia (?) ; 282. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with 
Diana hunting; 320. Fra Bartolommeo (?), Holy Family; 126. P. 
Veronese; Portrait; 350. Teniers, Rustic festival; 261. Bart. Schi- 
done, Angel healing St. Rochus; *263. Claude Lorrain, Landscape 
with a temple of Apollo; 137. Ann. Carracci, Pieta; *237. Claude 
Lorrain, The mill, a master-piece ; erroneously ascribed to Holbein, 
178. Portrait of a man, with a carnation and a purse, signed 'at the 
age of 40, 1545', and 170. Portrait of a woman, signed 'at the age of 
36, 1545'; opposite, 504. School of Dosso Dossi, Woman playing the 
violin (half-length) ; 240. Ann. Carracci, Assumption of the Virgin. 
No number, Bust of Olympia Maidalchini-Pamphilj, by Algardi. 

The Rooms marked Nos. 5, 4, 3 and 2, on the plan are not at present 
shown to the public. Of the paintings formerly here displayed may be 
mentioned (besides those noted on p. 171): the beautiful predella of a now 
lost altar-piece, by Franc. Pesellino; St. Sebastian by Marco Basaiti; An- 
nunciation by Fra Filippo Lippi; Holy Family by Bom. Ohirlandajo; John the 
Baptist, St. .Agnes by Guercino ; and the portrait of a boy, of the /Spanish /School. 

The Via della Gatta, skirting the W. side of the Palazzo Doria 
ends to the S. in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 187), opposite 
the Palazzo Venezia. 

Returning to the E. from the Piazza del Collegio Romano, past 
S. Maria in Via Lata (p. 164), to the Corso, and thence continuing 
straight on by the Via SS. Apostoli, we reach the Piazza di SS. 
Apostoli (PI. II, 21). The E. side of this oblong space is occupied 
by the church of SS. Apostoli and the main facade of the Palazzo 
Colonna; and the S. end is skirted by the Via Nazionale (p. 160). 

The church of SS. Apostoli was founded by Pelagius I. in honour 
of SS. Philip and James , re-erected under Clement XI. by Franc. 
Fontana in 1702, and restored after a fire in 1871. The vestibule 
erected about 1500 by Baccio Pintelli (?), the only part of the build- 
ing earlier than 1702, contains (on the left) the monument of the 
engraver Giov. Volpato by Canova (1807), and (on the right) an ad- 
mirable ancient eagle with chaplet of oak-leaves, from Trajan's Forum. 

Interior. Eight Aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Anthony by Luti. In the Left 
Aisle , 2nd Chapel : Descent from the Cross by Franc. Manno. At the end, 
to the left, over the entrance into the sacristy : Monument of Clement XIV. 
by Canova; on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune, with 
altar-piece by Muralori (said to be the largest in Home), are the monu- 
ments erected by Sixtus IV. to his two nephews, the Cardinals Eiario; 



174 II. R. on the Tiber (L. B.J. ROME. 6. Pal. Colonna, 

on the left that of Pietro (d. 1474), partly by Mino da Fiesole, and on the 
right that of Alessandro. Beneath is the tomb of Giraud (d. 1505, husband 
of the niece of Julius II. On the vaulted ceiling of the tribune, Fall of 
the Angels, a fresco by Giov. Odassi, in the baroque style, but of striking 
effect. The older church was decorated by Melozzo da Forli, a fine fragment 
of whose frescoes is now in the Quirinal (p. 151) , and others are in the 
sacristy of St. Peter's (p. 276). 

The passage in the monastery adjacent to the church contains a monu- 
ment to Michael Angelo, who lived and died in the parish of SS. Apostoli, 
and the tomb of Card. Bessarion (d. 1472). 

The *Palazzo Colonna (PI. II , 21), an extensive pile between 
the Piazza SS. Apostoli and the Via Pilotta, bounded on the S. by 
the Via Nazionale (p. 150), was begun by Martin V. (Colonna) in 
the beginning of the 15th cent., and much extended and altered in 
the 17th and 18th centuries. The *Gali,eb,ia Colonna on the first 
floor (adm., see pp. 126, 127 ; l /% fr. on leaving) is entered from No. 17 
Via della Pilotta, (pp. 149, 163), at the back. The street is spanned 
by three arches connecting the upper floor of the palace with its 
garden (p. 175). 

In the vestibule is an antique figure of a girl playing with astra- 
gali, described as a 'Daughter of Niobe'. 

I. Room. From right to left. Tintoretto, Narcissus, in a fine 
landscape ; Moroni, Portrait ; Pietro Novelli, Marcantonio Colonna ; 
Oirol. Muziano , Vittoria Colonna, the friend of Michael Angelo ; 
Lor. Lotto (?), Card. Pompeo Colonna (?), much damaged; Tinto- 
retto, Adoration of the Holy Ghost, with four busts beneath-, Ag. 
Carracci, Pompeo Colonna; Bronzino, Venus and Cupid; Hieron. 
Bosch (not Cranach), Temptation of St. Anthony; Van Dyck, Lu- 
crezia Colonna ; Dom. Ohirlandajo (?), Reconciliation between the 
Romans and Sabines ; *Bonifazio I. (not Titian), Madonna with 
saints (an early work); Pietro Novelli, Isabella Colonna and her 
infant son Lorenzo Onofrio ; Piero di Cosimo (not Dom. Ohirlan- 
dajo'), Rape of the Sabine women ; *Palma Vecchio, Madonna with 
St. Peter and the donor; in the centre a Renaissance column of red 
marble with scenes from a campaign in relief. 

A staircase, on which a cannon-ball fired into the city during 
the bombardment of 1849 has fixed itself, descends to the — 

II. Gallery, with gorgeous decorations by Antonio del Grande 
and Oirolamo Fontana, and ceiling-paintings by Coli and Oherardi 
(Battle of Lepanto , 8th Oct. 1571 , which Marcantonio Colonna at 
the head of the papal fleet assisted in gaining). On the walls 
mirrors painted with flowers (by Mario de' Fiorf) and genii (by C. 
Maraita). The antique statues here are of no great value, most of 
them modernised. Reliefs built into the wall under the windows 
(left): Selene in the chariot (archaistic style); Wounded man, borne 
away by his friends ; Head of Pallas. Paintings : right wall, Scip. 
Gaetano, Family group of the Colonnas (1581); Guercino, Martyr- 
dom of St. Emmerentia; School of Van Dyck, Don Carlo Colonna, 
equestrian portrait; Franc. Albani, Pieta; Crist. Allori, Christ in 



#■ Galleria Colonna. ROME. //. R. on the Tiber (L. BJ. 1 75 

Hades; Sustermans, Fed. Colonna; Rubens (?), Assumption of the 
Virgin. Left -wall: Jac. Tintoretto; Double portrait; N. Poussin, Ci- 
mone and Eflgenia (Boccaccio's Decamerone Y, 1); Niccolo [Alunno^j 
da Foligno, Madonna rescuing a child from a demon. 

III. Room. Twelve -water-colour *Landscapes by Oaspard Pous- 
sin, which are among his finest works and the most valuable in this 
gallery. Some of them are unfavourably hung , but every one of 
them will repay careful inspection. They represent a mountain- 
road close to a profound ravine, a bleak plain lashed by a storm, a 
calm lake enclosed by majestic trees, a riven rocky landscape with 
waterfall, and various other subjects. Notwithstanding the sim- 
plicity and uniformity of the materials used, these works will not 
fail to interest by the excellence of the composition and drawing. 
— Window-wall : N. Poussin, Metamorphosis of Daphne ; a large 
cabinet with ivory carving by Franc, and Bom. Steinhard (in the 
centre, the Last Judgment, after Michael Angelo). Over the first 
window on the left: Roman relief, Delivery of a testament to a 
praetor. 

IV. Room. Ceiling-painting by Batoni and Luti (in honour of 
Martin V.). Entrance-wall: Over the door , Bordone (not Bonifa- 
zio"), Madonna and saints; P. Veronese, Portrait of a man ; Hol- 
bein (?), Lor. Colonna; Jac. Bassano, Body of Christ supported by 
angels. Right wall : *Paris Bordone , Madonna with saints , re- 
touched; Ann, Carracci, Bean-eater; Domenico Puligo, Madonna; 
Spagna, St. Jerome, interesting ; Albani, Rape of Europa. Exit- 
wall: Oirolamo da Treviso (?), Portrait, described without evi- 
dence as PoggioBracciolini; Bronzino, Holy Family; *Titian, Onu- 
phrius Panvinius, an admirable study of the master's best period 
(name arbitrary); Oiov. Bellini, St. Bernhard. Window- wall : 
Ouido Reni, St. Agnes; Tintoretto, Two portraits. 

V. Room. Throne-room, with handsome old carpet. 

VI. Room. Entrance-wall: Parmeggianino, Holy Family; Innoc. 
da Imola, Same subject; two Madonnas surrounded by smaller cir- 
cular pictures of the joys and sorrows of the Virgin, erroneously 
attributed to Van Eyck but by a Dutch master of the 16th cent.; of 
miniature-like execution. Right wall : Franc. Albani , Two land- 
scapes ; Gentile da Fabriano (more probably, Stefano da Zevio), Ma- 
donna ; Giulio Romano, Madonna (comp. p. lxviii) ; Catena (?), Ma- 
donna; Melozzo da Forli (more probably Florentine School), St. 
Rochus; Jacopo degli Avanzi, of Bologna, Crucifixion; Giov. Santi 
(father of Raphael) , Portrait ; Bugiardini , Madonna. Exit-wall : 
School of Sandro Botticelli, Madonna. 

A few other rooms (frequently closed) contain old tapestries 
and paintings of lesser interest. 

The Villa CoLOSNa, or garden of the palace (comp. p. 174), which 
is entered by visitors only at Via del Qtiirinale 12 (p. 152), contains several 
antiquities, fragments of a colossal architrave and entablature, and con- 
siderable portions of the brick-walls of the Thermae of Constantine, which 



176 II.R.ontheTiber(L.B.). ROME. 6. Pal. $ Gall. Torlonia. 

formerly extended over the entire Piazza del Quirinale (p. 150). The 
terrace commands a good survey of the city. 

The Palazzo Torlonia (PT. II, 17, 20), on the B. side of the 
Piazza Venezia (No. 135), formerly the Palazzo Bolognetti, built 
about 1650 by C. Fontaria, is the residence of Prince Don Giulio 
Torlonia, duke of Ceii. Here temporarily (comp. p. 165) is the 
collection of art founded by prince Giovanni Torlonia (d. 1829). 

In the court are some antique statues, few of importance ; two 
large reliefs: captives before the emperor Lucius Verus (perhaps 
from a triumphal arch) , Contests between gladiators and wild 
beasts. On the marble staircase to the first floor, Psyche supported 
by Zephyrs, by Gibson. 

On the first floor is the Gallema. Torlonia (adm. pp. 126, 127), 
which is to be removed to a new gallery built for it by the State 
which acquired the collection in 1892. Masters of the first rank 
are here represented by copies only. The Netherlandish paintings 
of the 17th cent., especially the portraits, are, however, excellent; 
while amon g the Italian pictures the chief are the remarkable Madonna 
attributed to Dosso Dossi (No. 24), and the Venetian views by 
Canaletto. The marble group of Hercules and Lichas is one of Ca- 
nova's best works. 

I. Room. 1. Copy of Pontormo, Tobias and the angel; 3. D. Beeck, 
Portrait of a viceroy of Sicily. 

II. Room. 15, 30, 33, 36. Fr. Snyders, Four excellent hunting-scenes. 
— Right wall: 18. Bronzino, Hebe; 24. Veronese School (attributed to Dosso 
Dossi), Mary and Elizabeth. — Exit-wall: 34. Ascribed to Titian, Portrait. 

III. Room. 78, 84. Jan Verspronck, Two good portraits; 54. Bron- 
zino, Portrait; 82. Copy of the 'Bella Simonetta' in the Pitti Gallery at Flo- 
rence. — Exit-wall : 75. Copy of Holbein, Sir Thomas More ; 72. School of 
Holbein, Henry VIII. of England; 70. Copy of Raphael's portrait of Count 
Bald. Castiglione (in the Louvre); 69. Lombard School (not Holbein), Por- 
trait of a cavalier. 

IV. Room. Throne-room. Portrait of Pius IX. 

V. Room. To the left of the entrance: 105. /. van Ravestein, Por- 
trait; 106, 107. Garofalo (?), Portrait. — Window-wall: 103. Perin del 
Vaga, Madonna; 101. Bagnacavallo, Malonm. — Wall opposite the 
entrance: 100. Van Dyck, Genoese noblemnn; 97, 99. Bagnacavallo, Animal 
pieces. — Right wall: 95. Old copy (ascribed to Bugiardini) of Raphael's 
portrait of Leo X., with alterations in the subsidiary figures; 93. 
Copy of Filippino Lippi, Madonna; 90. School of Perugino, St. Anthony of 
Padua. — We return to R. III. and thence enter the — 

I. Gallery. To the right: 112. Oiulio Romano, Dancing putti; 116. 
Copy of Titian, Venus and Adonis (original at Madrid). 

II. Gallery. 154. Tenters, Village tavern; 157. Brueghel, Landscape; 
159, 167. A. Palamedesz, Genre scenes; 172. Oriffier, Landscape. 

III. Gallery. 2!)0, 261. Canaletto, Piazza di S. Marco in Venice; 207. 
Netherlandish School (not Van Eyck), Crucifixion; 254. E. van der Neer, 
Girl; Canaletto, 234. Canal in Venice, 230. Rialto Bridge. — At the end, 
to the right, is the Banqueting Hall containing Canova's group (executed 
1801) of Hercules clad in the shirt of Nessus hurling Lichas into the sea. 

IV. Gallery. 274. (?. van den Eeckhout, Emmseus ; 273. School of 
Rembrandt, Caritas liomnna; 2->9. Jan Langhen, Portrait of a young man 
with a lute; 231. Women and nymphs from the 'Bacchanal' of Rubens; 
290. Copy of Cima da Conegliano, Madonna. 

In the I. Gallery also, 133. Ribera, Beggar. 



ROME. 77. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 177 
c. From the Fiazza di Spagna to the Ponte S. Angelo. 

The Omnibuses plying between the Piazza di Spagna and the Vatican 
do not traverse the direct route described below, but go through side- 
streets (comp. Appendix, p. i, No. 5). 

The chief side-street diverging from the N. portion of the Via del 
Oorso is the Via Condotii (PI. 1, 18), which, with its W. continuation 
the Via dell a Fontanella di Borghese , forms the shortest route 
between the strangers' quarter near the Piazza di Spagna and the 
Vatican quarter (about 18 min. walk to the Ponte S. Angelo). The 
street eontains nothing of interest beyond its fine shops, for 
trinkets, mosaics, jewels, photographs, etc. It crosses the Oorso 
to the S. of S. Carlo (p. 160). 

On the other side of the Corso the street takes the name of Via 
dblla Fontanella di Borghese (PI. I, 18, 15). Behind us the 
church of S. Trinita de' Monti (p. 136) forms a handsome termina- 
tion to the street. The chief building is the — 

Palazzo Borghese (PI. I, 15, 18), begun by order of Card. Dezza 
in 1590 by Mart. Lunghi the Elder, and completed by Flaminio Ponzio 
(d. 1615) by order of Paul V., through whom it came into the pos- 
session of the Borghese family. The "Court is surrounded by a 
tasteful colonnade in two stories, with clustered granite columns, and 
contains three ancient colossal statues (a Muse, an Apollo Musa- 
getes, and a portrait-statue); at the end of the right passage a frag- 
ment of the statue of an Amazon. Behind lies the small garden, con- 
taining three baroque fountains by Carlo Rainaldi, and some trifling 
antiquities. The groundfloor, which formerly contained the celebrated 
picture-gallery, removed to the the Villa Borghese in 1891 (p. 177), 
is now occupied by Sangiorgio the dealer in antiquities (p. 120). 
The decoration of the first room, executed by Carlo Villani in grisaille 
and gold, is noteworthy, and also the seventh room, the walls of 
which are covered with mirrors, painted in oil with Cupids (by Ciro 
Ftrri) and wreaths of flowers (by Mario de' Fiori). 

The "W. side of the Palazzo Borghese is towards the little Piazza 
Borghese. The side-streets to the N. of this piazza lead to the old 
harbour, Porto di Ripetta (PI. I, 15), where an iron bridge now 
spans the river. The picturesque curving flights of steps (constructed 
by Clement XI. in 1704 with stones from the Colosseum) have lost 
greatly in effect by the bridge; and the old view of the Castello S. 
Angelo and St. Peter's dome, well-known from many ancient pic- 
tures, has been completely concealed by the buildings on the Prati 
di Castello (p. 267). 

To the right in the Via di Ripetta is the church of S. Rocco 
(PI. I, 16), built in 1657 by Giov. Ant. de' Rossi. — To the left, 
farther to the N., is a building erected about 1840, with a central 
part in the shape of a horseshoe (11 Ferro di Cavallo), now contain- 
ing studios belonging to the Accademia di Belle Arti, or di S. Luca 
(p. 228). — The N. end of the Via di Ripetta debouches in the 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. 12 



178 II. B.on the Tiber (L.B.). ROME. c. From the Piazza diSpagna 

Piazza del Popolo (p. 133). The quay Lungo Tevere (see below) 
skirts the Tiber. To the W. of the Piazza del Popolo the river is 
crossed by the Ponte Margherita (comp. p. 133 and P). I, 14). 

In the Via de' Ponteflci (p. 160), the cross-street betweenS. Rocco 
and the Academy, is the entrance (No. 57 ; on the right) to the 
Mausoleum of Augustus (PI. I, 17, 18), erected by that emperor 
as a burial-place for himself and his family, and in which most of 
his successors down to Nerva were interred. 

On a huge substructure, which contained the mortuary chambers, arose 
a mound of earth in the form of terraces, embellished with cypresses, sur- 
mounted by a statue of the emperor, and environed with a park. Iu the 
middle ages it was converted into a fortress by the Colonnas; and a theatre 
(Anfiteatro Umberto I.) is now fitted up in the substructure. A few of the 
tomb-chambers are still preserved. Fee >/2 fr- Generally closed at midday. 

Beyond the Piazza Borghese the Via FontanelladiBorghese inter- 
sects the Via di Ripetta (p. 177) and the Via della Scrofa (see below), 
which here unite, and assumes the name of Via del Clementino 
(PI. I, 15). To the left in this street is the new Palazzo Oalitzin, an 
imitation of the Pal. Giraud (p. 267), in front of which is the little 
Piazza Nicosia. Farther on the street is known as the Via di Monte 
Brianzo and Via di Tordinona. In the latter a whole row of houses 
has been pulled down and now lies in ruins. A spacious quay named 
the Lungo Tevere, and a new bridge named the Ponte Umberto I. 
are in progress (PI. I, 15). — In about lOmin. from the Palazzo 
Borghese we reach the Ponte S. Angela (p. 266). 



Turning to the S. from the Via Fontanella di Borghese into the 
Via della Scrofa (PI. I, II, 15), and after 5min. taking the fourth 
cross-street to the right (in front, straight on, is S. Luigi de' Fran- 
cesi, p. 184), we reach the piazza and church of — 

*S. Agostino (PI. II, 15). The latter was erected by Qiac. da Pie- 
trasanta in 1479-83 by order of Card. d'Estouteville, the protector of 
the Augustinians, on the site of an old oratorium. This was the first 
domed ecclesiastical edifice in Rome. The facade and the spacious ex- 
terior flight of steps are said to be constructed of stones from the Colos- 
seum. The interior, in the form of a Latin cross, was restored in 1750, 
and finally in 1860, when it was adorned with frescoes by Oagliardi. 

Interior. On the entrance-wall a Madonna and Child ('Madonna del 
Parto'), in marble, by Jac. Sansovino, surrounded by numerous votive offer- 
ings. In the 1st Chapel on the right, St. Catharine by Venusti; in the 
2nd, Nucci's free copy of the lost Madonna della Rosa of Raphael; in the 
4th, Christ delivering the keys to Peter, a group by Giov. Baft. Cotignola. 
By the 5th Chapel is the monument with bust of the learned Onofrio Pan- 
vinio (d. 1568). — Adjoining the door of the sacristy is the monument of 
the learned Cardinal Noris. — The Right Transept contains the chapel 
of St. Augustine with an altar-piece by Quercino: St. Augustine between 
John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. 

The High Altar was decorated by Bernini ; the image of the Madonna is 
said to have been painted by St. Luke, and brought from the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. In the chapel on the left of this the tomb of 
St. Monica, mother of Augustine, by Isaia da Pisa, almost completely 
destroyed in 1760; altar-piece by Goitardi. 



to the Ponte S. Angelo. ROME. II. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 179 

The 2nd Chapel in the Left Aisle contains a line group in marble (St. 
Anna, Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Sansovino (1512), executed at the ex- 
pense of Jon. Goritz (Coricius) of Luxembourg and originally placed under 
Raphael's Isaiah, which was also painted for Goritz. In the 4th chapel 
St. Apollonia, altar-piece by Oirol. Muziano. — In the Nave, on the 3rd pillar 
to the left, Raphael's Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from 
Is. xxvi , 2, painted in 1512 , but partly retouched by Dan. da Volterra 
and much injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to 
have been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. 

To the right of the church is the entrance to the Biblioteca 
Angelica, founded in 1605 (adm., see p. 125). 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Agostino straight through the 
archway, we reach the Piazza S. Apollinare (PI. II, 15), in which 
are situated the Seminario Romano, a kind of grammar-school, and 
8. Apollinare, an old church, rebuilt in 1552 and 1750, and owing 
its present form to Fuga. — Opposite the church is the Pal. Altemps, 
of the 16th cent., completed by the elder Lunghi, possessing a hand- 
some double court with arcades and a few antiques. 

Omnibus from the Via di S. Apollinare to the Porta S. Lorenzo via the 
Piazza Ouglielmo Pepe (p. 156), see p. 841. 

The Via db' Coronari (PI. II, 15, 12), running to the W. be- 
tween the Piazza S. Agostino and Piazza S. Apollinare and the 
Piazza Navona, ends near the Ponte S. Angelo. About half-way is 
th erear-facade of the Palazzo Lancellotti, erected under SixtusV. 
by F. da Volterra , and completed by C. Maderna. The portal on 
the N. main facade is by Domenichino. The court contains ancient 
statues and reliefs. In the private apartments of Prince Lancellotti, 
shown by special permission only, stands the celebrated Discus 
Thrower, found on the Esquiline in 1761, a marble copy of the 
bronze statue by Myron (p. 297). — No. 7 in the adjacent Via della 
Maschera d'Oro (near the Piazza Fiammetta) is adorned with a frieze 
■with paintings from the myth of Niobe by Polidoro da Caravaggio 
(much damaged). 

Side-streets at the end of the Via de' Coronari lead to the right 
to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 266) and to the left to the W. end of the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 192). 

For the adjacent churches of S. Maria delV Anima and S. Maria 
della Pace, see pp. 185, 186 ; Piazza Navona, see p. 184. 

d. From the Piazza Colonna past the Pantheon to the Piazza 
Navona (Circo Agonale) and thence to the Ponte S. Angelo. 
Piazza Colonna, see p. 162. — The side-streets to the right and 
left of the colonnade on the W. side of the Piazza Colonna lead to 
the Piazza di Monte Citorio (PI. II, 18). The rising in this piazza 
is entirely due to buried ruins, at one time erroneously believed to 
be those of the amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, but really those 
of the construction used for the solemn cremation of the bodies of 
the emperors at their apotheosis. 

On the N. side of the Mte. Citorio stands the spacious Camera 
de' Deputati (PI. II, 18), begun for the Ludovisi family by Ber- 

12* 



180 //. R.ontheTiber(L.B.). ROME. d.Fromthe Piazza Colonna 

nini (1650), but finished under Innocent XII. by C. Fontana for 
the papal tribunal. The building was fitted up and the court in the 
interior roofed over in 1871 for the use of the Italian parliament. 
The sittings usually take place in the afternoon. Entrance to the 
public seats at the back, No. 10. The door-keeper will sometimes 
provide visitors with better places (fee 1 fr.). 

The Obelisk which has occupied the centre of the piazza since 
1789 was, like that in the Piazza del Popolo (p. 133), brought to 
Rome by Augustus. In antiquity it stood near the site of the pre- 
sent church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (p. 161), and was used as the 
indicator of a sun-dial. It was originally erected in Egypt in the 
7th cent. B.C. by Psammetichus I. Height, including the globe 
and pedestal, 84 ft. 

The usually animated Piazza del Pantheon (PI. II, 18) may 
be reached hence by turning to the right (W.), at the foot of the 
Monte Citorio and crossing the small Piazza Capranica, with the 
theatre of that name (the street to the right leads hence to S. Agos- 
tino and the Via de' Coronari, pp. 179, 178). Above the large Foun- 
tain in the Piazza del Pantheon, erected by Onorio Lunghi under 
Gregory XIII. in 1575, was placed the upper end of a broken obelisk 
from the temple of Isis (p. 167) by order of Clement XI. 

On the S. side of the piazza rises the church of S. Maria Rotonda, 
or the **Pantheon, the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still 
in perfect preservation, i.e. the only one the walls and the vault- 
ing of which still stand. The original statues and architectural de- 
corations have long since been replaced by modern works or dis- 
figured. The foundation of the building dates from the time of 
Augustus, whose son-in-law Agrippa, according to the inscription 
on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. f. Cos. tertium fecit), erected it in 
27 B.C. It was struck by lightning in the reign of Trajan. Hadrian 
restored it, and the most recent investigations (1892) prove 
that to him are due the whole of the present circular building and 
the vaulting, while the original pavement was discovered 6 ft. below 
the present pavement. A subsequent restoration took place under 
Septimius Severus and Caracalla (in 202 according to the inscrip- 
tion). The walls, constructed of admirable brickwork, 20 ft. in thick- 
ness, were originally covered with marble and stucco. 

The Portico (36 yds. wide, 14 yds. deep), to which five steps 
ascended in antiquity (now covered by the raising of the ground 
all around), is borne by 16 Corinthian columns of granite, 13 ft. 
in circumference , and 39 ft. in height ; the tympanum formerly 
contained reliefs, and the roof was embellished by statues. Eight of 
the columns are in front ; the others form three colonnades, origin- 
ally vaulted over, the outer ones terminating in niches, in which 
stood the colossal statues of Augustus and his son-in-law M. Agrippa. 
In 1632 Pope Urban VIII. (Barberini) removed the brazen tubes on 
which the roof rested, and caused them to be converted into columns 



to the Piazza Navona. ROME. II. R. on the Tiber (L.B.). 181 

for the canopy of the high-altar of St. Peter's and cannons for the 
castle of S. Angelo. This Vandalism gave rise to the epigram of 
Pasquin, 'Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini . The two 
campanili, 'Bernini's ass's ears', as they were derisively termed, 
erected under the same pope, were removed in 1883. — The 
Entrance is still closed with its ancient door strongly secured by 
bronze plates. 

The Interior (closed at midday), lighted by a single aperture 
in the centre of the dome, produces so beautiful an effect that it 
was currently believed even in antiquity that the temple derived the 
name of Pantheon, from its resemblance to the vault of heaven 
(comp. p. xlviii). The height and diameter of the dome are equal, 
being each 140 ft. The diameter of the opening is 30 ft. The surface 
of the walls is broken by 7 large niches, in which stood the statues 
of the gods, including, as has been ascertained, those of Mars, Venus, 
and Caesar. The architrave is borne by fluted columns of giallo 
antico or pavonazzetto in couples, the shafts being 26 ft. in height. 
Above the latter, and corresponding with the niches, formerly rose 
a series of round arches, borne by Caryatides, but they appear to 
have been removed during the restoration of the edifice in antiquity. 
The white marble, porphyry, and serpentine decorations of the 
attica or attic story remained in part till 1747 , when they were 
barbarously covered with whitewash. The coffered ceiling of the 
vault consists of concrete, and the whole roof was covered with gilded 
bronze tiles, which the Emp. Constans II. removed to Constanti- 
nople in 655. Since the pontificate of Gregory III. the roof has been 
covered with lead. In 609 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope 
Boniface IV. as a Christian church, under the name of 8. Maria ad 
Martyres (p. 355), and in commemoration of the event the festival 
of All Saints was instituted (13th May, but afterwards celebrated 
on 1st Nov.). A palace, a cathedral-chapter, and a cardinal's title 
were afterwards attached to the church. 

In the second recess to the right of the high-altar is the burial vault 
of King Victor Emanuel II. (d. Jan. 9, 1878), always covered with numerous 
wreaths. — In the chapel to the left of the high-altar stands the simple 
monument of Card. Consalvi (buried in S. Marcello, p. 164), by Thorvaldsen. 

By the 3rd altar to the left is Raphael's Tomb (b. 28th March, 1483; d. 
6th Apr., 1520), with a bronze bust erected in 1883, and the graceful epi- 
gram composed by Card. Bembo .- — 

Ille hie est Raphael, timuil quo sospite vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
The Italian translation runs thus: — 

'Questi e quel Raffaele, eui vivo vinta 
Esser temea Natura, e morlo estinta'. 

The statue of the Madonna on the altar, by M. Lorenzetlo, was executed 
in accordance with Raphael's last will. Above the empty niche to the 
right of the altar is the epitaph of Maria Bibiena, Raphael's betrothed, who 
died before him. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of Bald. Peruzzi, Perin 
del Vaga, Giov. da Udine, Ann. Carracci , Taddeo Zucchero , and other 
celebrated artists. — The altars and recesses are adorned with paintings 
and sculptures of the 18th century. 



182 II.R.ontheTiberfL.B.). ROME. d. From the Piazza Colonna 

A visit to the interior by moonlight is recommended, but for this, as for 
the ascent of the dome, a special permesso must be obtained. 

At the back of the Pantheon, but with no connection with it, 
lay the Thermae of Agrippa, considerable remains of which were 
exhumed in 1881-2; and the rear wall of a hall, with large recesses, 
was brought to light in the Via della Palombella (p. 183). A fluted 
column and a finely executed frieze (shells and dolphins), both of 
marble, have been found and placed in position. The ruins known 
as the Arco della Ciambella, in the street of the same name, 
belonged to another domed hall of the therma?. 

The Piazza del Pantheon is passed by the Omnibuses plying from the 
Piazza Venezia (p. 1651 to the Piazza Cavour (p. 267) and from the Piazza 
della Cancelleria (p. 190) to the Piazza delV Indipendenza and Castro Pre- 
torio (p. 144). ,, Tr . , , 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon we may follow the Via del 

Seminario towards the E., to 8. Ignazio (p. 166). 

Behind the Pantheon to the S.E. lies the Piazza della Minebva 
(PI. II, 18), where the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva lies on 
the left, and the Hotel de la Minerve opposite to us. In the centre 
of the piazza is a marble elephant, on the back of which a small 
ancient Obelisk was placed by Bernini in 1667 (p. 167). On the 
outside of the church, to the right, are flood-marks which show that 
in the inundations of 1530, 1557, and 1598 the water rose about 
6 ft. higher than in the greatest modern flood (1870). 

*S. Maria sopra Minerva, erected on the ruins of a temple of 
Minerva founded by Domitian, the only ancient Gothic church at 
Rome, was probably begun about 1285 by Fra Sisto and Fra Ristoro, 
the builders of S. Maria Novella at Florence (p. lx). It was restored 
and re-decorated with painting in 1848-55, and contains several 

valuable works of art. 

Interior. By the entrance- wall, on the right, the tomb of the Florentine 
knight Diotisalvi (d. 1482). - Left Aisle. On the left, the tomb of the Floren- 
tine Franc. Tornabuoni (d. 1480), by Mino da Fiesole ; above it the monument 
of Card. Giac. Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the right of the altar in the drd Chapel, 
St. Sebastian, an admirable work by Michele Maini (?). Over the altar: 
head of Christ, by Perugino. In the 5th Chapel is (r.) the monument ot 
the Princess Lante, by Tenerani. — Right Aisle. By the pillar between the 
3rd and 4th chapels is an egress (generally closed) with an ancient Greek 
sarcophagus (Hercules taming the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the Annunciation, 
a picture on a golden ground ; in the foreground Card. Juan de Torquemada 
(Johannes a Turrecremata) recommending three poor girls to the virgin, 
painted to commemorate the foundation of the charitable institution of SS. 
Annunziata and erroneously attributed to Fra Angelico ; on the left the tomb 
of Urban VII. (d. 1590), by Ambr. Buonvicino. The 5th Chapel (Aldobrandini) 
contains paintings by Cherub. Alberli; over the altar the Last Supper by 
Barcioco ; monuments of the parents of Clement VIII. by Giac. della Porta. 
In the 6th chapel is the tomb of the Venetian patrician Benedictus, arch- 
bishop of Nicosia (d. 1495) ; opposite the tomb of Job. Didacus de Coca, 
of Spain, who erected it for himself about 1465 during his life-time. — Right 
Tkansept. A small chapel on the right is first observed, containing a 
wooden crucifix attributed to Qiolto; then the "Caraffa Chapel, with a hand- 
some balustrade, painted by Filippino Lippi with frescoes in 1487 (restored): 
on the right Thomas Aquinas, surrounded by allegorical figures, defending 
the Catholic religion against heretics; in the lunette, St. Thomas and 



to the Piazza Navona. ROME. II. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 183 

the Miracle of the Cross; on the wall at the back, the Assumption of the 
Virgin; altar- wall, the Annunciation, with a portrait of the donor Card. 
Carafia; sibyls on the vaulting by Raffaellino del Oarbo; on the left the 
monument of Paul IV. (d. 1559), designed by Pirro Ligorio, executed by 
(Mac. and Tom. Casignola. — By the wall to the left of the Caraffa chapel, 
"Tomb of Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), with a Madonna in mosaic by 
Johannes Cosmas, one of the best works of that school. The next chapel 
contains an altar-piece by C. Maratta. In the following Cappella del Rosario, 
to the right of the choir, is an altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fra 
Angelico; on the right the tomb of Card. Capranica (about 1470). — The 
Choir contains the large monuments of the two Medicis, (1.) Leo X. (d. 1522), 
and (r.) Clement VII. (d. 1534), designed by Ant. da Sangallo; the figures 
of Virtues are by Baccio Bandinelli, the statue of Leo by Raffaello da Mon- 
lelupo, and that of Clement by Narmi di Baccio Bigio. On the pavement the 
tombstone of the celebrated scholar Pietro Bembo (d. 1547). 

In front of the high-altar, to the left, is Michael Angelo's "Christ with 
the Cross, which was ordered by Jletello Vari and P. Castellari in 1514, 
and erected in 1521. Pietro Urbano, an assistant of the great master, was 
entrusted with the final touching up of the work after its erection, but 
as he acquitted himself badly, the finishing strokes were given to it by 
Roderigo Frizzi. The nudity of the figure is justified by the master's in- 
tention to pourtray the Risen Christ, but it is now marred by a bronze 
drapery; the right foot also is protected against the kisses of the devout 
by a bronze shoe (comp. p. lxiii). 

From the chapel on the left of the choir is a passage to the Via S. Ig- 
nazio ; on the wall the tombstone of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole, who 
died in the neighbouring monastery in 1455, with his portrait and the in- 
scription : Hie jacet Venerabilis pictor Frater Joannes de Florentia Ordinis 
praedicatorum 14 LV. — In the Left Teansept is the Chapel of S. Dome- 
nico, with 8 black columns, and the monument of Benedict XIII. (d. 1730) 
by P. Bracci. Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to the sacristy. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, formerly the residence of 
the chief of the order, now contains the offices of the Minister of 
Education and the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (p. 125). — A little to 
the E. are the church of S. Jgnazio (p. 166) and the Collegio Ro- 
mano; to the S. are the Gesii (p. 187) and the beginning of the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 187). 

We return to the Pantheon and, following the Via della Palom- 
bella (p. 182) which skirts it on the S., reach the Piazza S. Eus- 
tachio (PI. II, 15). At the W. end of this piazza lie the Palazzo 
Madama (see below) to the right, and to the left, the — 

University della Sapienza (PI. II, 15 ; entrance Via della Sa- 
pienza 71), founded in 1303 by Boniface "VIII. , and after a rapid 
decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest pros- 
perity under and owing to Leo X. It possesses four faculties (law, 
medicine, physical science, and philology). It contains several 
natural history collections and the Biblioteca Alessandrina (p. 125). 
The present building was designed by Oiac. della Porta. The church 
(S. Ivo), with its grotesque spiral tower, was designed by Borro- 
mini in the form of a bee, in honour of Urban VIII., in whose ar- 
morial bearings that insect figures. — Side-streets lead hence to the 
S. to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 189). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. II, 15), originally built at the close 
of the 15th cent., derives its name from Margaret of Parma, natural 



184 II. R.ontheTiber(L.BJ. ROME. d. From the Piazza Navona 

daughter of Charles V. and afterwards Governess of the Nether- 
lands, who occupied it during the pontificate of Paul III. Pre- 
viously and subsequently it belonged to the Medicis , afterwards 
grand-dukes of Tuscany, by whose orders Oiov. Stef. MarucelU of 
Florence altered it to its present form in 1642. Benedict XIV. 
purchased the palace in 1740; and since 1871 it has been the 
meeting-place of the Italian Senate (Palazzo del Senato). It has 
two facades, the E. one in the Piazza S. Luigi, the W. and more 
important in the Piazza Madama. The vestibule, court, and staircase 
contain antique statues, sarcophagi, reliefs, and busts. The large 
hall was adorned by Maccari in 1888 with noteworthy frescoes re- 
presenting Appius Claudius Caecus, Regulus, Cicero, and Catiline. 

Opposite the N. side of the Pal. Madama rises — 

S. Luigi de' Francesi (PI. II, 15), the national church of the 
French , consecrated in 1589 , having been built on the site of 
several earlier churches. Facade by Giac. della Porta. It is one of 
the best buildings of its period, and the interior also is harmonious 
and not over-decorated. Best light about midday. 

Right Aisle. 1st Chapel : St. John, altar-piece by Q. B. Naldini. On the 
opposite pillar is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of 
Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel: "Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of 
the most admirable works of Domenichino (p- lxxi); on the right the saint 
distributes clothing to the poor; above, she and her betrothed are crowned 
by an angel ; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing of 
the Pope; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the 
ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Reni. 4th Chapel, of St. Remigius : altar-piece, 
the Oath of Clovis,byfii'ac. delConie; frescoes on the right, Campaign ofClovis, 
by Girol. Sicciolanle da Sermoneta; on the left, Baptism ofClovis, by Pelle- 
grino Pellegrini. 5th Chapel, del Crocifisso : on the left the monument of the 
painter 6ue"rin (d. 1833), on the right that of Agincourt (d. 1814), the writer 
on art. — Over the high-altar: Assumption, a fine work by Franc. Bassano. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Sebastian, altar-piece by Massei ; on the right 
and left modern frescoes ; by the first pillar on the right the monument of 
Claude Lorrain, erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel, of St. Louis: altar-piece by 
Plaulilla Bricci, who is said to have designed the architecture also; picture 
on the left by Qimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : two pictures by 
Caravaggio: on the left the Evangelist's vocation to the apostleship, on the 
right his death. 

From the Piazza S. Luigi to the N. to the Via della Scrofa and 
8. Agostino, see p. 179. — To the W., a street between the church 
and the Pal. Madama leads via, the above-mentioned little Piazza 
Madama to the — 

*Piazza Navona (PI. II, 15), now officially named Piazza del 
Cireo Agonale, which occupies, as its form still indicates, the Circus 
or Stadium of Domitian. The name 'Navona', which was used in the 
middle ages and down to 1875, is said to be derived from the agones, 
or contests which took place in the circus. 

It is embellished with three Fountains. That on the N. side, 
by Leon, della Bitta and Greg. Zappala (1878), represents Neptune 
in conflict wi(h a sea-monster; round the central group are Nereids 



to the Ponte S. Angelo. ROME. II. R. on the Tiler (L.B.). 185 

and sea-hoises. — Not far from it, in the centre of a large basin of 
Pentelic marble, rises a fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent 
X.; at the corners of the rock, the different parts of which represent 
the four quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the rivers 
Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, executed by pupils of Ber- 
nini. The whole is surmounted by an obelisk, which was originally 
erected in honour of Domitian in the Circus of Maxentius (p. 348). 
— The third fountain , at the S. end of the piazza, is adorned 
with masks (restored), Tritons, and the statue of a Moor by Bernini. 

On the W- side of the Piazza Navona stands the church of 
S. Agnese ; the interior, in the form of a Greek cross , and the 
campanili, are by C. Eainaldi, and the tasteless facade by Borromini. 
The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain 
veiled his head in order to avoid seeing this facade. 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Maini; 
to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted 
by Maini from an antique statue. Beneath the dome are 8 columns of 'cot- 
tanello'. The old church was in the side-vaults of the Circus where the 
saint suffered martyrdom. Two subterranean chapels with ancient vaulting 
still remain , one of them containing a good relief of the Martyrdom ot 
St. Agnes by Algardi (descent by a stair). 

To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamphilj, also erected 
by Rainaldi, now the property of Prince Doria. Opposite to it is the 
church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, erected in 1450, and recently 
restored. In the tympanum above the portal are two angels by Mino 
da Fiesole (on the right) and Paolo Romano (on the left). 

On the S. side of the piazza is the Pal. Brasehi (see p. 189). 

The Piazza Navona is on the following Omnibus -routes : From the 
Via S. Apollinare (p. 179) to the Piazza Guglielmo Pepe and Porta S. Lo- 
renzo (p. 341); from the Piazza della Cancelleria (p. 190) to the Castro 
Prelorio (p. 144); from the Piazza della Cancelleria (p. 190) to the Porta 
Pia (p. 340). — Tbamway : From the Piazza del Popolo (p. 133) to the 
Piazza S. Cosimato (p. 323). 

The Via S. Agnese, to the right of the church, leads to the Via 
dell' Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated 

S. Maria dell' Anima (PI. II, 15 ; open till 872a.m., on holidays 
till noon ; when closed, visitors go round the church and ring at the 
door of the Hospice, opposite S. Maria della Pace). This is the Ger- 
man national church and was erected in 1500-14. Handsome facade 
by Oiuliano da Sangallo(?~). The name is explained by small marble 
group in the tympanum of the portal : a Madonna invoked by two 
souls in purgatory. 

The Interior, designed by a northern architect, has lately been thoroughly 
restored. The central window of the entrance-wall formerly contained stained 
glass by QuiUaume de Marseille, now modern. The modern frescoes of busts 
of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seitz (1875-82), and the stained-gluss 
window over the chief portal was designed by him. On the entrance-wall, 
tomb of Cardinal Wilh. Enckevort (d. 1534). — Right Aisle. 1st Chapel: 
St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the keys of the cathedral at Meissen 
(Saxony), which had been recovered from the stomach of a fish, altar-piece 
by Carlo Saraceni (pupil of Caravaggio). By the 3rd pillar, Tomb of Had- 
rian Vryberg of Alkmaar, with pleasing figures of children by the Dutch 



1 86 II. R. on the Tiber (L. B). ROME. d. From thePiazza Navona 

sculptor Frans Duquesnoy (d. 1644 at Home). 2nd Chapel: Holy Fam- 
ily, altar-piece by Gimignani; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 
4th Chapel : altered copy of Michael Angela's Pieta in St. Peter's , by Nanni 
di Baccio Bigio. — Left Aisle. 1st Chapel : Martyrdom of St. Lambert, 
C. Saraceni. 3rd Chapel: frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 
4th Chapel: altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Salviati. 

Choir. Over the high-altar, Holy Family with saints, by Giulio Romano, 
damaged by inundations; on the right, the fine monument of Hadrian VI. of 
Utrecht (preceptor of Charles V., d. 1523), with figures of justice, prudence, 
strength, and temperance, designed by Baldassare Peruzzi, executed by Michel- 
angiolo Sanese and Niccolb Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Duke of Cleve- 
Jiilich-Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Nicolaus of Arras. A relief in 
the ante-chamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the 
investiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance 
to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas Holstein of Hamburg, 
librarian of the Vatican (d. 1661). — Excellent new organ from Germany. 

Opposite the Oerman Hospice connected with the church rises — 

*S. Maria della Pace (PI. II, 15), erected by Sixtus IV. (1484) 

and Innocent VIII., restored by Alexander VII., and provided by 

Pietro da Cortona with the line facade and semicircular portico. The 

church consists of a domed octagon, with a short nave. 

Over the 1st Chapel on the right are **Raphael's Sibyls: to 
the left the Sibyl of Cumse ; on the arch above, the Persian ; then 
the Phrygian , and the aged Sibyl of Tibur , receiving from angels 
and recording revelations regarding the Saviour. They were painted 
in 1514 by order of Agostino Chigi (p. 314), who erected the 
chapel, and were skilfully freed from 'restorations' by Palmaroil 
in 1816 (usually covered, sacristan 25-30 c. ; best light, 10-11 a.m. ; 
see also p. lxviii). 

'With perfect mastery of the art of utilising the space at his com- 
mand, a talent admirably illustrated in the Stanze, Raphael has here filled 
up the segment of the arch so simply and naturally that the spectator ia 
apt to overlook the consummate sinfulness of the grouping. Equally 
characteristic of Raphael are the rhythm of the composition , the display 
of spirited contrasts, and the delicate gradations and judicious denoue- 
ment of passionate emotions; while the gracefulness of the female forms 
and the sprightly beauty of the angel-boys are specially Raphaelesque. 
Michael Angelo's Sibyls are justly extolled as creations of a sublime 
imagination, striking the spectator with their supernatural majesty; but 
these female figures of Raphael are pre-eminently human and lovable'. 

In the lunette above the Sibyls are the Prophets by Timoteo Viti 
(p. 100): on the right Jonah and Hosea, on the left Daniel and 
David. 

At the sides of the 1st Chapel on the left are two fine monu- 
ments of the Ponzetti family, of 1505 and 1509. Admirable *Altar- 
piece in fresco by Bald. Peruzzi, who here rivals Raphael and 
Michael Angelo : Madonna between St. Brigitta and St. Catharine, 
in front the donor Card. Ponzetti kneeling (1516). The vaulting 
above contains scenes from the Old and New Testament , in three 
rows, also by Peruzzi. — The 2nd Chapel on the right (Cap. Cesi), 
with its heavy decorations (about 1560) offers an instructive contrast. 
— To the left, under the dome, is the entrance to the sacristy and 
court (p. 187). Over the first altar on the left, Adoration of the 



to the PonteS. Angelo. ROME. II. R. on the Tiber (L.B.). 187 

Shepherds , by Sermoneta ; above it , the Death of Mary , by Mo- 
randi. The second altar, with handsome marble - work , partly 
gilded, attributed to Pasquale da Caravaggio, is of 1490. The high- 
altar is adorned with an ancient and highly revered Madonna ; on 
the vaulting are pleasing 'putti'by Franc. Albani. Over the adjacent 
altar to the right, Baptism of Christ, by Sermoneta. Over the niche, 
Mary's first visit to the Temple, by Bald. Peruzzi (retouched). — 
Newly-married couples usually attend their first mass in this church. 

The *Cloisteb, cons'tructed by Bramante (p. lxiii) by order of Card. 
Caraffa in 1504, is interesting. On the ground-floor are arcades, 
above which, between the pillars and thus over the arches, is a series 
of columns. By the right wall, the tomb of Bishop Bocciacio(d. 1497) 
of Modena. Entrance through the church, or by the Arco della Pace 5. 

The Via de' Coronari (p. 179), which passes a little to the N. of 
these two churches, is the shortest route (6-8 min.) from the Piazza 
Navona to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 266). 

From the portal of S. Maria della Pace the Via della Pace and the 
Via in Parione lead straight to the Via del Governo Vecchio (p. 190). 

e. From the Piazza Venezia to the Ponte S. Angelo. 
Corso Vittorio Emauuele. 

Omnibdses, see p. 165 and Appx. p. 1; Tkamwats, see Appendix, p. 2. 

The wide Corso Vittokio Emanuelb (PI. II, 17, 14, 12), con- 
structed since 1876 through the most closely built quarters of med- 
iaeval Rome, is a continuation of the Via Nazionale, described at pp. 
148-150, and facilitates communication between the centre of the 
city, and the Vatican quarter. The street is always crowded and 
busy, but, especially towards the end, still presents an unfinished 
appearance. 

Beginning at the Piazza Venezia (p. 164), we see first on the 
left the main facade of the Pal. di Venezia (p. 164), and on the right 
the S. facade (built by P. Amati) of the Palazzo Doria (p. 170), the 
Palazzo Orazioli, and the extensive Pal. Altieri, erected in 1670. 
The court of this last-named palace, and the staircase adorned with 
antiques, deserve note. — Immediately beyond it, the Via del Gesii 
diverges on the right to the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva(j>. 182). 

On the left is the N. side of the *Gesu (PI. II, 17), the principal 
church of the Jesuits, one of the richest and most gorgeous in Rome. 
It was built by Vignola and Giac. della Porta by order of Card. Ales- 
sandro Farnese, in 1568-75. Comp. p. lxx. The main front is in 
the Piazza del Gesu. 

In the Nave is a ceiling-painting (Triumph of the Name of Jesus) by 
Baciccio, by whom the dome and tribune were also painted, one of the best 
and most lifelike of the baroque works of the kind. The walls were covered 
with valuable marble at the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 1860. 
The high-altar has four columns of giallo antico; on the left the monument 
of Card. Bellarmino (p. 19) with figures of Religion and Faith, in relief; 
on the right the monument of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. — In the 
Transept, to the left : Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by P. Pozzi, behind 
which is a silver-plated group, representing St. Ignatius surrounded by 



188 II. R. onthe Tiber (L.B.). ROME. e. From the Piazza Venezia 

angels. The original silver statue of the saint, by Legros is said to have 
been removed on the suppression of the order in the eighteenth century. The 
columns are of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze*, on the architrave above are two 
statues: God the Father, by B. Ludovisi, and Christ, by L. Ottoni, behind 
which, encircled by a halo of rays, is the emblematic Dove. Between these 
the globe of the earth, consisting of a single block of lapis lazuli (said to be 
the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a sarcophagus of gilded 
bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the right and left are groups 
in marble; on the right Religion, at the sight of which heretics shrink, 
by Legros; on the left Faith with the Cup and Host, which a heathen king 
is in the act of adoring, by Tendon. Opposite, in the transept, on the 
right, the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

The church presents a most imposing sight on 31st Dec. , on the 
festival of St. Ignatius, on 31st July, and during the Quarant'ore (two last 
days of the Carnival) , on which occasions it is brilliantly illuminated in 
the evening. During Advent and Lent (Frid. excepted), and at various 
other seasons also, sermons are preached here about 11 a.m., often by 
priests of great ability. 

Adjoining the church on theS. is the former Casa Professa of the 
Jesuits, now a barrack, adjacent to which, No. 1 A in the Via di 
Aracceli (p. 166) leading to the Capitol, is the entrance to the rooms 
of St. Ignatius (Mon., Wed., Frid., 9-11). Opposite is the Palazzo 
Bolognetti, which bounds the Piazza del Gesii on the S. 

The dome in front of us in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele be- 
longs to the church of S. Andrea della Valle (see below). A few 
hundred paces to the W. of the Piazza Gesu the Corso is crossed by 
the Via di Tor Argentina (p. 194). 

Farther on, to the left, is the rear of the Palazzo Vidoni (PI. II, 
14), formerly belonging to the Caffarelli, as whose guest Charles V. 
resided here in 1536. The palace is now the property of the princes 
Giustiniani-Bandini. The chief facades are in the small Piazza della 
Valle and the Via del Sudario which leads to the S. The building 
(partly restored) was designed by Raphael and erected by T-orenzetto. 
On the staircase is the so-called Abbate Luigi, a Roman figure in a 
toga, formerly placed at the N. angle of the palace, and used as the 
bearer of lampoons and pasquinades (comp. p. 166). In one of the 
rooms is the Calendarium Praenestinum of Verrius Flaccus, being five 
months of a Roman calendar found in 1771 at Palestrina. 

Opposite the Palazzo Vidoni is the Cappella del Sudario. The street 
Monte di Farina leads hence to S. Carlo a' Calinari (p. 194). 

The domed church of *S. Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 14), begun 
by P. Olivieri in 1591 on the site of several earlier churches, and 
completed by C. Maderna, has a florid facade added in 1666 from 
designs by Carlo Rainaldi. The interior is well proportioned, but 
part of it has been whitewashed. See p. lxx. 

On the right the 2nd Chapel (Strozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
Pieta (p. 274) and the Rachel and Leah (p. 159) of Michael Angelo, whose 
influence is apparent in the design of this chapel itself. — On the left 
the 1st Chapel (Barber-si) is adorned with several marble statues of the 
school of Bernini: St. Martlia by Mocchi , John the Baptist by Pietro 
Bernini, Mary Magdalene by Stali da Bracciano, and St. John by Buon- 
vicino. — At the end of the Nave are the monuments of the two popes 
of thePiccolomini family, brought here from the old church ofSt.Peter; 
on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1404 p. 29), by Nic. della Guardia and 



to the Ponte S. Angela. ROME. 77. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 1 89 

Pietro Paolo da Todi; on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), executed 
somewhat later as a companion-piece. — In the Dome: Glory of Para- 
dise, by lanfranco ; below, on the pendentives, the 'Evangelists by Domeni- 
ehino, one of his finest works. By the same master, "Frescoes on the vault- 
ing of the apse. In front, between the transverse ribs, a rectangular paint- 
ing of John the Baptist, pointing out Christ to St. John and St. Andrew 
(John, I. 35) ; in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of St. Andrew ; 
in the centre, the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by Christ ; on the right, St. 
Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be affixed; 
below are six female figures representing the virtues (p. lxxi). The large 
lower frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 

A side-street on the other side of the Corso, opposite the church, 
leads to the N. to the small Piazza della Valle and the Palazzo Ca- 
pranica (PL II, 15). The Via della Valle leads to the right to the 
University and the Pal. Madama (p. 183). 

No. 141 in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, to the right, is the — 

Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne (PL II, 14, 15), a fine structure 
by Baldassare Peruzzi, who, however, died in 1536 before its com- 
pletion. The arc-shaped facade was skilfully adapted to the curve 
of the originally narrow street, but has lost its effect by the con- 
struction of the wide Corso. The glimpse obtained of the double 
court is, however, still strikingly picturesque. On the second floor 
is the Chapel of S. Filippo Neri (p. 191 ; open to visitors on 16th 
March), who is said to have here resuscitated a child of the Mas- 
simi family. 

In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans 
Pannartz and Schweinheim, who during the two previous years had found an 
asylum in the monastery of Subiaco (p. 379), established the first printing- 
office in Rome, from which they issued Cicero's Epistles and other works, 
furnished with the name of the printers and the words '■In aedibus Petri 
de Maximis'. — The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii 
Maximi, and their armorial bearings have the motto '■Cunctando restituW. 

On the left, at the point where the Via de' Baullari diverges to 
the Palazzo Farnese (p. 193), is the little Palazzo Linotte (PL 
II, 14), built about 1515 for the French prelate Thomas le Roy, of 
Rennes, whose armorial lilies, repeated several times in the frieze, 
have procured the erroneous title of Palazzetto Farnese for the 
palace. It is an early work of Ant. da Sangatto the Younger, and has 
a tasteful but sadly dilapidated court and staircase (restoration con- 
templated). 

To the right opens the Piazza diS. Pantaleo (PL II, 15), contain- 
ing the small church of S. Pantaleo, with a facade erected by Gui- 
seppe Valadier in 1806. 

Omnibuses to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, see p. 155; Piazza Giovanni 
in Laterano, p. 252; Porta Salaria, p. 336. 

From the Piazza S. Pantaleo the Via S. Pantaleo runs towards 
the N.W. No. 9 in this street, on the right, is the spacious Palazzo 
Braschi (PL II, 15), erected by Morelli at the end of the 18th cent, 
and now occupied by the Minister of the Interior. It contains a fine 
marble staircase and a few ancient statues. The N. side of the build- 
ing looks towards the Piazza Navona (p. 184). At the obtuse N.W. 
angle of the palace, stands the so-called Pasquino, an admirable, 



190 II. B. onthe Tiber(L. B). ROME. e. From thePiazza Venezia 

but now sadly mutilated relic of an antique group of statuary re- 
presenting Menelaus with the body of Patroclus, or Ajax. with the 
body of Achilles, looking around for succour in the tumult of battle. 
Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia de' Lanzi and the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and there are fragments in the Vatican (p. 301). 

Cardinal Caraffa caused the group to be erected here in 1601. It be- 
came the custom of the professors and students of the Roman Archigin- 
nasio on St. Mark's day (April 25th) to affix Latin and Italian epigrams to 
the statue (at first without any satirical aim). The name was derived from 
a schoolmaster living opposite; but when the 'pasquinades' began to 
assume a bitter satirical character about the middle of the 16th cent, 
(chiefly as the result of the Reformation), the title came to be connected 
with a tailor of that name who was notorious for his lampooning pro- 
pensities. The answers to the satires of Pasquino used to be attached to 
the Marforio (p. 166, 206). Compositions of this kind have been much in 
vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying with the best 
satires of antiquity. 

The Via del Governo Vecchio (PI. II, 15, 12) , rurming from the 
small piaz?a named after Pasquino, formed the chief communication with 
the Ponte S. Angelo, before the construction of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 
On the right in this street is the Pal. del Governo Vecthio, which for a 
time was occupied by the law and police courts. No. 124, opposite, is 
an elegant little house in Bramante's style, built in 1500 fur the papal 
secretary J. P. Turcius. We next pass the back of the Philippine Convent 
(now a court-house, p. 191) and cross the Piazza dell' Orologio (PI. II, 12) 
whence the Via Monte Giordano leads to the right to the Palazzo Oabrielli, 
with a pretty fountain in its court. Thence the Via di Panico leads to 
the Ponte S. Angelo. 

Farther on the Corso Vittorio Emanuele discloses a view of the 
dome of St. Peter's. 

To the left lies the long and narrow Piazza della Cancblleria 
with the palace of that name and the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. 

The *Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 15, 14), an edifice of 
majestic simplicity, designed by Bramante in strict conformity with 
the ancient orders of architecture and begun in 1489 for Card. Raf- 
faelo Riario, is one of the finest Renaissance monuments in Rome 
(p. lxili). The elegant facade is constructed of blocks of travertine 
from the Colosseum. The handsome portal by Vignola to the right 
near the Corso, admits to the church of 8. Lorenzo in Damaso. The 
ancient basilica of this name was originally founded by Damasus I. 
(ca. 370) near the Theatre of Pompey (p. 192) , but it was taken 
down in 1495 at the instance of Card. Riario and rebuilt in con- 
nection with the palace from a design by Bramante. The internal 
decoration is quite modern , dating from the time of Pius VII. 
(1820) and Pius IX. (1873). At the end of the right aisle is the 
tomb of the papal minister Count Rossi, who was assassinated in 
1848 (bust by Tenerani). 

The chief portal of the palace, in an inharmonious baroque style, 
was added by Domenico Fontana. It leads into the *Coukt, in two 
stories, surrounded by arcades. The columns originally belonged 
to the ancient basilica of S. Lorenzo, from which they were removed 
by Bramante. The graceful capitals are decorated with roses, a 



to the Ponte 8. Angelo. ROME. 11. R. on the Tiber (L. B.). 191 

flower which appears in the armorial bearings of Card. Riario. To 
the right is an archway leading to the church of S. Lorenzo. This 
is the only palace in the interior of the city which the Italian govern- 
ment still permits to he in the hands of the pope. 

The Piazza della Cancelleria is the starting-point for Omnibuses to the 
Piazza delV Indipendenza and Castro Prelorio, pp. 144, and No. 14, p. 2 
of the Appendix; and to the Porta Pia, p. 340, and No. 13, p. 2 of the 
Appendix. 

From the Cancelleria to the Campo di Fiore, see p. 192. 

"We continue to follow the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. At the corner 
of the second street to the right is the Palazzo Sora, formerly ascrib- 
ed to Bramante, hut according to Burckhardt, by a 'bungler of that 
period'. It has been altered for the Liceo-Ginnasio Terenzio Ma- 
miani. — To the right stands the — 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 12), or S. Maria in Vallicella, erected by 
8. Filippo Neri about 1550 for the order of Oratorians founded by 
him, finished in 1605. Architecture by Qiov. Matteo da Citth di 
Caatello, interior by Mart. Lunghi the Elder, facade by Rughesi. 

The Interior , which is dark and unfavourable for pictures , is richly 
decorated. The admirable stucco-work is by Cos. Faniello and Ercole 
Ferrata. The ceiling of the Nave , the dome , and the tribune are painted 
by Pietro da Cortona. — On the right, 1st Chapel, Crucifixion, Scip. Gae- 
tano ; 3rd Chapel , deir Ascensione , altar-piece by Muziano. — On the left, 
2nd Chapel, Adoration of the Magi, Ces. Nebbia; 3rd Chapel, Nativity, 
Durante Alberti ; 4th Chapel, Visit of Elizabeth, Baroccio. — Left Teansept: 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; SS. Peter and Paul, statues in marble, 
by Valsoldo. Here also, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous 
Chapel op S. Filippo Neki, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic, after the original of Ouido Reni 
preserved in the adjoining monastery. — Over the High Altab, with its four 
columns of porta santa, a Madonna by Rubens ; on the right ~SS. Gregory, 
Haurus, and Papias, on the left S SS. Domitilla, Nereus, and Achilleus, also 
by Rubens, who painted these pictures during his second stay in Pome in 1608 
for this church , which was then the most fashionable in the city. — Eight 
Teansept. On the right , Coronation of Mary, Gav. d' Arpino ; SS. John 
the Baptist and John the Evangelist, statues in marble by Flaminio Vacca. 

The Saceistt (entered from the left transept) was constructed by Maru- 
celli. On the vaulting : Angel with instruments of torture, by Pietro da Cor- 
tona. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

On 26th May, the festival of the saint, and after Ave Maria every Sunday 
from 1st Nov. to Palm Sunday, concerts of sacred music, to which men only 
are admitted, are given in the adjoining Oratorium, which derives its name 
from the oratories fitted up by S. Filippo Neri. The saint was fond of 
music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. 

The adjoining Philippine Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of 
irregulaT shape, but remarkably massive in its construction. It 
contains a room once occupied by the saint, with various relics. The 
Corte di Appello, the Tribunale Civile e Correzionale, and the Tri- 
bunate di Commercio are now established here. — The valuable 
Bibliotheca Vallicellana (adm. p. 125) is also preserved here. 

Farther on, to the left, lies the small Piazza Sforza, with the 
Palazzo, Sforza-Cesarini, the Bohemian Hospital, restored in 1875, 
and a monument (by Benini; 1892) to the Italian poet and states- 



192 II.R.ontheTiberfL.B.). ROME. e. EndoftheCorsoVitt.Eman. 

man Count Terenzio Mamiani (d. 1878). Beyond the piazza the 
Via del Banco di S. Spirito diverges to the right to the Ponte S. 
Angelo (p. 266). No. 44-46 in this street once belonged to the 
banker Agostino Chigi (p. 314), the 'gran mercante della cristia- 
nita', -whose office (in the wing, Arco dei Banchi 9) is now a stable. 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele ends at the temporary iron bridge 
(PI. II, 12), mentioned at p. 266. 

To the left several lanes, now being rebuilt, lead to S. Giovanni 
de' Fiorentini (PI. II, 12), the handsome national church of the 
Florentines. The building was begun, by desire of Leo X., from a 
design by Jac. Sansovino (which was preferred to competing plans 
of Raphael, Ant. da Sangallo the Younger, and Peruzzi) ; and the 
difficult task of completing the substructures on the river was exe- 
cuted by Sangallo. Michael Angelo, and on his death, Oiac. della 
Porta were afterwards engaged in the work, and the facade was ad- 
ded by Aless. Galilei in 1734. In the right transept is a picture by 
Salv. Rosa (SS. Cosmas and Damianus at the stake). — Near the 
church a Chain Bridge, constructed in 1863, crosses the river (p. 313). 

To the S.W. from S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini runs the Via 
Oiulia, see p. 194. 

f. Quarter to the S. of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele as far 
as the Piazza Montanara. Isola Tiberina. 

To the S. of the Pal. della Cancelleria (p. 190) lies the Piazza 
Campo di Fiobe (PI. II, 14), an important centre of business, espe- 
cially since the vegetable -market, frequented in the morning by 
picturesque country-people, was transferred hither from the Piazza 
Navona. Heretics and criminals used to be put to death here. 
Among the former was the philosopher Giordano Bruno, whose 
death in this square on Feb. 17th, 1600, is now commemorated by 
a bronze *Statue (designed by Ettore Ferrari) erected in 1889 on 
the site of the stake. 

Giordano Bruno, born at Kola near Naples in 1550, entered the Domi- 
nican order. In 1580 he fled to Geneva, and after a career of wandering 
during which he visited France, England, and Germany, he was seized 
and imprisoned at Venice by the Inquisition in 1598. — The Reliefs on 
the base of the monnment represent; on the right, Bruno teaching; behind, 
his trial ; on the left, his execution at the stake. The Medallions are por- 
traits of the champions of religious freedom: Paolo Sarpi of Venice (1552- 
1623), Tom. Campanella of Calabria (1568-1639), Petrus Ramus of France 
(1515-1572), Lucilio Vanini of Naples (about 1585-1619); Aonius Palearius 
of Rome (1500-1570) ; Michael Servetus of Spain (1511-1553) ; John Wiclif 
of England (1324-1381); and John Hnss of Bohemia (1369-1415). 

To the E. of the Campo di Fiore once lay the Theatre of Pom- 
pey (PI. II, 14). In the court of the Pal. Pio or Righetti (entrance, 
Via Biscione 95), a bronze statue of Hercules (p. 299) and substruc- 
tures of the theatre were discovered. Numerous fragments of the 
ancient walls are incorporated in the modern building. The semi- 
circular bend of the street by S. Maria di Grottapinta distinctly 



f.S.oftheCorsoVM.Eman. ROME. IJ.R.ontheTiberfL.B.). 193 

shows the form of the ancient theatre. — The Via de' Giubbonari 
leads hence to S. Carlo a Catinari (p. 194). 

From the Campo diFiore three parallel streets lead to the S.W. 
to the Piazza Farnesb, adorned with two fountains. Here is sit- 
uated the — 

*Palazzo Farnese CP1. II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome, 
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45), 
from designs by Ant. da Sangallo the Younger (p. lxix), continued 
after his death (1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo (who 
designed the beautiful cornice and the top story of the court), 
and completed by the construction of the loggia at the back, towards 
the Tiber, by Oiac. della Porta in 1580. The building materials 
were taken partly from the Colosseum, and partly from the Theatre 
of Marcellus. This palace was inherited by the kings of Naples, and 
from 1862 to 1870 was occupied by Francis II. It was purchased in 
1874 by the French government, whose embassy to the papal court 
is now established here. On the second floor is the 'Ecole de Rome', 
or French archaeological institution, founded in 1875. The triple 
colonnade of the entrance and the two halls of the court were de- 
signed by Sangallo , the halls being in imitation of the Theatre of 
Marcellus. The court contains two ancient sarcophagi (that to the right 
from the tomb of Csecilia Metella, p. 348). A room on the 1st floor 
contains admirable frescoes of mythological scenes by Agostino and 
Annibale Carracci, and their pupils and the banquet-hall has a ceiling 
in carved wood, designed by Michael Angelo (no admission). 

From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets, called the Via di Mon- 
sekbato and Via de 1 Banchi Vecchi, leads to the N.W. to the Ponte S. 
Angelo (p. 266). On the left in the first of these is S. Maria di Mon- 
serrato (PI. II, 11), the national Spanish clrarch, with a hospice. It was 
erected in 1495 by Ant. da Sangallo the Elder, and afterwards restored. 
The altar-piece of the first chapel on the right is by Ann. Carracci. In 
the Via de' Banchi Vecchi is the former house of the goldsmith Giam- 
pietro Crivelli, erected about 1540, with florid decorations in stucco. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Farnese the Vicolo de' Venti leads to 
the Piazza di Capo di Ferro. Here, on the right, rises the — 

Palazzo Spada alia Regola (PI. II, 14), erected in the ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. about 1540 by Card. Capodiferro, in imitation of a 
house built by Raphael for Giambattista Branconi dell' Aquila in 
the Borgo Nuovo (p. 267; now destroyed). Since 1640 the palace 
has belonged to the Spada family. It contains an interesting collec- 
tion of antiquities and over 200 pictures chiefly of the Bolognese 
school of the 16-17th cent., but is now inaccessible to all except those 
provided with an influential introduction. Among the chief anti- 
quities are eight reliefs of subjects from Greek mythology and legend, 
a Greek portrait-statue and a colossal statue of Pompey. 

Pursuing the same direction beyond the Piazza Capo di Ferro, 
we next reach the small Piazza de' Pellegrini. On the left is the 
hack of the Monte di Pieta (PI. II, 14), formerly the Pal. Santacroce, 
the seat since 1604 of the pawn-office, founded in 1539, to which 

Baedeker. It- 1 " TT ""■ w; ' ! - 13 



194 II. R. on the Tiber (L.B.). ROME. f. Quarter to the S. 

it owes its present name. On the right is the church of S. Trinith de' 
Pellegrini, erected in 1614 ; the high-altar is adorned with a Trinity, 
by Ouido Reni. Adjoining is a hospital for convalescents and pilgrims. 

The Via de' Pettinari (PI. II, 14) leads from the Piazza de' 
Pellegrini to the Ponte Si3to (see p. 319). 

From the Ponte Sisto towards theN.W., parallel with the river, 
runs the Via Giulia (PI. II, 14, 11, 12), most of which was built 
by Julius II., leading in 12 min. to the Ponte S. Angelo. To the 
left, is the Pal. Falconieri , built by Borromini, with hermae on the 
facade in a baroque style, terminating in colossal falcons' heads. 
In the Vicolo della Lunetta, the first cross-street to the left, is the 
church of -S. Eligio degli Orefiei, a graceful little circular structure, 
built in 1509 from a design by Raphael and renewed in 1601. Farther 
on in the Via Giulia, on the left, the Carceri Nuovi, a prison founded 
bylnnocentX.; the little church of S. Biagio della Pagnotta (p. 123); 
and No. 66, the Pal. Sacchetti (PI. II, 12), originally erected by 
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as his private residence. The 
courses of rough rustica masonry in the lower stories of the houses 
on the left side of the street, formed the beginning of a large court 
of justice, projected by Julius II. and designed by Bramante, but 
never carried out. — To the left, at the end of the Via Giulia is 
the church of S. Qiovanni de' Fiorentini (p. 192). 



The most important side-street diverging from the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele is the Via di Tor Argentina (PI. II, 15-18, 14), men- 
tioned at p. 188, which begins at the Pantheon (p. 180) on the N., 
and, with its S. continuation, the new Via Arenula, ends at the 
Ponte Garibaldi (PI. II, 13; p. 322). 

To the S. of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, the Via di Tor Argen- 
tina leads to the Piazza Benedetto Cairoli (PI. II, 14), via, the 
Teatro Argentina (p. 128). Thence the Via dei Qiubbonari runs to 
the right to the Campo di Fiore (p. 192), and the Via del Pianto 
(p. 195) to the left to the Portico of Octavia and the Theatre of Mar- 
cellus (p. 196). 

On the N. side of the Piazza Benedetto Cairoli rises the church 
of S. Carlo a' Catinari (PL II, 14), built by Rosati in 1612 in honour 
of S. Carlo Borromeo, in the form of a Greek cross, with a dome. 

1st Chapel on the right : Annunciation , by Lanfranco. In the spaces 
below the dome are the four cardinal virtues , by Domenichino. In the 
transept to the right, Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. Over the high- 
altar, Card. Borromeo in the procession of the plague at Milan, P. da 
Cortona; tribune decorated by Lanfranco. The other paintings are inferior. 

The narrow Via de' Falegnami runs frc m the N.E. angle of the 
Piazza Ben. Cairoli to the small Piazza Tartaruoa (PL II, 17), 
named after the graceful Tontana delle Tartarughe (tortoises), 
a bold and elegantly composed bronze group with figures of four 
youths and dolphins and tortoises. This is the most charming foun- 
tain in Rome ; the design was formerly attributed to Raphael (or 



oftheCorsoVitt.Emanuele. ROME. JI.B.ontheTiber(L.B.). 195 

Giacomo della Porta), though it was erected by the Florentine Taddeo 
Landini in 1585. 

To the left is the Palazzo Mattei (PI. II, 17), originally an ag- 
gregate of separate buildings which occupied the rectangle between 
S. Caterina de' Funari and the Via Paganica. The handsomest portion 
(principal entrance, Via de' Funari 31; side-entrance, No. 32), is one 
of the finest productions of Carlo Maderna (1616). 

In the passages of the entrance , in the arcades , and along the 
sides of the Court, a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the 
walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia, and Apollo with tbe 
Muses; and (1.) the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine. In the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches on 
the staircase, some of them much modernised, are of no great value. The 
stucco decorations of the ceiling on the staircases are well executed. 

Farther on we observe on the left, within the ancient Circus 
Flaminius, the church of S. Caterina de' Funari (PI. II, 17), erected 
in 1564by Oiac. dellaPorta, with a singular-looking tower. It contains 
a few unimportant pictures by Ann. Carracci (1st chapel on the right), 
Vanni, Venusti, Muziano, and Agresti. The name of the church is 
derived from the rope-makers who in the middle ages plied their 
vocation within the circus. 

Straight in front is the Palazzo Ascarelli (PI. II, 17), where the 
Via Delflni leads to the left to the Via di Aracceli (p. 166), while 
the street to the right leads to the Piazza Campitelli. Here, on 
the right, is — 

S. Maria in Campitelli (PI. II, 17), erected by C.Rainaldi under 
Alexander VII. on the site of an earlier church, to provide a more 
worthy shelter for the miraculous image of the Virgin, to which the 
cessation of the plague in 1656 was ascribed. 

The Interior, with its handsome projecting columns, is effective. — 
Beneath the canopy over the high-altar is placed the miraculous Ma- 
donna. In the 2nd Chapel on the right, the Gift of Tongues, by Laca Gior- 
dano; in the 1st Chapel on the left, two monuments resting on lions of 
rosso antico. In the S. transept is the tomb of Card. Pacca by Pettrich. 

From the S.E. end of the Piazza Campitelli the Via di Tor de' 
Specchi, skirting the foot of the Capitol, leads to the left to the 
Piazza Aracceli (p. 199), while the Via Montanara runs to the right 
to the Piazza Montanara (p. 196). 

From the S.E. angle of the Piazza Benedetto Cairoli (p. 194) the 
Via del Pianto, continued by the Via della Pescheria (PI. II, 
14, 17), skirts the N. side of the former Ghetto or Jewish quarter, 
which was pulled down in 1887. In antiquity and during the middle 
ages the Jews resided in Trastevere; but in 1556 Paul IV. assigned 
this quarter to them, and until the end of the papal rule they were 
forbidden to settle elsewhere. 

The third street on the left leads from the Via del Pianto to the 
Piazza Tartaruga (p. 194), and the first street on the right to the 
Palazzo Cenci-Bolcgnetti (PI. II, 14), the home of the ill-fated Bea- 
trice Cenci, who was executed in 1599 at the Ponte S. Angelo for 

13* 



196 II. R.on the Tiber (L.B.J. ROME. f. S.oftheCorsoVitt.Eman. 

the murder, in conspiracy with her brothers, of her father Francesco 
Cenci, a man of execrable character (reputed portrait of Beatrice, 
see p. 143). 

At the end of the Via dellaPescheria, on the left, is the Portico 
of Octavia (PI. II, 17), erected by Augustus on the site of a similar 
structure of Metellus (B. C. 149), and dedicated to his sister. It was 
destroyed by a fire, but it was restored by Sept. Severus and Cara- 
calla in 203, as the inscription records. The principal entrance con- 
sisted of a double colonnade with eight Corinthian columns, of 
which three in the inneT, and two in the outer row are still standing. 
To the right and left of this were double rows of 14 columns each, 
while there were at least 40 columns in a row at the sides. The 
entire colonnade, with its 300 columns, enclosed a rectangular 
space, within which stood temples of Jupiter and Juno. It was 
adorned with many admirable works of art which formed part of the 
Macedonian booty. In 770 the church of S. Angelo in Pescheria 
was built on the ruins by Stephen III., in which since 1584 the 
Jews were compelled to attend Christian sermons on their Sabbath. 

Farther to the S.E., on the right in the Via delTeatro diMaTcello, 
are the remains of the Theatre of Marcellus (PI. II, 16), which was 
begun by Caesar, and completed in B.C. 13 by Augustus, who named 
it after his nephew, the son of Octavia. Twelve arches of the outer 
wall of the auditorium are now occupied by workshops. The lower 
story, partly filled up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, 
above which, as in the Colosseum, a third probably rose in the 
Corinthian order. It is said to have accommodated 20,000 spectators. 
The stage lay towards the Tiber. In the 11th cent, the theatre was 
used by Pierleone as a fortress. To his descendants succeeded the 
Savelli, whose palace stands on a lofty mound of debris within the 
theatre. In 1712 the palace was purchasedbytheOrsini, and in 1816-23 
was occupied by the historian Niebuhr, when Prussian ambassador. 

The Via delTeatro diMarcello ends in the small but busy Piazza 
Montanara (PI. II, 16), much frequented by the country-people, 
especially on Sundays. The Tramway to 8. Paolo Fuori (No. 7; p. 2 
of the Appx.), marked on our plan as beginning here, is now not 
reached until the Piazza Bocca della Verita (p. 239), to the S., 
whither the Via Bocca della Verita leads. 

At the beginning of the Via Bocca della Verita, in a small piazza 
to the right, is the church of S. Nicola in Carcere (PI. II, 16), re- 
cently restored, containing, on the outer walls and in the interior, 
ancient columns which appear to have belonged to three different 
temples, including those of Spes and Juno Sospita. Visitors may 
descend and examine the foundations of these temples which have 
been excavated (sacristan with light '/2 fr-)- 

The Ponte Fabricio (PI. II, 16), to the S.W. of the Palazzo Or- 
sha and the Theatre of Marcellus which since the middle ages 



ROMA VETUS 

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"Wagner fcDebes, Leipzig 



# Isola Tiberina. ROME. II. B. on theTiber(L.B. ). 197 

has teen called the Ponte de' Quattro Capi from the four-headed 
hermae on the balustrades, is the oldest bridge now in Rome, built 
in B.C. 62 by L. Fabricius, as the inscription records. 

This bridge crosses an arm of the river to the Isola Tiberina 
(PI. II, 16), on which is a small piazza and the church of — 

S. Bartoxomeo, erected, perhaps on the site of an ancient temple 
ofJEsculapius, about the year 1000 by the Emp. OthoIII. in honour 
of St. Adalbert of Gnesen, and erroneously named St. Bartholomew. 
The emperor had desired the Beneventans to send him the relics of 
this saint, but received those of St. Paulinus of Nola in their stead. 
The present church, the campanile excepted, is modernised and 
uninteresting; facade by Martino Lunghi the Younger, 1625. 

The Interior contains fourteen ancient columns ; in the choir, 
remains of an early mosaic. In the centre of the steps leading to the 
presbyterium is the mouth of a well of the 12th cent., with sculptures in 
which a figure of Christ with a book in his hand, and the heads of two 
side-figures are alone distinguishable. 

In the small Garden op the Monastery (visitors ring at the entrance 
to the right by the church) is seen part of the ancient bulwark of travertine 
which gave the island the appearance of a ship. An obelisk represented 
the mast. The figure of a snake hewn on the bow of the ship is a 
reminiscence of the story that the Romans, when sorely afflicted by the 
plague, sent for jEsculapius from Epidaurus in B.C. 293, and that a 
snake, a reptile sacred to the god, concealed itself in the vessel, and on 
reaching the harbour escaped to this island , which was dedicated to 
jEsculapius in consequence. That the god was worshipped here has been 
proved by the discovery in the island of limbs in terracotta, which were 
presented by sick persons as votive offerings. 

The island was connected with Trastevere by the ancient Pons 
Cestius (Oratianus ; PI. II, 18), which was built by Augustus (?), 
restored by the Emperors Valentinian and Gratian, and recently 
entirely rebuilt. A few paces along the right bank of the Tiber, cross- 
ing the Lungo Tevere dell' Anguillara, bring us to the Via Lun- 
garina (p. 322). 



III. The Southern Quarters (Ancient Rome.) 

This part of our description of Rome embraces the southern por- 
tion of the city, beginning with the Capitol, and extending east- 
wards as far as the Lateran : i. e. the hills of the Capitol, Palatine, 
Aventine, Cselius, and the S. slope of the Esquiline. This was the 
most important quarter of the Republican and Imperial city , but 
lay waste and deserted from the early part of the middle ages down 
to our own times. Recently it has lost much of its characteristic 
aspect owing to the construction of new quarters, consisting largely 
of tenement houses of the most Philistine appearance. It was at 
one time hoped that a considerable part of it, however, extending 
from the Forum Romanum and the Fora of the Emperors to the 
Circus Maximus, the Thermae of Caracalla, and the Porta S. Sebas- 
tiano, could be protected from the hand of the modern restorer, but 



198 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a: The Capitol; 

the plan has been delayed. A number of ancient churches, as -well 
as the imposing collections of the Capitol and Lateran, are situated 
in this district. 

a. The Capitol. 

The Capitol, the smallest but historically the most important of 
the hills of Rome, consists of three distinct parts : (1) the N. summit 
with the church and monastery of Aracceli (164 it.); (2) the de- 
pression in the middle with the piazza of the Capitol (98 ft.); 
and (3) the S.W. point with the Pal. Caffarelli (156 ft.). It was on 
this piazza, the Area Capitolina, that Romulus is said to have found- 
ed his asylum ; it was here that popular assemblies were after- 
wards held; and it was here, in the year B. C. 133, on the occasion 
of the suppression of the revolt of Tiberius Gracchus, that the blood 
of the citizens flowed for the first time in civil warfare. The N. 
peak was occupied by the Arx , or citadel , with the temple of 
Juno Moneta , while the other was the site of the great Temple 
of Jupiter, built by Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the kings, 
and consecrated in B.C. 509, the first year of the Republic. This 
temple was 800 ft. in circumference, and possessed a triple colon- 
nade and three cellae, that of Jupiter being in the middle, and 
one for Juno and Minerva on each side. In the year B.C. 83, during 
the civil war, the temple was burned down, and the same fate over- 
took it in A.D. 69, on the occasion of the struggle between Vespa- 
sian and Vitellius. This most sacred shrine of ancient Rome was 
magnificently restored by Domitian, and was preserved down to the 
year 455, when it was plundered by the Vandals and robbed of its 
gilded bronze tiles. 

For nearly 500 years after the time of Cassiodorus, the min- 
ister and chronicler of Theodorie the Great, king of the Ostro- 
goths (6th cent.), there is no mention of the Capitol in the annals 
of Rome. The hill was in the possession of the monastery of Ara- 
cceli, and the name of Monte Caprino, or hill of goats, which was 
applied to the S.E. height, bears testimony to its desertion. The 
glorious traditions, however, which attached to this spot, gave rise 
to a renewal of its importance on the revival of a spirit of muni- 
cipal independence at Rome. In the 11th century it again became 
the centre of the civic administration. The prefect of the city re- 
sided here ; among the ruins of the venerable citadel the nobility 
and the citizens held their public assemblies ; and in 1341 Petrarch 
was crowned as a poet in the great senate-hall here. — The hill 
could originally be approached from the Forum only, the N.W. 
side being precipitous, but in 1348 the latter side was connected 
for the first time with the new quarter of the city by the construc- 
tion of the flight of steps of Aracceli, the only public work executed 
at Rome during the exile of the papal court at Avignon. In 1389 
Boniface IX. converted the nalace of the senate into a kind of for- 



'8. Maria in Aracoeli. ROME. HI. 'Southern Quarters. 199 

tress. The present form of the Capitol dates from the 16th and 17th 
centuries. Two new approaches from the city having been construct- 
ed in 1536 under Paul III., for the entry of Charles V. (p. 214), 
the Capitol has since formed a kind of termination of the modern 
part of the city in the direction of the ruins of ancient Rome. 

From the Piazza Arac<eli (PI. II, 17), which is reached from 
the Piazza Venezia by the Via Ripresa dei Barberi and Via Giulio 
Romano (p. 165) and from the Corso Vittorio Emanuele by the Via 
Aracoeli (p. 188), three approaches lead to the Capitoline Hill, that 
in the centre being the principal ascent for pedestrians (p. 200). — On 
the left a lofty Flight of Steps (124), constructed in 1348 and now 
restored, ascends to the principal entrance of the church of S. Maria 
in Aracoeli (generally closed, see below). — On the right the Via 
dbllb Tkb Pilb, in 1873 converted into a convenient drive (on 
which occasion remains of the ancient Servian wall, enclosing the 
hill in the direction of the Campus Martius, and now seen behind 
the railings to the left, were brought to light ; see p. xxvi), leads past 
the entrance of the Pal. Caffarelli, which was erected about 1580, 
and is now the residence of the German ambassador. The principal 
approach and the Via delle Tre Pile lead to the Piazza del Campi- 
doglio, see p. 200. 

*S. Maria in Aracoeli (PI. II, 20), a very ancient church, is men- 
tioned in the 9th cent, as S. Maria de Capitolio. The present name, 
derived from an ancient legend (see p. 200), dates from the 14th 
century. The church, of which the Roman senate formerly enjoyed 
the patronage, has given a title to a cardinal since the time of Leo X. 
The facade is unfinished. 

Visitors generally approach the chnrch from the Piazza of the Capitol 
by the staircase to the E. of the Capitoline Museum. Over the door is 
an ancient mosaic : the Madonna between two angels. 

The Interior is much disfigured by modern additions. The nave is 
borne by 22 ancient columns, chiefly of granite, varying greatly in style, 
thickness, and height. The 3rd on the left bears the inscription 'A cubiculo 
Augustorum 1 . The rich ceiling was executed to commemorate the victory 
of Lepanto in 1571. 

By the wall of the principal Entrance, to the right, is the tomb of 
the astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531), with a figure of Christ by Andrea 
Sansovino (?); on the left the fine monument of Card. Librettus or Ali- 
brettis (a member of the celebrated d'Albret family of S. France; 1465), 
with partly preserved painting, and the tomb-relief (much worn) of arch- 
deacon Giov. Crivelli (d. 1432), by Donatett'o. — Right Aisle, 1st Chapel 
(Bufalini) : "Frescoes from the life of St. Bernardino of Siena, painted about 
1484, by Pinturicckio, restored by Camuccini. The decoration of the ceiling 
also deaerres notice. Between the 2nd and 3rd chapels is a statue of 
Gregory XIII., from the Palace of the Conservatori. The 5th Chapel (of 
St. Matthew) contains good pictures by Girol. Muziano. — Left Aisle. In 
the 2nd Chapel a manger (presepe) is fitted up at Christmas, i.e., a gorgeous 
and brilliantly illuminated representation of the Nativity in life-size, with 
the richly decorated image of II Santo Bambino, or Holy Child, which is 
highly revered. Between Christmas Day and Jan. 6th, from 3 to 4 o'clock 
daily, children from 5 to 10 years of age address their petitions to the bamb- 
ino, a carefully studied performance, but usually accomplished with great 
naturalness of gesture and manner. 



200 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol; 

Transept. On the right and left, by the pillars of the nave , are two 
"Ambones from the old choir, by Laurentius and Jacobus Cosmos. The Chapel 
on the right belongs to the Savelli ; on the right and left (the latter including 
an ancient sarcophagus) are monuments of the family, of the 13th and 14th 
cent, (of the parents and a brother of Honorius IV.). — The left transept 
contains a rectangular canopy , borne by 8 columns of alabaster , called 
the Cappella Santa, or m S. Elena. Beneath the altar, destroyed during 
the French Revolution but restored in 1835, the remains of S. Helena are 
said to repose in an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry. The present altar 
also encloses an ancient altar, bearing the inscription Ara PrimogeniU 
Dei, which is said to have been erected by Augustus. According to a 
legend of the 12th cent., this was the spot where the Sibyl of Tibur ap- 
peared to the emperor, whom the senate proposed to elevate to the rank 
of a god, and disclosed to him the new Revelation. Hence the name, 
'Church of the Altar of Heaven'. At the end of the N. transept is the 
monument of Mattheeus of Acquasparta (d. 1302), the general of the Fran- 
ciscans, mentioned by Dante. 

Choir. To the left, the handsome tomb of Giov. Batt. Savelli (d. 1498). 
From 1512 to 1565 the high-altar was adorned with the Madonna of Foligno 
by Raphael (p. 293). The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno, is interred 
here. The present altar-piece is an ancient picture of the Madonna, ascribed 
to St. Luke. 

The Franciscan monastery belonging to the church was pulled 
down in 1888 to make room for the Monument of Victor Emma- 
nuel II., designed by Count Gius. Sacconi. The work, which is being 
erected on the N. end of the Capitol, has already swallowed up over 
six million francs as the cost of the site (p. 165), substructures, 
preliminary operations, etc. 

The Central Approach, ascending in low steps paved with 
asphalt ('la cordonnata'), leads direct to the Piazza del Campidoglio. 
At the foot of the steps are copies of the Egyptian Lions mentioned 
at p. 207, and at the top a group of the horse-taming Dioscuri, which 
are said once to have adorned the theatre of Pompey. In the pleasure- 
grounds to the left is a Bronze Statue of Cola di Eienzo, by Masini. 
The pedestal , formed of ancient architectural and inscribed frag- 
ments, is intended to suggest Bienzi's antiquarian studies. Above 
is a cage containing a couple of wolves. 

The design of the present *Piazza del Campidoglio, or Square 
of the Capitol (PI. II, 20), is due to Michael Angelo, and its execu- 
tion was begun in 1536 by Paul III. (comp. p. 199). The palaces 
of the Conservatori and Senators were already in existence, but 
their facades were altered. Michael Angelo superintended in person 
the erection of the statue of Marcus Aurelius and the construction 
of the staircase-approach and of the flight of steps in front of the 
palace of the Senators ; the rest was executed from his plans by his 
successors. The slanting position of the palaces at the sides, which 
causes the piazza to seem larger than it is, is due to the situation of 
the earlier palace of the Conservatori. — On the balustrade in front, 
at the sides of the Dioscuri, are the so-called Trophies of Marius, 
from the water-tower of that name of the Aqua Julia (p. 155), 
and the statues of the Emp. Constantine and his son Constans from 
the Thermae of Constantine (p. 150). On the right is the first mile- 



Piazza del Campidoglio. ROME. III.- Southern Quarters. 201 

stone of the ancient Via Appia, and on the left the seventh, found 
at Torrioola in 1660. 

In the centre of the piazza rises the admirable *Equestrian Statue 
of Marcus Aurelius (161-181), in bronze, once gilded, which stood 
near the Lateran in the middle ages , and was , as the inscription 
records, transferred hither in 1538. Its original position is unknown. 
It owes its excellent preservation to the popular belief that it was a 
statue of Constantine, the first Christian emperor (see pp. xxx, 1). 
The height of the pedestal, which is said to have been designed by 
Michael Angelo, is skilfully calculated so as to permit spectators to 
inspect even the head of the statue. 

Behind this monument rises the Palazzo del Senators (PI. II, 
20), which was re-erected by Boniface IX. in 1389 on the site of the 
ancient Tab ularium (p. 212), and provided with its handsome flight of 
steps by Michael Angelo (p. 200). The facade, slightly altered from 
Michael Angelo' s design, was constructed by Oirol. Rainaldi (1592). 
The river-gods which adorn it are the Tiber (right) and Nile (left) ; in 
the centre is a fountain, above which is a sitting statue of Rome from 
Cori (comp. p. 385). The palace contains a spacious hall, for the 
meetings of the civic council, the offices of the civic administration, 
dwellings, and an observatory. The Campanile by Martino Lunghi 
the Elder was erected in 1572, to replace an older one, probably 
belonging (like the four corner -towers, one of which towards the 
Forum, on the left, is still recognisable) to the edifice of Boniface. 
The roof, which is adorned with a standing figure of Roma, commands 
an extensive view (ascent, see p. 212). 

The two palaces at the sides now contain the Capitoline Col- 
lections. The Palace of the Conservatori, or town-council, on the 
right, was rebuilt in 1564-68 after Michael Angelo's plans by Pros- 
peroBoccapaduli andTommaso de' Cavalieri; the Capitoline Museum 
(p. 206), on the left, was erected in 1644 by Grirol. Rainaldi. — The 
flights of steps and triple-arched colonnades on the E. side of these 
palaces were erected by Vignola (ca. 1550) ; that to the left behind 
the Capitoline Museum leads to the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli 
(p. 199) ; that to the right, on the opposite side, to Monte Caprino 
(p. 212). 

On the right of the Palace of the Senators runs the Via del 
Campidoglio, and on the left the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo 
(p. 228), both descending to the Forum. 

A. *Palaoe of the Conservatori. 
The principal door leads from the Piazza del Campidoglio into 
the Court. By the right wall of the court are the hands, arm, and 
feet of a colossal figure in marble ; and the cinerary urn of Agrippina, 
wife of Germanicus, which in the middle ages was employed as a 
measure for corn. By the left wall are alto-reliefs of Roman provinces, 



202 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol; 

interspersed with barbaric trophies and weapons, which were found 
in the Piazza di Pietra (p. 162) ; also a colossal head, perhaps of 
Domitian. — In the centre of the colonnade opposite the entrance, 
a statue of Roma; at the sides statues of barbarians in grey marble. 
To the left, in the corner, a colossal bronze head ; right, a noteworthy 
antique group of a horse torn by a lion, said to have been restored 
by Michael Angelo. 

In the Entrance - Hall : opposite the staircase, 30. Modern 
'columna rostrata', with the antique fragment of an inscription in 
honour of C. Duilius, the victor at Mylae, B.C. 260 (the early original 
was probably replaced at the beginning of the imperial period by 
the extant marble copy). Below the window is a statue of Charles 
of Anjou, King of Sicily (till 1870 in the large Hall of the Capitol), 
who was senator of Rome in 1263-66, 1268-78, and 1281-84. 

On each side of the Staircase are Roman inscriptions built into 
the wall, most of which were found on the Esquiline. — On the 
landing of the staircase is a pedestal with a list of streets in the 1st, 
10th, 12th, 13th, and 14th regions of ancient Rome, dating from 
136 A.D. Built into the walls are four noteworthy reliefs from a 
triumphal arch of M. Aurelius, found near S. Martina in the Forum : 
on the right, 44. Sacrifice in front of the Capitoline temple ; on the 
long wall, 43. Entry of the emperor; 42. Pardon of conquered 
enemies; 41. His reception by Roma at the triumphal gate. Also 
ancient inscriptions. — On the left, above the landing, No. 43. 
Relief, Curtius on horseback leaping into the gulf (15th or 16th 
cent.). — In the passage above, two reliefs from the triumphal arch 
of M. Aurelius (p. 161), representing an oration of Marcus Aurelius 
and the apotheosis of Faustina. On the left is the entrance to the 
Collections described below. — Admission, see pp. 126, 127. Comp. 
the Plan, p. 204. 

We traverse two Rooms with modern lists of Roman magistrates, 
and enter a long Corridor containing the so-called Protomoteca, 
a collection of busts of celebrated Italians (especially in the domains 
of science and art), the nucleus of which was formed by the busts 
removed from the Pantheon in 1820 by order of Pius VII. To the 
right of the entrance is a bust of Pius VII. by Canoua; at the end 
of the corridor is a monument to Canova by L. Fabris. Several emin- 
ent foreigners have also been admitted: e.g. (1.) "Winckelmann, 
(r.) Poussin and Raphael Mengs. On the walls are old plans and 
views of Rome. — The second door to the right in this passage is 
the entrance to the New Capitoline Museum (see below), while the 
last door but two leads to the picture-gallery (p. 205), and the last 
but one leads up two steps to the 7th, 6th, and 5th rooms of the New 
Capitoline Museum (pp. 205, 204). 

The *New Capitoline Collection contains chiefly the bronzes 
and the antiques found during the construction of the new streets of 
the E. quarter of the city, which become municipal property (p. 146). 



■Pal.oftheConservatori. ROME. III. -Southern Quarters. 203 

I. Room of thb Bronze Utensils. Bronze Chariot, with repre- 
sentations in relief; fine magisterial Bronze Seat (bisellium), -with 
a footstool, adorned with inlaid silver work, found at the ancient 
Amiternum (erroneously restored; the portions ending in asses' 
heads , now forming the back , were originally supports under the 
seat) ; Litter, inlaid with silver. Along the walls are smaller bronzes, 
including a Hermaphrodite, from whose back springs an arabesque, 
(fountain-figure). — The door in front of us leads to the — 

II. Room, which contains the Collection of Coins. — The door 
to the left in Room I. leads into the large octagonal — 

III. Dome Saloon, constructed of iron and wood in the Pompe- 
ian style, by Vespignani. In the Vestibule : to the right, 2. Tomb- 
stone of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, a boy of HV2 years, who, according 
to the Latin inscription, worked himself to death after having dis- 
tinguished himself in a competition (agon) in extemporising in 
Greek verses, instituted by Domitian in 94 A.D.; the verses are 
inscribed on each side of the statuette of the youthful poet. To the 
left : 8. Sitting figure of Terra Mater (Mother Earth), in a small tem- 
ple with inscription. — Opposite the entrance is a beautiful foun- 
tain-spout in the form of a drinking-horn, according to the inscrip- 
tion by Pontios of Athens, found in the garden of Maecenas (p. 156). 
18. Youthful athlete pouring oil into his left hand from an oil- 
flask; 14, 16. Tritons, forming part of the following group. *15. Half- 
figure of the Emperor Commodus, with the attributes of Hercules ; 
the marble still displays its original polish ; the pedestal is formed 
by two Amazons (one only preserved) bearing a shield enclosed by 
cornucopia; below which is a celestial globe. 19. Figure of Bonus 
Eventus, with a cornucopia. 21. Large sarcophagus fromVicovaro 
(p. 378), with hunting scenes. 24. Terpsichore; 25, 27. "Well-pre- 
served youthful portrait-heads, found together on the Esquiline ; 
*26. So-called Esquiline Venus, but more probably Atalanta in the 
act of loosening her hair before starting in the race with Hippo- 
menes (both arms missing). Then, two statues of a post-Constant- 
ine period, each holding aloft a cloth in the right hand as the signal 
for starting in the chariot-race. Graceful figure of a young girl on 
a bench. 33. Statue of Claudia Justa, with attributes of Fortune ; 
Statue of Thanatos, god of death, wrongly restored as a lyre-player 
(the original had a bow in the left hand and an inverted torch in 
the right). In a niche behind, to the right, Belief, representing 
Vulcan and three Cyclopes forging the shield of Achilles ; *36. 
Head of a Centaur (Chiron) ; 38, 42, 43. Athletes; 46. Marsyas 
(the tree and the extremities are modern restorations). Opposite, 59. 
Head of an Amazon. In the middle, between the pillars: 62-65. 
Caryatides in the archaistic style ; two large vases (cratera), one with 
Paris and Helen and on the back aTChaistic group of the three (draped) 
Graces, the other with spirited Bacchic representations. 35. Infant 
Hercules with the lion's skin, club, and bow-case, in his left hand 



204 III.SouthemQuarters. ROME. a. The Capitol; 

the apples of the Hesperides ; 10. Old woman carrying a lamb. 
Statuette of an old fisherman; Statuette of a boy at play, aiming a 
nut at a pyramid of nuts on the ground (comp. No. 19, in the Galleria 
dei Candelabri of the Vatican, p. 298). Farther on is the — 

IV. Gallery. To the right i 46. Colossal bust of Maecenas ; 
Tombstone of the shoemaker C. Julius Helius, with life-like portrait 
(1st cent. A.D.); 75. Fighting Hercules, with a portrait - head ; 
several fine ancient Greek tombstones with female figures ; Replica 
of the so-called Penelope (Vatican Gallery ; p. 300) ; Votive relief 
of au athlete washing his hands ; 70. Colossal foot in marble, with a 
sandal adorned with a pleasing composition of Tritons , Cupids, 
and dolphins. — On the walls of the adjoining Corridor: Priest's 
boy with a sucking-pig for sacrifice. 126. Torso of a Charioteer, 
in the act of mounting his chariot ; 125. Boy (restored as MeT- 
cury) playing with a tortoise (fountain-figure) ; 124. Marble vase, 
richly adorned with acanthus leaves ; 123. Boy with a small 
dog. On the sarcophagus to the right are several heads ; that of 
Atthis (under glass) shows traces of painting and gilding. Bust of 
Anacreon, the poet, found in the gardens of Caesar, outside the 
Porta Portese. Adjacent, 70. Torso of Athena, modelled after the 
Parthenos of Phidias ; fragment of a marble shield with battle- 
scenes. To the left, 130. Silenus in a crouching attitude, a foun- 
tain-figure. 

We cross the end of the Protomoteca (passing the monument of 
Canova on the right), and enter the — 

V. Room of the Terracottas, chiefly common domestic utensils 
and architectural fragments. In the corner to the left is a seated 
female figure. Reliefs with landscapes (views of the Nile) and 
mythological scenes (Hercules and Telephus), many showing traces 
of colouring. By the exit are an ivory diptych (note-hook) and a 
stylus, etc. The wall-paintings (from a tomb on the Esquiline ; 
2nd cent., B. C.) represent the military achievements of Q. Fabius 
and M. Fannius. 

VI. Room op the Bronzes. At the entrance, *Roman Priest's 
Boy (Camillus) ; Ephesian Diana, on a trilateral altar. — By the 
window, so-called *Capitoline Wolf, frequently but groundlessly 
identified with the work which the aediles Cneius and Quintus 
Ogulnius erected in B. C. 296 ; the style seems rather to refer it to 
the 5th cent. B.C. Comparison with ancient Roman coins shows 
that the wolf stood alone, with its head turned menacingly towards 
some enemy. In the middle ages (before the 10th cent.) this work, 
with other bronzes, was erected near the Lateran, and was perhaps 
subjected at the same time to the damaging restoration by solder- 
ing and filing which has seriously injured, it. The twins, Romulus 
and Remus, were not added until the 16th century. — In the glass- 
case in the centre : Edge-tile in the shape of a woman's head ; frag- 
ment of another, with the mask of Silenus , found on the Monte 



Pal. of the Conaervatori. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 205 

Caprino and perhaps dating from the temple of the Capitoline Jove 
as it existed before the time of Sulla. — 36. Small three-bodied 
Hecate. The * Thorn Extractor, a boy removing a thorn from his 
foot. Gilded Statue of Hercules , found in the Forum Boarium 
(p. 239), under SixtusIV. *Horse, sadly mutilated, but of excellent 
workmanship, found at Trastevere together with the fragments of a 
Bull. Then a Colossal Hand and a Colossal Foot. To the left of 
the exit, an expressive *Bronze Head, said to be that of L. Junius 
Brutus, who expelled- the kings and became the first consul ; eyes 
inserted. Vase, found near Anzio, presented by King Mithridates 
to a gymnasium (foot and handles modern). 

VII. Room of the Etruscan Terracottas , the so - called 
Museo Italico, a collection of vases, terracottas (including two sar- 
cophagi with figures on the lids), bronzes, and various anticaglias 
from Etruria and Latium. Under glass : Silver cover of a cist with 
archaic figures of animals, found at Palestrina. 

On quitting this collection we pass through the first door on the 
right in the corridor and ascend to the — 

Picture Gallery ('Pinacoteca') , founded by Benedict XIV. 
The names of the artists and the subjects are attached to the pic- 
tures. Excellent catalogue by A. Venturi (II/4 fr. ; not sold in the 
museum), to which the old numbers given below in brackets refer. 
— Straight in front is the — 

I. Saloon. Entrance- wall, to the right of the door: *8i (89). Rubens, 
Romulus and Remus. Right wall. 80 (145), Dosso Dossi (not Giorgione), 
Holy Family; 78(6). Romanelli, St. Cecilia; 72(7). Pietroda Cortona, Triumph 
of Dionysus; 70(127). Lorenzo diCredi, Madonna and Child; 63(14). N.Poussin, 
Flora (copy of the picture in the Louvre) ; 16 (20). Ouido Rem, Mary Magda- 
len; 60 (19). Valentin, Christ in the Temple. Above the windows: 85-91 
(1-10). Ten frescoes attributed to Lo Spagno (p. 50), Apollo and the Muses, 
formerly in the hunting-lodge ofLaMagliana (p. 394). — Harrow wall: 58 (142). 
Albani, Nativity of the Virgin ; 57 (26). Dom. Tintoretto , Mary Magdalen ; 
50(27). Fra Bartolommeo (? more probably Franc. Francia'), Presentation in 
the Temple ; 53 (30). Garofalo, Holy Family ; 47 (34). Guercino, Persian Sibyl 
(school-piece) ; 46 (70). Paolo Veronese, Madonna and saints (copy); above, 
100, 101. Lo Spagna, SS. Stephen and Benedict, frescoes from the convent 
of Campo Marzo in Rome. Left wall: 41 (9). Albani, Magdalen; 36 (52.) 
S. Botticelli (?), Madonna and saints ; 32 (55). Ag. Carracci, Holy Family ; 29 
(196). Cola delf Amatrice, Death of Mary ; 26 (195). Paolo Veronese, Ascen- 
sion ; 19 (54). Garofalo, Coronation of St. Catharine ; 17 (2). Guido Reni, A 
glorified spirit (unfinished); 13(78). School of Franc. Francia, Madonna and 
saints (1513). — We traverse a small passage, in which are (102-110) some 
interesting views of Rome in the first half of the 18th cent., by L. VanviteW, 
and enter the — 

II. Room. 139 (80). Velazquez, Portrait ; 137 (100). Von Dyck (? Venturi 
ascribes it to Tiberio linelli), Good double portrait; 134. Portrait of Michael 
Angelo ; *128 (106). Van Dyck, Portraits of the poets Thomas Killigrew and 
Henry Carew ; 122 (204). Style of Garofalo, Adoration of the kings ; 120 (161). 
Garofalo, Annunciation ; 118 (201). Copy after Garofalo, Transfiguration of 
the Madonna; 117 (223). Paolo Veronese (1 more probably Carletto Galiari), 
Madonna and angels. 

III. Room. 141 (132) Giov. Bellini (?), Portrait of himself; 143 (87). 
Giov. Bellini (or Garofalo'!), St. Nicholas of Bari; "143(124). Titian, Baptism 
of Christ; 136 (146). Gentile Bellini (?), Portrait, said to be of Petrarch; 
147 (129). Giov. Buonconsiglio, Portrait of himself ; 161 (98). School of Giov. 



206 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol; 

Bellini, Holy Family. — Left wall : 169 (222). Bassano, Christ in the house 
of the Pharisee. 

IV. Room. Left wall : 197 (221). Paolo Veronese, Rape of Europa (copy); 
203 (180). Palma Vecchio (not Titian), Christ and the Woman taken in 
adultery; 204 (164). Garofalo, Madonna (copy); (169). Cignani, Madonna; (41). 
JVic. Poussin, Orpheus; (154). School of Paolo Veronese, St. Magdalen. — 
Narrow wall: *221 (143). Quercino, St. Petronilla raised from her tomh and 
shown to her bridegroom, a colossal picture painted for St. Peters, now 
replaced there by a copy in mosaic. — Right wall : 227 (128). Caravaggio, 
Fortune-telling gipsy; 241 (.117)- Quercino, Cleopatra and Octavian; 245 (116). 
Outdo Rent, St. Sebastian; 247 (47). Pietro da Cortona, Rape of the Sabine 
women. — Exit wall: 254 (190). Pietro da Cortona, Alexander and Darius; 
253 (58). Pietro da Cortona, Polyxena sacrificing herself on the grave of 
Achilles. 

The Sale dei Conservatori (i.e. of the town-councillors) mainly 
contain frescoes and other works of art, chiefly of the end of the 16th 
century. 

We pass through a Corridor, containing a collection of porcelain pre- 
sented by Conte Cini, and the old Chapel, containing a fresco (Madonna) 
and angels by Agottino d'Ingegno, formerly ascribed to Pinturicchio. We 
then reach the I. Room, the walls of which are frescoed by Sodoma with 
scenes from the Punic Wars. — II. Room (to the right) : Frescoes by Lau- 
reti; statues of the generals Marcantonio Colonna, Alexander Farnese, Ro- 
spigliosi, Aldobrandini, and Barberini. — III. Large Saloon, with frescoes 
by the Cavaliere d^Arpino, representing the Combat of the Horatii and the 
Curiatii, and other scenes from the period of the Kings ; it also contains a 
bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi, and a marble statue of Urban 
VIII. by Bernini. — We now return through R. II. into the IV. Room. 
Scenes from the Cimbrian war, and several antique busts. — V. Room: 
Fragments of the -Fasti Gonsulares, or lists of Roman consuls, and (on the 
side pillars) of all triumphs from Romulus to the time of Augustus, found 
in 1546 (and smaller fragments in the present century), between the temples 
of Castor and Faustina. They were originally exhibited in the Regia, or 
official residence of the Pontifex Maximus (p. 221). The busts of B. Bor- 
ghesi (by A.Tadolini) and W. Henzen (by J. Kopf), two scholars who explained 
the Fasti, were placed here in 1888. The ancient hermse with modern in- 
scriptions are unimportant. — VI. Room. Several antiques : bronze jug 
in the form of a female head ; two ducks ; head of Medusa, by Bernini. 
Bust of Michael Angelo. — VII. Room, a small room, with relics of 
Garibaldi, weapons, garlands, banners, letters, etc. — VIII. Room, for- 
merly the assembly-hall of the Senate. The frieze, representing scenes 
from the life of Scipio Africanus, is attributed to Ann. Carracci. On the 
walls is tapestry woven at S. Michele. Also busts in marble of Victor 
Emmanuel II., Cavour, and Mazzini. 

B. **CapitoIine Museum. 

This museum was founded by Innocent X., and extended by 
Clement XII., Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The 
works carried off by the French were restored with few exceptions 
to Pius VII. The collection is much smaller than that of the Vatican, 
but is rich in admirable works. Admission, see pp. 126, 127. Catalogue, 
prepared for the Commissione Archeologica Municipale in 1882, 
(3fr/). Comp. the Plan, p. 205. 

Ground Floor. — In the centre of the Court (Cortile) : in front, 
above the fountain is the so-called *Marforio, a colossal river- god, 
probably representing the Rhine or Danube, erected in the middle 




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Capitoline Museum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 207 

ages in the Via di Marforio opposite the Career Mamertinus, where 
it was employed as a vehicle for the sarcastic answers to the inter- 
rogatories of Pasquino (see p. 190). By the wall, to the right and 
left of the Marforio; 3,18. Figures of Pan, two architectonic sup- 
porting-figures found in the Piazza dei Satiri, on the site of the or- 
chestra of Pompey's Theatre (p. 192). Among the other sculptures, 
most of which are unimportant, are the two Egyptian Lions of basalt 
(formerly at the foot of the steps of the Capitol), two Granite Co- 
lumns with reliefs, and two large Canopi (dog-faced baboons) , all 
from the Temple of Isis near S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 166). 

In the lower Corridor (PI. 4) , to the left of the entrance : 
Sarcophagus with Bacchanalian representations, purposely mutilat- 
ed. At the end of this corridor, to the right: 21. Lower part of 
statue of a barbarian in pavonazzetto, originally on the attica of the 
Arch of Constantine. Here also is the entrance to the — 

I. Room (PI. 1). In the centre is an altar with a sacrificial re- 
lief, erected by the superintendents of a Roman district (Vicus 
yEsculeti), found in 1888 near the Ponte Garibaldi. On the walls 
are several ancient mosaics , one of which (No. 28) represents a 
harbour (found on the Quirinal in 1878). Above the door of the 
2nd room : 14. Cupids binding a lion, with Hercules in female at- 
tire spinning in the background. By the door, under glass, is (27) 
a mosaic representing the rising of the Nile. — In the II. Room 
(PI. 2) are two Sarcophagi,, found in 1889 in the Prati di Castello. 
That to the right contains the skeleton of a girl named Crepereia 
Tryphaena, who was buried with rich gold ornaments and other 
articles, including a doll of oak-wood. — In the middle of the III. 
Room (PL 3) is a large pedestal , which , according to the inscrip- 
tion, bore a statue of Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi. In this room 
also is a sarcophagus with reliefs of Cupids gathering grapes (with 
well-preserved gilding). 

We return to the Corridor (PI. 4). To the right of the prin- 
cipal entrance : 35. Polyphemus the Cyclops with one of his victims 
(erroneously restored as Pan); (right) 21. Colossal Mars (legs mod- 
ern) ; by the window, 38. Hercules with the Hydra, restored by Al- 
gardi ; the paTts originally missing, the Hydra (No. 39) and leg of 
Hercules, were afterwards discovered and are now exhibited beside 
the restored group. — Adjacent, to the right , is the entrance to 
three rooms containing inscriptions and several interesting sarcophagi. 

I. Room (PI. 5). In the centre : Ara, which stood in the market- 
place of Albano till 1743, with archaic representation of the 
labours of Hercules. 30. Sarcophagus with the history of Me- 
leager. — II. Room (PL 6) to the right, 5. Sarcophagus with battle 
between the Romans and Gauls (perhaps a copy of a celebrated 
work of the Pergamenean school); (left) 11. Cippus of T. Statilius 
Aper, the architect ('mensor aediftcioruni'), with a wild boar (aper) 
his feet and a measuring-wand and other instruments at the 



208 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol; 

sides. — III. Room (PI. 7). Large Sarcophagus (formerly suppos- 
ed to I)e that of Alex. Severus and his mother Mammaea), with 
scenes from the life of Achilles : Achilles among the daughters of 
Lycomedes, (left) farewell of Deidamia, (right) arming of Achilles ; 
at the hack, Priam begging for the body of Hector (found in 1594 
with the Portland Vase of the British Museum on the Monte del 
Grano, near the Porta Furba, p. 345). On the rear wall, 3. Relief 
of an Archigallus (Priest of Cybele). Several of the inscriptions are 
dedicated to their local gods by natives of Palmyra residing in Rome. 
— We now return to the hall , and ascend the staircase to the 
first floor. 

Into the walls of the Staircase (PI. 8). are built the frag- 
ments of a marble Plan of Rome, found in the 16th cent, behind 
SS. Cosma e Damiano (p. 222). This important record of the 
topography of ancient Rome was executed in the reign of Septimius 
Severus and in antiquity was placed on the Templum Sacrse Urbis 
(p. 222). Some of the pieces found have been lost again , but are 
supplemented from the extant drawings (these parts are indicated 
by asterisks). 

First Floor. — Straight in front: I. Room op the Dying 
Gladiator. In the centre: **1. So-called Dying Gladiator, found 
at Rome in the 16th cent, and originally preserved in the Villa 
Ludovisi. The trifling restorations (right arm and part of the base) 
are said to have been made by Michael Angelo. The dying warrior, 
recognized as a Gaul by his twisted collar, short hair, and mustache, 
is sitting on his shield , while the blood pours from his wounded 
breast; he has evidently inflicted the fatal blow himself, having 
previously broken the crooked horn which lies on his shield. He 
exhibits the same dignity of character that prefers death to captiv- 
ity as the Barbarian in the group now in the Museo Boncampagni 
(p. 140) , which was probably found at the same time (comp. 
p. xlvi). The visitor will readily recall the exquisite lines by 
Byron: Childe Harold, Canto iv., 140. — Right wall: *5. Head of 
Dionysus, erroneously taken for a woman's (Ariadne's) ; 4. Ama- 
zon, in the style of that from the Villa Mattei (p. 300); the head is 
antique but belonged originally to some other statue ; 3. Alexander 
the Great; 2. Demeter. Opposite the entrance: 16. M. Jun. Bru- 
tus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Caesar ; 15. Priestess of Isis ; 14. Statue 
of a girl from the Villa of Hadrian, restored as Flora. Left wall : 
*12. Antinous, from Hadrian's Villa (p. xlix), by recent authorities 
regarded as merely a genre figure of a youth angling; *10. Besting 
Satyr of Praxiteles, one of the best of the extant copies (p. xliv), 
the frequency of which (over 30) Welcker is inclined to attribute 
partly to the fact that satyrs were favourite ornaments for fountains. 

This is the figure that suggested the title of Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
romance, The Marble Faun (see p. xxv), in the opening pages of which oc- 
curs a fine description of the statue. 

9. Girl protecting a dove. Entrance wall : *8. Portrait statue, 



Capitoline Museum. ROME. 7/7. Southern Quarters. 209 

said to be of Zeno, found in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at 
Oivita Lavinia. 

II. Stanza del Fauno. On the walls, seals, reliefs, inscrip- 
tions, etc. , among them the Lex Begia of Vespasian (black tablet 
of bronze on the entrance-wall), whence Cola di Rienzo (p. xxxv) 
once demonstrated to the people the might and liberty of ancient 
Rome. In the centre, 1. Satyr (Fauno) in rosso antico, raising a 
bunch of grapes to his mouth , from Hadrian's Villa, placed on a 
remarkable altar, dedicated to Jupiter Sol. Window-wall: 26. Cir- 
cular ara with a rostrum, and the inscription Ara Tranquillitatis , 
found together with the Ara Ventorum and the Ara Neptuni at the 
harbour of Anzio (p. 398), where they were employed by sailors tor 
offering sacrifices on their embarkation or return. Wall of egress : 
3. Sarcophagus with relief of Diana and Endymion ; 8. Boy with 
mask of Silenus. Entrance- wall : 16. Boy struggling with a goose, 
copy of a statue by Boethos; excavated near the Lateran in 1741 ; 
18. Sarcophagus with battle of Amazons. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre : 5. iEsculapius, in the black 
marble known as nero antico, on an altar with the representation 
of a sacrifice. 2, 4. Two Centaurs in bigio morato , by Aristeas 
and Papias, found in Hadrian's Villa (p. 372) in 1736 ; 3. Colossal 
basaltic statue of the youthful IJercules , found on the Aventine ; 
it stands on a beautiful altar of Jupiter, embellished with represen- 
tations of his birth, education, etc.; 1. Jupiter, in nero antico, 
found at Anzio , on an altar adorned, with Mercury, Apollo, and 
Diana , in the archaistic ■ style. — Window- wall to the left of the 
entrance : 29. Portrait-statue, restored as Hygieia ; 30. Apollo ; 32. 
M. Aurelius ; 33. Wounded Amazon ; 34. Mars and Venus , with 
portrait-features; 36. Athena. — Wall of egress: 6. Satyr; 7. 
Apollo ; 8. Minerva ; 9. Colossal bust of Trajan with civic crown. 
— Right wall: 13. Hadrian as Mars. In the niche: 17. Athena, 
archaistic statue. 19. Amazon; 20. Apollo; 21. Mercury; 22. 
Old woman, perhaps the nurse from a group of the Children of 
Niobe ; 24. Ceres (?). — Entrance-wall : 25. Colossal bust of An- 
toninus Pius ; 27. Hunter with a hare ; 28. Harpocrates, god of 
silence, from Hadrian's Villa. 

IV. Room of the Philosophers. On the wall valuable *Reliefs, 
six from the frieze of a temple of Neptune, with sacrificial imple- 
ments and parts of ships (Nos. 99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 107). —In the 
centre: No. 98. the sitting consular *Statue of Marcus Claudius Mar- 
cellus (?), conqueror of Syracuse, B. C. 212, from the Giustiniani 
collection , formerly in the Museo Chiaramonti. Also 93 *Busts of 
Celebrated Characters of Antiquity, to some of which arbitrary names 
are affixed: 4, *5, 6. Socrates; 8. Carneades ; 9. Aristides the ora- 
tor; 10. Hellenistic poet (perhaps Callimachus or Philetas), usually 
but groundlessly described as Seneca; 21. Diogenes the Cynic; 22. 
Sophocles ; 25. Theon ; 27. Pythagoras ; 28. Alexander the Great (?); 

Baedeker. Italy II. 11th Edition. 14 



210 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol ; 

30. Aristophanes (?); 31. Demosthenes ; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. 
Alcibiades; 37. Hippocrates; 38. Chrysippus; 44, 45, *46. Homer, 
48. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, general under Claudius and Nero; *49. 
Scipio Africanus , recognisable by the wound on his head which 
he received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst saving 
his father's life ; 58. Plato ; *59. Arminius the Cheruscan (?),. 
erroneously named Cecrops ; 63. Epicurus and Metrodorus, a double 
herma ; 64. Epicurus ; 72, 73. Julian the Apostate ; 76. Terence, 
according to others C. Asinius Pollio ; *82. iEschylus (?). The 
names of the busts by the window-wall are unknown. 

V. Room op the Busts of the Emperors. Reliefs by the 
entrance-wall : *92. Endymion asleep , beside him the watchful 
dog ; *89. Perseus liberating Andromeda (these two belong to the 
eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, p. 193). Above the window are 
other sarcophagus-reliefs. — The ^Collection of the Emperors' Busts 
is one of the most complete in existence ; the names are for the 
most part verified by coins (comp. p. xlvii). 

In the centre : *84. Sitting female statue , believed to be Agrippina, 
daughter of M. Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Caligula. The 
numbering of the busts commences in the upper row. to the left of the 
entrance-door. 1. Julius Csesar; 2. Augustus; Marcellus, nephew of the 
latter (?); 4, 5. Tiberius; 6. Drusus the elder, brother of Tiberius; 7. Dru- 
sus, son of Tiberius; 8. Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus, mother of 
Germanicus and Claudius; 9. Germanicus; 10. Agrippina, his wife; *11. 
Caligula, in basalt; 12. Claudius; 13. Messalina, fifth wife of Claudius; 
14. Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus, mother of Nero and 
last wife of Claudius; 15. Nero; 16. Nero (freely restored); 17. Poppsea, 
Nero's second wife; 18. Galba (modern); 19. Otho; 20. Vitelliua (?); 21. 
Vespasian; 22. Titus; 23. Julia, his daughter; 24. Domitian; *25. Domitia, 
wife of Domitian; 26. Nerva (modern?); 27. Trajan; 28. Plotina, his wife; 
29. Martiana, his sister; 30. MaJidia, her daughter; 81, 32. Hadrian, 33. 
Sabina, his wife; 34. iElius Caesar, his adopted son; 35. Antoninus Pius; 
36. Faustina the elder, his wife; 37. Aurelius as a boy; 38. M. Aurelius 
more advanced in life ; 39. Faustina the younger , daughter of Antoninus, 
wife of Aurelius; 41. Lucius Verus; 43. Commodus ; 45. Pertinax; 48. 
Macrinus ; 49. Unknown , executed according to the inscription by Zenas 
of Aphrodisias ; 50, 51. Septimius Severus; 53. Caracalla; 57. Heliogabulus ; 
60. Alex. Severus; *62. Maximin; 63. Maximus, son of Maximin; 64. Gor- 
dian Africanus ; 65. Gordian ; 76. Gallienns ; 80. Diocletian (?) ; 82. Julian 
the Apostate (? the inscription on this bust is mediaeval). 

VI. Corridor. At the left end : no number, Beautiful marble 
vase on an archaistic *Puteal or circular well-head, with a proces- 
sion of 12 gods : Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Hercules, Apollo, Diana, 
Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, Neptune, and Vulcan. By the 
window to the left : 33. Bust of Caligula; Then, the back of the 
visitor being turned to the window: (1.) 30. Trajan; (1.) *29. 
Pallas , found at Velletri , exactly corresponding to the statue 
(No. 114) mentioned on p. 306; (1.) 28. M. Aurelius, as a boy; 
(r.) 35. Head of Silenus ; (1.) 26. Augustus; (1.) 25. Jupiter, on a 
cippus with relief : Claudia Quinta , the vestal virgin , drawing a 
boat containing the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber ; (r.) 
38. Bacchus ; (r.) 42. Female draped statue. (The door opposite 



Capitoline Museum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 211 

leads to the Venus room, see below). Left, 21. Head of Diana ; (r.J 
43. Antinous ; (1.) 20. Daughter of Niobe, restored in antiquity as 
Psyche; (r.) 46. Selene; below, Sarcophagus with representation 
of the birth and education of Bacchus. In the following com- 
partments of the window-wall and rear wall are the inscriptions 
from the columbarium of the freedmen of Livia (found in 1726 near 
the church of Domine Quo Vadis). Right: 48. Child of Niobe ; (1.) 
15. Colossal head of Venus; (r.) 49. Head of Juno (the eyes, of vi- 
treous paste, were inserted) ; (1.) 14. Marble vessel with Bacchana- 
lian scenes ; (r.) 50. Copy of the discus-thrower of Myron (p. 179), 
incorrectly restored as a warrior; (1.) 12. Flute - playing Satyr; 
(r.) 52. Muse ; (1.) 10. Octagonal cinerary urn with Cupids in the 
attitudes of celebrated statues ; 54. Venus , with portrait - head ; 
below, Sarcophagus with the rape of Proserpine; on the sarco- 
phagus, no number, Infant Hercules with the snakes; (1.), no 
number, Archaistie relief, a lute-player (?) ; (1.) 8. Old woman 
intoxicated. Here is the entrance to the Room of the Doves. Then 
(1.) 5. Cupid bending his Bow (after Lysippus); (r.) 61. Silenus! 
VII. Room op the Doves , so called from the *Mosaic on the 
right wall : Doves on a Fountain-basin , found in Hadrian's Villa 
near Tivoli (p. 372), copy of a celebrated work by Sosus of Perga- 
mum, mentioned by Pliny. Below it , a sarcophagus : 13. Prome- 
theus forming man, whom Minerva inspires with life, in a style 
showing the transition to the Christian style of art. By the right 
wall, Mosaic with masks. Under the mosaic : 37. Sarcophagus with 
Selene and Endymion. On the narrow wall are several fine Roman 
portrait-busts. By the left wall, in the 2nd window, 83. the 
Ilian Tablet, a small relief in palombino, a soft kind of marble, 
with the destruction of Troy and flight of iEneas in the centre] 
and many other incidents from the legends of the Trojan war' 
explained by Greek inscriptions, found near Bovillai. 83a. Frag- 
ment of a representation of the shield of Achilles , inscribed on 
the back as the work of Theodoros , found in 1882 near S. Maria 
della Vittoria (p. 144). On the margin of the shield were 124 
lines from Homer's description of the shield in Book XVIII. of 
the Iliad, but only 75 are now left. 83b. Fragment of another 
representation of the same subject. 

VIII. Room of Venus. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus 
Room, which contains (on a revolving pedestal) the ** Cap itoline 
Venus, unquestionably the workmanship of a Greek chisel, and the 
most admirable of all the existing later developments of the idea 
of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles (p. xliv), which is known 
to us from coins. The statue is to be regarded as the perfect type 
of feminine grace, not as intended as a temple figure. It was found 
almost uninjured in a carefully walled -up niche between the 
Viminal and Quirinal. — Left , Leda with the swan , a mediocre 
work ; right, * Cupid and Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

14* 



212 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. a. The Capitol. 

On the S. height of the Capitol, called the Monte Caprino 
(to which a flight of steps ascends on the E. side of the Palace of 
the Conservatori , comp. p. 201), stand the so-called Casa Tarpeia 
with the Protestant hospital, and the German Archaeological In- 
stitute, erected in 1874-76 by Laspeyres, at the cost of the German 
government. In the garden (custodian, Monte Caprino 25) is shown 
the Rupe Tarpeia, or Tarpeian Rock. The height and abruptness 
of the spot have been greatly diminished since antiquity; and 
indeed the situation of the rock from which the condemned used 
to be thrown is by no means certain. Ancient substructures of 
solid stone, which were discovered in the garden of the Pal. Caf- 
farelli (p. 199) in 1866, belong to the temple of the Capitoline Ju- 
piter (p. 198). 

The imposing ruins on which the Senatorial Palace has been 
erected (entrance by the first iron gate to the left in the Via del 
Campidoglio, as we come from the Piazza del Campidoglio; then 
enter the door to the right with the superscription 'Tabulario e Torre 
Capitolina'; fee 50 c; admission the same as in the case of the 
Capitoline collections, pp. 126, 127) belonged to the *Tabularium, 
erected in B.C. 78 by the consul Q. Lutatius Catulus for the recep- 
tion of the public archives, and resting on the massive substructures 
which surround the hill. It consisted of a fivefold series of vaults, 
the last of which opened towards the Forum in the form of a colon- 
nade with half-columns in the Doric style, which are still visible. 
The vaults were used in the middle ages as a public salt-magazine, 
and the blocks of peperino have been much corroded by the action 
of the salt. The rooms contain architectural and sculptural frag- 
ments from the neighbouring temples, such as (at the end , to the 
left) the splendid main cornice of the Temple of Concordia (p. 216), 
a restored cast of the cornice of the Temple of Titus, etc. On the 
lower floor is a valuable collection of amphorae found on the Es- 
quiline. An ancient flight of steps, now partly restored, descended 
hence to the Forum, where, to the left of the temple of Vespasian, 
the archway where it issued is observed. — From the middle of the 
colonnade we may ascend a flight of steps to the left marked 'Torre 
Capitolina'. We first reach a room with the inscription from a mo- 
nument raised by the emperor Frederick II. after his victory over 
the Milanese at Cortenuova in 1237, in Rome ; and then traverse 
a room with mediaeval and modern inscriptions (standard measures, 
etc.), to the top (261 steps in all) of the Campanile of the Palazzo 
del Senatore (p. 201). The highest gallery commands one of the 
most beautiful **Views of Rome, especially to the S. [Biihl- 
mann and Wagner's panorama of ancient Rome (p. xxv) is taken 
from this point; visitors are recommended to bring a copy of it 
with them.] 



FORUM ROMAN UM 




ROME. HI. Southern Quarters. 213 
b. The Forum Romanum and the Colosseum. 

(Comp. Sketch- Plan) . 

In the most ancient times the Capitol and Palatine were sep- 
arated by a deep and marshy valley. The pavement by the col- 
umn of Phocas lies 38 ft. above the level of the sea, and 22 ft. 
above the level of the Tiber, but was nevertheless frequently in- 
vaded by inundations. For the purpose of draining the marshy 
soil Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth of the kings, is said to have con- 
structed the Cloaca Maxima, which still renders good service 
(p. 239). Tradition makes this hollow the scene of the conflict of 
tne Romans under Romulus against the Sabines under Titus Tatius 
after the rape of the Sabine women. After the hostile tribes were 
amalgamated into a single state, they chose the Forum as its centre, 
and here the most famous scenes in the history of the Roman Repu- 
blic were enacted. The chief axis of the Forum extended from the 
foot of the Capitol, sloping downwards towards the S.E. At its 
N.W. end it was adjoined by a smaller but more elevated square, 
known as the Comitium, where the popular assemblies were held 
in the earliest period. (Those larger and smaller squares have 
sometimes been compared to the Piazza and Piazzetta at Venice.) 
On the Comitium, which extended from near the Arch of Severus 
to the Via Cremona, lay the Curia Hostilia, or council-hall, which 
is said to have been erected by King Tullus Hostilius , and the 
Career Mamertinus (p. 228). In consequence of the removal hence 
of the Curia by Caesar and the construction of the Fora of the Em- 
perors, the Comitium square was completely altered even in anti- 
quity, and it is now entirely covered with buildings. — The Forum 
was originally used for trading-purposes, as a market-place, etc. ; 
and along its sides were ranged the Tabernae Veteres and Novae, or 
shops, which were originally occupied by butchers and other crafts- 
men, and afterwards by money-changers and goldsmiths. In the 
courseoftime a number of temples, public buildings, andmonuments 
were erected here. Soon after the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter 
(p. 198), were founded the Temples of Saturn (B. C. 497) and Castor 
and Pollux (484). The Temple of Concord (366) commemorates the 
termination of the protracted struggle between the Patricians and 
the Plebeians. At the period of the Samnite War, which resulted in 
the extension of Rome's supremacy over the whole of Italy, we are 
informed that the Forum underwent many embellishments. At 
last, however, as it was only 150 yds. in length, its area became too 
confined for the important and multifarious business transacted 
within its precincts ; for it was not used for political and commercial 
purposes only, but also for the celebration of the funerals of the 
nobility, for the gladiatorial combats introduced about the year 
264, and on other public occasions. The first expedient for gaining 
space was the erection of basilicas , or quadrangular courts sur- 



214 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. 6. The Forum 

rounded by colonnades, adjoining the Forum, with a view to draw 
off a portion of the traffic. In 184 Cato the elder erected the 
Basilica Portia on the N. side ; in 179 followed the Basilica JSmilia, 
and in 169 the Basilica Sempronia. The task was prosecuted with 
the utmost energy by Cesar , who extended the Forum by the ad- 
dition of the Forum Julium (pp. 227-229) , and appears to have 
projected a cutting through the hill which connected the Capitol 
with the Quirinal in order to facilitate communication with the 
new quarter, then rapidly springing up in the Campus Martins. 
He also transferred the council-hall to a new site, and erected the 
spacious Basilica Julia on the S. side of the Forum. Augustus 
proceeded to carry out the plans of his uncle, and to that emperor 
is chiefly due the arrangement of the Forum which the present ex- 
cavations are bringing to light. All the edifices of the Republic 
were restored by him and his successors, whose building operations 
extended without intermission over the first four centuries of the 
Christian era. External magnificence of public life, it would appear, 
was intended to compensate for the irrevocable loss of liberty and 
power. Five new fora, constructed between the time of Caesar and 
that of Trajan, adjoin each other on the N. side of the old Forum, 
thus connecting the central point of the original city with the palatial 
buildings of the Campus Martius. By these new fora the Forum of 
the Republic would have been well nigh eclipsed, but for the glor- 
ious traditions connected with it , to commemorate which it was 
profusely adorned with gilded bronzes and rare marbles , with 
columns, triumphal arches, statues, and works of art. 

These ancient buildings were restored for the last time in the reign 
of King Theodoric, in the first half of the 6th century. The last new 
monument erected in the Forum was the Column of Phocas, dating from 
608, but the rudeness of the architecture distinctly betrays the decline 
of the period. As early indeed as the first half of the 6th cent, had begun 
the war of extermination waged by the Middle Ages against paganism. 
Ancient temples were transformed into churches, such as those of S. 
Giuseppe, S. Luca, S. Adriano, S. Lorenzo, SS. Cosma e Damiano, S. Maria 
Nova, and S. Maria Liberatrice. These were afterwards frequently altered 
and restored, while others of the same class have entirely disappeared. 
Interspersed with these churches "were the towers and castles of the Roman 
nobility, demanded by the prosecution of their destructive feuds. Through- 
out a thousand years the edifices of ancient Rome were employed as quar- 
ries, from which churches and secular buildings alike derived their col- 
umns, their blocks of solid stone, and, owing to a still more destructive 
proceeding, their supplies of lime also from the burning of marble. The fact 
that in the Basilica Julia alone there have been discovered lime-kilns and 
stone-masons' yards at three different places will convey an idea of the vast 
quantity of marble, bearing valuable inscriptions and artistic enrichments, 
which must have been destroyed in this way; and it need hardly be observed 
that the bronzes of antiquity were still more eagerly appropriated in an 
age when metal of every kind was scarce. After the systematic destruc- 
tion of the Forum, followed its systematic burial in rubbish-heaps, so that 
the ancient pavement is at places 40 ft. below the present level of the 
ground. When the towers of the nobles began to be demolished about 
the year 1221, the ground appears for the first time to have been covered 
with an accumulation of rubbish. About 200 houses were pulled down 
during the construction of the triumphal street for the entry of Charles V. 



FORO ROMANO 



LATO OCCIDEITALE 



Scala 1:1000 

35 89 - 



H 

H 
H 

O 

H 
&3 



Aedicula 




Tempio di Vesta 






Tempio dei Castor i 



lemp 10 
di Satu mo 



Te m p i o 
dellaConcordia 



Monte Pal at i no 



Pal. del 
Senatore 



S. Maria 
Liberatrice 




Geograph. Anst.v. Wagner iDebes, Leipzig. 






LATO SETTENTHIOMLE 



Tabu lari o Capitolino 




eriptq -*■* Tempio della ConcoT 



di Vespasiano 



Palazzo del Senatore 




► 

H 

O 

> 

W 



DefConservtes ~j?atu£no Vespasiano 






Tempio de!la Concordia 



Romanum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 215 

in 1536 (p. 199J, which extended from the Porta S. Sebastiano through 
the arches of Constantine and Titus, and around the N. side of the 
Capitol. The large buildings erected by Sixtus V. probably also contrib- 
uted to the raising of the level of the ground. 

Down to the present day, the Forum was popularly known as the 
Campo Vaccino. Its desolate area was covered with the teams of buf- 
faloes and oxen of the peasantry, and mechanics established their workshops 
around it, while a few isolated columns alone protruded from the rub- 
bish. As early as 1519 Raphael had indeed formed a plan for restoring 
the ancient city, and especially the Forum ; and subsequently, particularly 
in 1546-47, several excavations were begun in the neighbourhood of the 
temple of Castor and Faustina. The object in view, however, being 
merely the discovery of monuments and works of art, the excavations 
were soon filled up again. At length the plan was revived by the modern 
spirit of investigation. In 1803 the arch of Severus, in 1813 the column 
of Phocas, and in 1816-19 the Clivus Capitolinus (p. 218) with its temple3, 
were disinterred under the superintendence of Carlo Fea. In 1835 and 
1848 part of the Basilica Julia was excavated by Canina, but from that 
year down to 1871 the work was discontinued. The Italian government 
resumed the excavations with considerable energy; and the rest of the 
Basilica Julia, the temples of Castor, Csesar, and Vesta, and the Atrium 
Vestae have been brought to light. When the demolition of the houses 
between S. Adriano and S. Lorenzo is effected, the most memorable spot 
in the history of Europe will at length be fully brought to light and 
purged of the unseemly accumulations of centuries, and an aspiration, 
formed when the Renaissance was at its zenith and since frequently 
revived, will be finally and satisfactorily realized. For the present, 
however, the costliness of the work and the requirements of the modern 
traffic unfortunately render the continuation of the excavations improbable. 

The Entrance to the excavations (open from 8 a.m.; pp. 126, 127; no 
fee) adjoins the Temple of Castor, near S. Maria Liberatrice (comp. the 
Plan). The part of the Forum next the Capitol, containing the Colonnade 
of the Twelve Gods and the temples of Vespasian and Concordia, is now 
enclosed by a railing and is best viewed from the busy street uniting the 
Via Bonella and Via della Consolazione, through which a tramway now 
runs (No. 7; p. 165). — Comp. Chr. Hulsen's Rekonstruhtion des Forum 
Romanum, Roma, 1892. 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol through the Via del 
Campidoglio to the right, past the Senatorial Palace (comp. p. 201), 
we enjoy a good *Sukyet op the Forum. To the left, below us, lie 
the temple of Saturn , to which the eight unfluted columns belong, 
the three columns of the temple of Vespasian, and the arch of Septi- 
mius Severus. Behind, partly hidden by the columns of the temple 
of Saturn, are the column of Phocas, the Basilica Julia, the three 
columns of the temple of Castor, and the bare walls of the round 
temples of Vesta and of the temple of Caesar. Beyond these, to the 
left, are the temple of Faustina, now converted into a church, and 
the circular temple of Romulus with the church of SS. Cosma e 
Damiano, opposite which are the remains of numerous brick shops 
and houses ; then the huge arches of the basilica of Constantine, the 
Colosseum , the arch of Titus , and to the right the ruins and gar- 
dens of the Palatine. 

The first building below the Tabularium (p. 212), in the angle 
formed with it by the street , is the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods 
(deorum consentium) , whose images were erected here in A.D. 367 
by Vettius Agorius Prastextatus, the praefectus urbis, and one of the 



216 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. 6. The Forum 

principal champions of expiiing paganism. In 1858 the ruin was 
much modernised. The chambers in the colonnade on the side next 
the Temple of Vespasian are generally hut erroneously called the 
Schola Xantha (a meeting-place of scribes and notaries). 

To the right of the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods the Tabula- 
rium is adjoined by the Ruin of the Three Columns, belonging to the 
Temple of Vespasian, erected under Domitian , and restored by 
Septimius Severus. The inscription ran thus: 'Divo Vespasiano 
Augusto Senatus populusque Romanus ; imperatores Caesares Severus 
et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti restituer(unt).' A part of the last 
word only is preserved. The columns and entablature display ex- 
cellent workmanship (restored cast in the Tabularium, see p. 212). 
In front the temple had 6 columns, 49 ft. high, and 4^2 ft. thick at 
the base. An egress from the Tabularium (p. 212) was evidently 
built up by the back-wall of the cella. 

Farther on, to the right, and with its back adjoining the Tabu- 
larium, is the Temple of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by 
M. Furius Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C. 7 
(p. 213). Its arrangement is remarkable. The Cella or inner space 
of this temple differs from the usual type in having its longer axis 
(130 ft.) at right angles to the longer axis of the temple ; it is 82 ft. 
wide. The N. part of the cella is concealed by the ascent to Aracceli. 
A broad flight of steps ascended to the Pronaos , which lay 20 ft. 
above the level of the street and was 88 ft. long and 46 ft. wide. 
The interior of the temple was frequently used in early times for 
meetings of the Senate, and after the restoration of Tiberius it 
seems to have served chiefly for the exhibition of works of art. 

The Sacra Via, or 'Holy Way', forming the chief line of com- 
munication between the Capitol and the Forum , passed in front of 
the buildings just named. The ancient pavement is still well pre- 
served for a considerable length near the Temple of Saturn (see 
p. 218) and at some other points. 

In order to continue our examination of the Forum we now pro- 
ceed to the entrance at S. Maria Liberatrice (p. 215), where a flight 
of wooden steps descends to the Temple of Castor. The view from 
this point, reinforced by a reference to the Plan, will help the visitor 
to understand the arrangement of the Forum. 

The *Temple of Castor and Pollux, generally called the Temple 
of Castor (Mdes Castoris or Castorum), was dedicated to the twin 
gods out of gratitude for the aid which enabled the Romans to defeat 
the Latins at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, and in- 
augurated in 484. It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius and re- 
consecrated in A.D. 6. This was one of the most famous temples of 
the Republic, and was often used for meetings of the senate. The 
remains consist of the basement and a piece of the stylobate on the 
E. side , with three splendid columns of Parian marble. 



Romanum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 217 

The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap- 
proached by a Flight or Steps (18 in number), with two lateral flights. 
The building was mainly constructed of concrete, which was faced with 
blocks of tufa, and around these were placed the blocks of travertine 
which supported the enclosing colonnade. These blocks, however, as well 
as the steps on the W. side, have entirely disappeared (although the im- 
pression made by them on the concrete is still visible), and the width 
of the building has thus been diminished by about one half. The three 
columns on the E. side are among the finest of the kind now existing 
(height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and the architrave 
are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The temple had eight 
columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. Scanty remains 
of the mosaic pavement of the Cella are still to be seen, lying about 
3 ft. below the level of the portico and the surrounding colonnade. This 
peculiarity was probably occasioned by the alterations made by Tiberius. 

Between the Temple of Castor and the Basilica Julia ran the 
Vicus Tuscus, a busy street leading to the Velahrum and the Forum 
Boarium, or cattle-market on the river (p. 238). 

The Basilica Julia was founded by Caesar with a view to enlarge 
the Forum ; it was inaugurated in B.C. 46, after the battle of Thap- 
sus, though still unfinished. Augustus extended it, but did not 
witness its completion, as it was destroyed by a fire. The building 
was again twice injured by fire towards the end of the 3rd century. 
It was restored several times, finally in A. D. 377. The building is 
mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., and it was 
probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial excavations, 
it was almost all extricated in 1871 and entirely so in 1882-83. 

The Geound Plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long 
and 53 yds. wide. A flight of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to 
it from the street. Along the four sides were double aisles which enclosed 
a Central Space, about 90 yds. by 17 yds., paved with variegated African 
and Phrygian marble, the costly nature of which indicates that the space 
was roofed over. The greater part of the pavement has been restored, 
a few fragments of the original only having been preserved. The sittings 
of the tribunal of the Centumviri, in four different sections, took place 
here. The Aisles were paved with white marble, on which are still seen 
a number of circles, and occasionally writing, scratched on the surface 
by visitors. These were used in playing a game resembling draughts; 
for the ancient Romans were as fond of pastimes as the modern. Of the 
Columns nothing but the bases remain; the blocks of which they con- 
sisted were used in building the Pal. Giraud in the Borgo (p. 267). The 
brick pillars have been reconstructed, in a manner indicated by some 
lingering remains and partly with the original materials. On the W. side 
the remains are somewhat more important, owing to the fact that a 
mediaeval church was built in this part of the basilica. Here, on the side 
next the street , still stand marble pillars adorned with Doric pilasters, 
while at the back, facing the Consolazione, are lofty walls of tuffstone 
and travertine. Steps ascended here to the upper story. 

The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima p. 239), discovered in 
1872, runs under the E. end of the Basilica Julia. 

The Vicus Jugarius (street of the yoke-makers) led between the 
Temple of Saturn and the Basilica to the Tiber. Between the Rostra 
and the Basilica the Sacra Via was spanned by the Triumphal Arch 
of Tiberius , erected in A.D. 16 to commemorate the defeat of the 
Germanic tribes and the recovery of the Roman insignia lost at the 
battle of the Teutoburgian Forest. Its foundations were scattered 



218 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. 6. The Forum 

in 1850 on the construction of a modern street, which, however, 
has since been itself demolished. 

The Temple of Saturn, of which eight columns are still stand- 
ing on a high basement, was consecrated by the consuls Sempro- 
nius and Minucius, B. C. 497, and restored by Munatius Plancus 
(about B.C. 44). From the earliest times it was the depository of 
the Mrarium Publicum, or public treasury. The inscription, Sena- 
tus populusque Romanus incendio consumptum restituit, refers to a 
later restoration, undertaken hastily and without taste. Of the lofty 
flight of steps by which the portico was approached there are now 
but scanty traces. 

In front of the Temple of Saturn is a piece of excellent road- 
paving, contrasting markedly with the rest of the paving in the Fo- 
rum, which is carelessly laid and of a late period. On the Clivus 
Capitolinus, or road ascending to the Capitol, near the Arch of 
Severus , are the conical brick remains of the Umbilicus Urbis 
Romae, or ideal centre of the city and empire. Traces have also 
been found on this road of the Milliarium Aureum, or central 
milestone of the roads Tadiating from Borne erected by Augustus in 
B.C. 28. 

Over the Sacra "Via rises the * Triumphal Arch of Septimius 
Severus, 75 ft. in height, 82 ft. in breadth. It was erected in honour 
of the emperor and his sons Caracalla and Geta in A.D. 203, to 
commemorate their victories over the Parthians , Arabians , and 
Adiabeni, and was surmounted by a brazen chariot with six horses, 
on which stood Severus, crowned by Victory. The letters of the 
inscription were inlaid with metal, as was usual in such cases. 
Caracalla afterwards erased the name of his brother Geta, whom 
he had murdered. The gap thus made was filled by the addition of 
the words 'Father of his country, the best and bravest princes', to 
the titles of Caracalla and his father. 

Above the arches are figures of Victory; at the sides, crowded scenes 
from the wars of the emperor. Side next the Forum : (1.), Raising of the 
siege of Nisibis in the Parthian war; (r.), Treaty with Armenia, Siege of 
Atra. Side next the Capitol: (r.), Siege and capture of Babylon; (1.), 
Crossing of the Euphrates and Tigris, Conquest of Ctesiphon and Seleucia. 
On the bases of the columns, Captive barbarians. All these figures are 
in the degraded style of the sculpture of that period. In the middle ages 
the arch was temporarily converted by the ruling powers into a kind of 
castle , and was deeply imbedded in rubbish , but it was unearthed by 
Pius VII. in 803. 

Passing through the arch and turning to the right, we see be- 
fore us the massive stone remains of the Rostra, or orators' tribune, 
erected by Julius Caesar. This tribune consisted of an extensive 
raised platform , about 80 ft. long and 40 ft. wide , adorned with 
statues and tablets, and giving the orator room to walk up and down 
during his speech. It has been aptly compared to the preaching 
stages in some of the Roman and Neapolitan churches. 

The original tribune derived the name of Eostra from the iron prows 
of the war-ships of Antium with which it was adorned after the capture 



Romanum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 219 

of that town in B.C. 338. Its position cannot now be definitely fixed, 
but was certainly nearer the Cnria (S. Adriano). Caesar transferred it to 
the end of the Forum in the course of his extensive building operations. 
The holes in which the iron prows were fastened are still visible in the 
massive blocks of hewn stone. 

The Rostra naturally faced the Forum proper, the space reserved 
for public assemblies. Most of this area is still covered -with houses, 
but the S. corner, paved with slabs of limestone, is open to view. 
Anciently it extended to the church of S. Adriano (p. 228), occu- 
pying the site of the Curia Julia, or hall of the Senate. Between 
S. Adriano and the temple of Faustina lay the Basilica ^Emilia, 
the site of which is also covered with modem houses. 

Opposite the Rostra , on a rude substructure of blocks of tufa, 
occupying part of the place used by the popular meetings, rises the 
latest monument of antiquity in the Forum, the Column of Phocas, 
54 ft. in height, which was erected in 608 in honour of the tyrant 
Phocas of the Eastern Empire, by the exarch Smaragdus, having 
been taken by him from some older building. It was formerly crowned 
with a gilded statue of Phocas. This column, which long formed 
the distinctive mark of the Forum (Byron's 'nameless column with 
a buried base'), was at length disinterred in 1813 at the cost of the 
Duchess of Devonshire. 

Among the monuments now standing on the pavement of the 
Forum, the first place in point of artistic execution and preservation 
is taken by a marble railing adorned with two admirable re- 
liefs ('Anaglyphd). These were found in 1872 incorporated in 
the foundations of a mediaeval building. They probably formed 
part of the decoration of the balustrade of the steps ascending to 
the Rostra. They represent events that took place in the Forum it- 
self, and their architectural backgrounds are of great assistance in 
determining its appearance in antiquity. 

The First Relief (next the Capitol) alludes to Trajan's 'Alimenta', or 
institution for poor children: on the right is the emperor, in front of 
him is Italy, holding a child by the hand (destroyed) , and another in 
her arms; on the left is the emperor with his lictors, proclaiming his 
edict from the rostra. In the background are a Triumphal Arch (which 
cannot, however, be more particularly identified), the Curia (with five 
Corinthian columns instead of six), a street, the Basilica iEmilia, the 
Ficus Ruminalis (or sacred fig-tree under which the she-wolf reposed), 
and the statue of Marsyas (which stood at the lower end of the Forum, 
near the Temple of Castor). All these were in or near the N.E. part of 
the Forum. — The Second Relief represents the remission of arrears of 
taxes, the records of which are being set on fire in Trajan's presence. 
In the background are the buildings on the N. and W. sides of the Forum : 
the Temple of Concordia (with six Corinthian columns), an arch (perhaps 
of the Tabularium), the Temple of Saturn (with eight Ionic columns), 
and the Basilica Julia, the Marsyas, and the fig-tree. On the inner sides 
are a wild boar, a ram, and a bull, the victims sacrificed at the public 
celebration of the Suovetaurilia. 

The subjoined Views of the S. and W. Sides of the Fokum (p.,216) are 
taken from a point in front of the Anaglypha. At the top are reconstruc- 
tions of the ancient appearance of the Forum , and below its present ap- 
pearance. In the former the flutings of the columns have been omitted 
for the sake of clearness. 



220 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. b. The Forum Romanum, 

In the middle of the paved square of the Forum are the remains 
of a large pedestal, perhaps of the equestrian statue of an emperor. 
The eight square pedestals of brick, which adjoin the Forum on 
the side next the S. branch of the Sacra Via, -were formerly coated 
with marble and probably bore large granite columns (fragments of 
which lie scattered about) surmounted with statues. The hasty con- 
struction points to a late origin, perhaps in the reign of Constantine. 

On the E. side of the Forum, and facing the Capitol, is situated 
the Temple of Caesar, near which Caesar had erected a new orator- 
ical tribune. It was from this tribune , at the funeral of the 
muTdered dictator on 19th or 20th March, B.C. 44, that Mark An- 
tony pronounced the celebrated oration which wrought so power- 
fully on the passions of the excited populace. A funeral pyre was 
hastily improvised, and the unparalleled honour accorded to the 
illustrious deceased of being burned in view of the most sacred 
shrines of the city. A column with the inscription 'parenti patriae' 
was afterwards erected here to commemorate the event. Augustus 
erected this temple in honour of 'Divus Julius', his deified uncle 
and adoptive father, and dedicated it to him on 18th Aug. B. C. 
29, after the battle of Actium. At the same time he adorned the 
tribune with the prows of the captured Egyptian vessels. 

The foundation of the substructures of the Ionic temple, consisting of 
concrete, were discovered in 1872, but their covering of solid stone has 
been removed. In front of the temple there are the remains of a plat- 
form, still partly paved with slabs of stone, which is believed to have 
been the above-mentioned tribune or Rostra ad Divl Julii. Its present 
form appears to have resulted from subsequent alterations. 

Between the Temple of Caesar and the Temple of Castor the 
remains of a Triumphal Arch of Augustus were recently found. 
This arch spanned the Sacra Via and formed the architectural 
termination of the Forum. 

Farther on, to the S.E. of the Temple of Castor, near the slopes 
of the Palatine, lies a group of buildings connected with one of the 
most venerable cults of Rome, that of Vesta. The circular concrete 
erection surrounded with blocks of tufa belonged to the celebrated 
Temple of Vesta, in which the sacred fire was kept alight by the 
Vestal Virgins. Numerous fragments of its marble entablature, 
columns, and cassetted roof strew the ground. The workmanship 
of these is somewhat careless, dating apparently from the restora- 
tion of the temple in the 3rd century of our era. — Behind the 
temple of Vesta are some mural remains of a small jEdicula, or 
shrine for the image of a god, erected according to the inscription 
by the Senate and People of Rome. 

Adjoining the yEdicula are a few steps and a side-entrance leading 
to the *Atrium Vestse, or Palace of the Vestal Virgins. The extant 
ruins are of carefully constructed brickwork , which has almost 
entirely lost its marble facing. They date from the 1st and 2nd 
cent, of our era. The whole building falls into three divisions : a 



# the Sacra Via. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 221 

rectangular colonnaded court, corresponding to the Atrium in pri- 
vate houses ; the dwelling-rooms of the Vestals, grouped round a 
lofty square apartment, resembling the ordinary Tablinum ; and 
the kitchen and offices to the right, behind the Atrium. 

The Court, 224 ft. long and 75 ft. wide, is the most extensive part 
of the building. It was surrounded by a two-storied arcade, with columns 
of veined green cipollino marhle below and red breccia corallina above. 
The middle of the court was probably occupied by fountains and flower- 
beds, in order to make it as pleasant as possible for the Vestals, who were 
confined to their palace t>y their vows like the inmates of a nunnery. 
The court was also adorned with statues of Head Vestals (Virgines 
Vestales Maximae), of which eleven are still preserved in whole or in 
part, some showing excellent workmanship (the best are now in the Ther- 
mae Museum, p. 147). The intervention of the Vestal Virgins was often 
very effective in procuring appointments to official and even military 
posts, and the inscriptions on the bases of some Of the statues show that 
they were erected by grateful relatives and other recipients of such favours. 
The names (Numisia Maximilla, Terentia Flavola, Flavia Publicia, Coelia 
Claudiana, Terentia Eufilla) belong to the 3rd and 4th cent. (201-364 A. D.). 
At the inner end of the court is a marble-lined cistern for the reception 
of rain-water, as a venerable precept of their cult forbade the priestesses 
to use either river-water or water conveyed through artificial channels. 

The second division of the palace consists of the Dwelling Rooms. 
In the middle is a lofty square room approached by steps. On each side 
of it are three doors giving access to three cells, each of which is supposed 
to have belonged to one of the six priestesses. — There were other apart- 
ments in the upper floor, of which, however, a part only, including several 
bath-rooms, has been preserved. A wooden staircase ascends from one of 
the apartments on the S. side. Here also is an exit leading to the Nova 
Via, which diverged from the Sacra Via at the Arch of Titus (p. 223). 

The third group of rooms, behind the Atrium, to the right, was 
used for Domestic Purposes. A mill, a kitchen, and several store-rooms 
may he here observed. 

"We now return to the Temple of Vesta and continue our walk 
along the Sacra Via. 

Between the temples of Vesta and Faustina are a few fragments 
of the marble walls of the Regia, or official quarters of the Pontifex 
Maximus. The Fasti preserved in the Capitol (see p. 206) were 
found here. At the Regia the Sacra Via was spanned by the Arch of 
the Fabii, erected in B.C. 120 by Q.Fabius Maximus, the conqueror 
of the Allobrogi, and forming the S.E. boundary of the Forum. A 
few scattered fragments of its stone-facing and vaulting have been 
discovered, and may now be seen opposite SS. Cosma e Damiano. 
The exact site of the arch cannot be identified. 

Farther on in the Sacra Via, on a base 16 ft. above the street 
and formerly reached by a flight of steps, is the — 

*Temple of Faustina, of which the portico (with ten columns, six 
of which form the facade) and part of the cella are still standing. 
It was dedicated by Antoninus in A.D. 141 to his wife, the elder 
Faustina, and re-dedicated to that emperor also after his death. The 
first line of the inscription , Divo Antonino et divae Faustinae ex 
8.C., was then added. In the interior of the temple is the church 
of S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The portico was excavated in 1807 and 1810. The columns are of 
cipollino, or marhle of Euboea, and are 46 ft. in height. The cella is of 



222 III. Southern Quarters. ROME. b. The Forum Romanum, 

peperino, the marble incrustation of which has entirely disappeared. — The 
year of the foundation of the church is unknown, and the earliest record 
of it dates from 1377. The facade was erected in 1602. The entrance is 
at present in the Via di S. Lorenzo in Miranda, on the S.E. side. 



A hill, named the Velia in ancient times, connects the Palatine 
and Esquiline, its highest point heing marked by the Arch of Titus 
(97 ft. ; p. 223). The Sacra Via ascends gradually towards the S.E., 
and soon reaches — 

SS. Cosma e Damiano (PL II, 19 ; entrance in the Via in Mi- 
randa), built by Felix IV. (526-30), haying been incorporated 
■with an ancient circular temple erected by the Emp. Maxentius to 
his son Romulus, and sometimes erroneously called a temple of the 
Penates. Owing to the dampness of the soil, Urban VIII. raised 
the level of the pavement so much in 1633 , that an upper and a 
lower church were formed. 

The Lowek Chuech, which retains its old bronze doors with their an- 
tique lock, contains the tomb of SS. Cosmas, Damianus, and Felix, an an- 
cient altar, remains of an ancient pavement., and somewhat lower a spring, 
said to have been called forth by St. Felix. It is otherwise uninteresting. 

Upper Chuech. On the arch of the choir and in the tribune are "Mo- 
saics of the 6th cent., the period of the founder, perhaps the most beautiful 
of their kind at Rome (see p. lviii), but freely restored ahout 1660 (best 
light in the afternoon). Those on the arch, which has heen shortened 
during a restoration, represent the Lamh with the Book with seven seals, 
according to Revelation iv.; adjoining these the seven candlesticks, four 
angels, and two of the symbols (angel and eagle) of the Evangelists. The 
arms with wreaths, helow, belonged to two prophets. In the tribune: 
Christ , to whom the saints Cosmas and Damianus are conducted by Peter 
and Paul ; on the left side St. Felix (new) with the church, on the right 
St. Theodoras. Beneath , Christ as the Lamh , towards whom the twelve 
lambs (Apostles) turn. 

At the hack of the church were found the remains of an ancient 
plan of Rome (see p. 203). The ancient wall to which the plan was affixed 
belonged to the Templum Sacrae Urbis, an edifice erected by Vespasian 
in A.D. 78 and restored by Septimius Severus, which seemsto have been 
used as a repository for the archives of the censor, municipal plans, re- 
gistration lists, etc. 

"We next reach, on the left, the three colossal arches of the *Ba- 
silica of Constantino (PI. II, 19, 22) , erected by Maxentius, but 
afterwards altered by his conqueror Constantine, whose name it 
bears. The entrance originally faced the Colosseum, but afterwards 
the Sacra Via. It was a basilica of three halls, with vaulting of vast 
span, which has served as a model to modern architects, as in the 
case of St. Peter's, where the nave-vaulting is of the same width. 

The Ground Plan is rectangular in form, over 100 yds. long and 88 yds. 
wide. The principal apse, opposite the entrance from the Colosseum, has 
lately been extricated from rubbish, but is only partly preserved. After the 
opening of the second entrance on the side next the Palatine, a second 
apse was added. The barrel vaulting of the S. aisle has heen preserved ; 
width 66 ft., depth 54 ft., height 78 ft. The span of the nave was ahout 
80 ft.; its height 112 ft., and its width 66 ft. In front of the central 
pillars stood eight huge Corinthian columns of white marble ; the only 
one now existing stands in front of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 153). The 
entrance facing the Sacra Via was formerly adorned with columns of red 
porphyry, some of the shafts of which have been re-erected. 



$ the Sacra Via. ROME. HI. Southern Quarters. 223 

The roof of the building commands a magnificent Panorama of ancient 
Rome; but it is at present inaccessible until the completion of the new 
ascent from the Via del Templo della Pace. We enjoy an imposing view 
of the Colosseum, to the left of which are the Thermae of Titus on the 
Esquiline, to the right the circular S. Stefano, and nearer, SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo with its dome, both on the Caelius. Beyond the Colosseum the 
Alban, and to the leit the Sabine Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the 
rains of the imperial palaces and two monasteries, and the opposite bank 
of the Tiber with the Villa Pamphilj. Towards the W. the Capitol; to 
the right of it, between the domes of two churches, Trajan's Column is 
visible; above the latter Monte Mario; farther to the right the Quirinal. 



Adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and partly occupying the 
site of a temple of Venus and Roma (see p. 223), is the church of — 

S. Frances ca Romana (PI. II, 22), originally S. Maria Nova (in 
contradistinction to the earlier S. Maria, p. 233, which stood among 
the ruins of the temple of Augustus). The church, which was restored 
in 1216 by Honorius III. after a fire and at several other periods, 
contains the tomb of Francesca de' Ponziani (d. 1440), who was 
canonised in 1608 and has given the church its present name. The 
facade, by Carlo Maderna, was added about 1612. 

Interior. On the right, 2nd Chapel: (r.) Monument of Card. Vulcani 
(d. 1322) and (1.) that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Rido 
(d. 1475), with an equestrian relief of the deceased. 3rd Chapel : Miracles 
of St. Benedict, altar-piece by Subleyras. In the Tkibune mosaics of the 
12th cent, (restored in 1891) : in the centre Madonna, (1.) SS. John and James, 
(r.) Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an ancient Madonna, tradition- 
ally attributed to St. Luke, which is said alone to have escaped destruction 
in the conflagration. To the right of the apse : monument of Gregory XI., 
who transferred the papal residence from Avignon to Rome (d. 1378), with a 
relief by Olivieri. Here on the right, built into the wall, are two stones on 
which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt when they prayed for the 
punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a group of the saints with an 
angel, by Meli. Under the tribune (closed) is the tomb of the saint, and 
over the altar a marble relief by Bernini. — Sacbisty. On the left wall a 
Madonna with four saints, by Sinibaldo Ibi, a pupil of Perugino, 1524. 

Adjoining the church, on the summit of the Velia (p. 222) and 
at the foot of the Palatine , rises the * Triumphal Arch of Titus, 
commemorating the defeat of the Jews (A.D. 70), and dedicated to 
him under his successor Domitian in 81, as the inscription on the 
side next the Colosseum records : Senatus populusque Romanus divo 
Tito divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano Augusto. The single arch is 
embellished with fine reliefs (p. xlix). 

Outside : On the same side as the inscription is a sacrificial procession 
On the frieze. Ihside : Titus crowned by Victory in a quadriga driven by 
Roma; opposite, the triumphal procession with the captive Jews, table 
with the show-bread, and candlestick with seven branches. In the centre 
of the vaulting, the consecrated emperor borne to heaven by an eagle. — In 
the middle ages the arch was used as a fortress by the Frangipani, and 
strengthened with baitlements and new walls. When these were removed 
in 1822, the arch lost its support, and had to be reconstructed, as stated 
by the inscription on the other side. The central part, in marble, is there- 
fore alone ancient; the restored parts are of travertine. 

The street descends past the remains of private houses to the 
Colosseum. [To the right diverges the Via S. Bonaventura, with 



224 HI. Southern Quarters. ROME. b. The Colosseum. 

the monastery of S. Bonaventura ; the garden, open to gentle- 
men, contains a fine palm and commands a beautiful view.] On 
the left is the double apse of the Temple of Venus and Roma (PI. 
II, 22), erected by Hadrian from a plan by himself in A.D. 135, and 
restored after a fire by Maxentius in 307. This was one of the most 
superb temples in Rome. The gilded bronze tiles were removed to 
St. Peter's by Honorius I. in 626. 

There were evidently two temples under the same roof, entered from 
the sides next the Colosseum and next the Capitol. The cellse were 
adjacent, so that there was a niche on each side of the central wall for 
the image of a god. One half, with a well-preserved apse, is built into 
the former monastery of S. Francesca R,omana (p. 223), which is now 
occupied by the Directors of the Excavations ; the other half towards the 
Colosseum is open. The temple was peripteral, with ten columns at the 
ends, and twenty at the sides (length 120 yds., width 08 yds.). It was sur- 
rounded by a colonnade of about 150 columns, 180 yds. long, andllUyds. 
wide, projecting as far as the street, where it was supported by massive 
substructures. To this colonnade belonged the granite shafts scattered 
about here. The cellse were encrusted with the rarest marbles. 

Descending hence towards the Colosseum, we reach the so-called 
Meta Sudans, the partly restored brick interior of a magnificent 
fountain erected here by Domitian. To the right we see the Arch 
of Constantine (p. 226). To the left (N.) we observe the remains 
of an extensive square Basis of masonry. Here from the reign of 
Hadrian stood the gilded bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of 
the sun, surrounded with rays, and about 118 ft. in height, executed 
by Zenodorus by order of the emperor himself, to grace the golden 
palace which he erected with lavish splendour after the burning of 
Rome in A.D. 64. The palace fell to decay soon after Nero's death 
in 68 (p. xxix). In the space occupied by an artificial lake in the 
gardens of Nero, Vespasian founded the — 

** Colosseum (PI. II, 22), originally called the Amphitheatrum 
Flavium , the largest theatre, and one of the most imposing struc- 
tures in the world, completed by Titus in A.D. 80. It was in- 
augurated by gladiatorial combats , continued during 100 days, in 
which 5000 wild animals were killed , and naval contests were ex- 
hibited. It was injured by a fire under Macrinus (217), and was 
restored by Alexander Severus. The building has been known since 
the 8th cent, under its present name, derived probably from the 
colossal statue of Nero. 

In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated the 1000th anniversary of the 
foundation of Rome with magnificent games. In 405 gladiator-combats 
were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with the precepts of Christianity, 
which had prevailed since Constantine, hut wild-beast fights were continued 
till after the time of Theodoric the Great. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum 
was used by the Roman barons, especially theFrangipani, as a fortress. In 
1312 the Annibaldi were obliged to surrender it to Emp. Henry VII., who 
presented it to the Roman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman nobility 
again introduced bull-fights. After this period, however, the destruction of the 
Colosseum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded as a kind of 
quarry. In the 15th cent. Paul II. here procured materials for the con- 
struction of the Pal. di Venezia, and Card. Riario for the Cancelleria, in 
the 16th cent. Paul III. for the Palazzo Farnese, and in 1703 Clement XI. 



6. The Colosseum. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 225 

for the Harbour of the Ripetta. Benedict XIV. (1740-58) was the first to 
protect the edifice from farther demolition by consecrating the interior to 
the Passion of Christ, referring to the frequency with which the blood of 
martyrs had flowed there. Pius VII. and Leo XII. averted the imminent 
danger of the fall of the ruins by the erection of huge buttresses. — Until 
1871 the ruins were clothed with a luxuriant vegetation, the removal of 
which, in connection with the excavatinns, has sensibly diminished the 
picturesque appearance of the remains as preserved for us in old views. 

The Colosseum is almost wholly constructed of blocks of trav- 
ertine, originally held together by iron cramps ; tufa and bricks have 
been used only in the interior. The numerous holes were bored in the 
middle ages, for the purpose of extracting the then very valuable iron. 
According to the most trustworthy statistics the external circum- 
ference of the elliptical structure measures 576 yds., or nearly one- 
third of a mile, the long diameter 205 yds., the shorter 170 yds., 
and the height 156 ft. The still preserved N.E. portion, on the side 
next the Esquiline , consists of four stories, the three first being 
formed by arcades, the pillars of which are adorned with half-columns 
of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
stories respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian 
pilasters forms the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories, as appears from the representations on 
ancient coins. At the ends of the diameters are the four triple 
Principal Entrances , those next to the Esquiline and Caelius 
(at the end of the smaller axis) being destined for the emperor, the 
others for the solemn procession before the beginning of the games, 
and for the introduction of the animals and machinery. On the side 
next the Esquiline are seen traces of the stucco-decorations, which 
were used as models by Giovanni daUdine, the pupil of Raphael. The 
arcades of the lowest story served as entrances for the spectators, and 
were furnished with numbers up to lxxvi (Nos. xxiii to liv still 
exist), in order to indicate the staircases to the different seats. 

The Interior had seats for 87,000 spectators. The tiers of seats 
are supported on the outside by two rows of arcades, and on the in- 
side partly by a massive substructure. Every fourth arch contains a 
staircase ; while the tiers of seats are intersected by passages. The 
foremost row of seats, called the Podium , was destined for the em- 
peror, the senators, and the Vestal Virgins. The emperor occupied a 
raised seat, called the Pulvinar, and the others had seats of honour. 
Above the Podium rose three other classes of seats, the first of which 
was allotted to the knights. The humbler spectators occupied the 
highest division, in a colonnade, on the roof of which were stationed 
sailors of the imperial fleet for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth 
over the whole amphitheatre to exclude the glare of sun. Apertures 
are still seen in the external coping, with corbels below them , for 
the support of the masts to which the necessary ropes were attached. 

The arena was 93 yds. long by 58 yds. wide. Beneath it and ad- 
jacent to the foundations of the inner wall, were chambers and dens 
for the wild beasts. More towards the centre were found a number 

Baedeker. Italv II. 11th Edition. 15 



226 17/. Southern Quarters. ROME. 6. The Colosseum 

of walls, pillars, and arches, partly required for the support of the 
arena, and partly connected with the theatrical apparatus employed 
to hoist up from below the scenery, properties, etc. required in the 
combats with beasts, and other performances. 

Although one-third only of the gigantic structure remains, the 
ruins are still stupendously impressive. An architect of last century 
estimated the value of the materials still existing at l 1 ^ million 
scudi, which according to the present value of money would be equi- 
valent to at least half a million pounds sterling. The Colosseum has 
ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the 
8th cent, to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims : — 

'While stands the Colosseum. Rome shall stand, 

"When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the World I' 

The TJppek Stokies should be visited by those who desire to obtain 
a distinct idea of the character of the structure (staircase in the second 
arch to the left of the entrance opposite the temple of Venus and Soma; 
50 c). Of the three arcades on the first story we follow the innermost, 
which affords a survey of the interior. Over the entrance from the Pal- 
atine a modern staircase of 48 steps ascends to the 2nd, and then to 
the left to a projection in the 3rd story. The View from the restored 
balustrade to the right in the 4th story, to which 55 more steps ascend, 
is still more extensive. It embraces the Caelius with S. Stefano Rotondo 
and SS. Giovanni e Paolo; farther off, the Aventine with S. Balbina, in 
the background S. Paolo Fuori; nearer, to the right, the Pyramid of 
Cestius ; to the right the Palatine, with the arches of the Aqua Claudia. 

The Colosseum is profoundly impressive by Moonlight, or when 
illuminated (e.g., by Bengal lights ; comp. p. 128), which permits the general 
mass to produce its effect unimpaired by the ruin of the details. The traveller 
should avail himself of a fine moonlight night for the purpose. Visitors 
may enter the arena at any hour of the night, but a special permesso 
of the Ministry is necessary for access to the tiers of seats. 

To the S.W. of the Colosseum, between the Caelius and Pala- 
tine, spanning the Via Triumphalis which here joined the Sacra 
Via, stands the — 

*Triumphal Arch of Constantino (PI. II, 22), the best-preserved 
structure of the kind in Rome, erected after the victory over Maxen- 
tius at Saxa Rubra, near the Ponte Molle (p. 335), in 312, where 
Constantine declared himself in favour of Christianity. The inscrip- 
tion runs thus : Imp. Caes. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Au- 
gusto Senatus Populusque Romanus, quod instinctu divinitatis mentis 
magnitudine cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus 
factione uno tempore justis rem publicam ultus est armis arcum trium- 
phis insignem dicavit. The arch, which was converted into a castle 
in the 10th cent., and afterwards belonged to the Frangipani, was 
laid bare in 1804. It has three passages. The greater part of the 
ornamentation and the admirable Sctjlptuhes were brought from a 
building of Trajan (not, however, as usually supposed, his trium- 
phal arch) which stood at the entrance to Trajan's Forum, contrasting 
strongly with the rude additions of the time of Constantine. 

From the Period of Trajan : Above, Statues of captive Dacians (seven 
ancient; but one of them, and the heads and hands of the others, are new). 



& the Thermae of Titus. ROME. J 1 1. Southern Quarters. 227 

Beliefs (facing the Colosseum, to the left): 1. Trajan's entry intoRome; to 
the right of it, 2. Prolongation of the Via Appia; 3. Trajan causing poor 
children to be educated; 4. Trajan condemning a barbarian. On the 
other side, to the left: 5. Trajan crowning the Parthian king Parthamas- 
pates ; 6. Soldiers bringing two barbarians before Trajan; 7. Trajan 
addressing the army; 8. Trajan sacrificing. The eight Medallions below 
these reliefs represent sacrifices and hunting-scenes; on the narrow sides 
two battles with the Dacians; below the central arch, the vanquished 
imploring pardon, and Trajan crowned by Victory. — The marked con- 
trast between the two different periods of art is exhibited by the smaller 
reliefs inserted below the medallions, representing the achievements of 
Cobtstantine in war and in peace. 

On the opposite side, a few hundred paces to the S.E. of the 
Colosseum, a small bridge at the beginning of the ViaLabicana leads 
to the left to the entrance of the — 

Thermae of Titus (PI. II, 25 ; adm., pp. 126, 127) ; visitors should 
be careful not to enter these ruins in a heated condition. Maecenas 
once had a villa on the Esquiline, in this neighbourhood, which was 
afterwards incorporated with the golden palace of Nero. On the site 
of the latter, in A.D. 80, Titus hastily erected his sumptuous 
Thermae, which were altered and enlarged by Domitian, Trajan, 
and others. The Thermae themselves, though still nearly entire in 
the 16th cent., have now almost vanished; some fragments of them 
are scattered over the vineyards between the Via Labicana and the 
Via S. Pietro in Vincoli. The small part now accessible, excavated 
in 1813, belongs almost wholly to Nero's building. 

The nine long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to the 
building of Titus and formed together the substructure of a large semi- 
circular Exedra, such as is found at the Thermae of Diocletian, Caracalla 
(p. 246), and others. Farther on are Nero's buildings, which form an 
angle of 45" with the axis of the Thermae. Here we first enter a suite of 
seven rooms opening off each other ; to the left, near that in the centre, 
are remains of a fountain. The special purpose of these rooms cannot be 
definitely settled. Their chief interest lies in the beautiful mural paint- 
ings (much injured and badly lighted), which served as models for Gio- 
vanni da Udine and Raphael in the decoration of the loggie of the Vatican. 



c. Fora of the Emperors. 

The Tkamwat No. 7, p. 2 of the Appendix, passes Trajan's Forum. 

In the plain to the N.E. of the Forum of the Republic lay the 
Fora of the Emperors , which were erected rather as monuments to 
their founders and ornaments to the city than for political purposes, 
and were chiefly used for judicial proceedings. The chief edifice 
in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium , the first 
of the kind , was begun by Caesar and completed by Augustus ; the 
second was built by Augustus. A third, in front of the Templum 
Sacrae Urbis (p. 222), was constructed by Vespasian. Between 
this forum and the first two lay the Forum Transitorium, begun by 
Domitian and completed by Nerva. The series ended on the N. 
with the magnificent Forum of Trajan. 

We begin our inspection at the N. corner of the Forum Romanum, 

15* 



228 ///. Southern Quarters. ROME. c. Fora of the Emperors; 

where the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo (p. 201) , descending 
from the Capitol, unites with the Via di Marforio (p. 165). 

Here, in the Via di Marforio, lies the small church of 8. Giu- 
seppe dei Faleynami (PI. II, 20), which is built over the Career 
Mamertinus, one of the most ancient structures in Rome (entr. from 
the church ; light supplied by the sacristan, */2 &■)• This was ori- 
ginally a well-house, named Tullianum, and thence traditionally 
attributed to Servius Tullius, and it was afterwards used as a prison. 

It consists of two chambers, one below the other. The upper is an 
irregular quadrilateral, which was probably once adjoined by other similar 
chambers. An inscription on the front records a restoration in 22 A.D. (?). 
The lower chamber, which was originally accessible only through a hole 
in the ceiling, is 19 ft. long, 10 ft. wide, and 61/2 ft. high. The vaulting 
is formed by the gradual projection of the side-walls until they meet. It 
contains a spring, which, according to the legend, St. Peter, who was 
imprisoned here under Nero , miraculously caused to flow in order to 
baptise his jailors. The building has therefore been named <S. Pielro in 
Carcere since the 15th century. In this dungeon perished Jugurtha, Ver- 
cingetorix, and other conquered enemies. Sallust, in recording the 
execution of Catiline's confederates, describes the prison almost exactly 
as it now exists. — 'In the prison is a chamber named the Tullianum, 
about 12 ft. below the surface of the ground. This is surrounded by walls 
and covered by a vaulted stone roof ; but its appearance is repulsive and 
terrible on account of the neglect, darkness, and smell.' 

A little to the E. the Via Bonella reaches the Forum. At the 
end of it, to the right and left, are the churches of SS. Martina e 
Luca and S. Adriano, both erected on the sites of ancient build- 
ings. SS. Martina e Luca (PI. II, 20) consists of an upper and 
lower church, the latter of very ancient origin, and the former 
erected in the 18th cent, by Pietro da Cortona. — S. Adriano, con- 
secrated as a church by Honorius I. in the 7th cent, and afterwards 
frequently restored, occupies the site of the Curia Julia, the new 
senate-house built by Caesar and Augustus (comp. pp. 213, 219). 
The brick walls of its unadorned facade date from the time of 
Diocletian. 

No. 44, Via Bonella, adjoining SS. Martina e Luca, is the 
Accademia di S. Luca (PI. II, 20), a school of art founded in 1577 
and re-organised in 1874. The first director was Federigo Zucchero. 
The picture-gallery of the Academy is a second-rate collection, but 
may be visited if time permit. The chief works are Raphael's Gar- 
land-bearer in the second saloon and Giulio Romano's copy of the 
Galatea in the Farnesina. — Admission, see pp. 126, 127. 

We ascend the staircase , into the walls of which are built a few 
casts from Trajan's Column (disfigured with whitewash). On the first land- 
ing is the entrance to the collection of the competitive works of the pupils 
(closed) : KesseVs Discus-thrower reposing, in plaster ; Christ on the Mt. of 
Olives, drawing by Ludwig Seitz ; reliefs by Thorvaldsen and Canova; Ganymede 
watering the eagle, by Thorvaldsen, and several casts from the antique. 

We ascend another staircase, and ring at the entrance to the — 

Picture Gallery C/2 fr.). A small Ante-Chamber (with engravings, etc.) 
leads to the I. Saloon, lighted from above. Entrance-wall: \. Early Nether- 
landish School, Descent from the Cross. 2. Carlo Maralta, Madonna; on 
the back of this picture there is an interesting copy, by Marc Antonio, of a 




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Forum of Augustus. ROME. 111. Southern Quarters. 229 

•Sketch of the first design of Raphael's Transfiguration (figures nude ; original 
supposed to have been lost); 3. Rubens, Venus crowned by the Graces (col- 
oured sketch) ; 10. Van Dyck, Madonna. — End-wall : 21, 24. Jos. Vernel, 
Sea-pieces; 23, 25. Orizzonte, Landscapes. — Wall facing the entrance: 31. 
N. Berchem, Roman Campagna; 36. Mylens, Admiral Kortenaar (1636); 
39. School of P. Veronese, Toilette of Venus ; 40. Gauli, Birth of John the 
Baptist ; 153. Giulio Romano, Copy of Raphael's Galatea in the Farnesina ; 
43. Guido Reni, Cupid. — Short wall: 52. J. Vernet, Sea-piece. — The 
saloon is adjoined on the right by a Room, containing modern works, 
most of them painted in competition for academical prizes. To the right 
of this room is the Biblioteca Sakti, containing 15,000 vols., chiefly 
relating to art (adm., p. 125). — To the right is a Small Room, with 
portraits of artists. 

II. Saloon. 57. Gerard David, Madonna and saints; 58. Copy of Titian, 
Pope Paul IV. with his favonrites (original in Naples); 59. School of Titian, 
Vanitas; 61. Copy of Titian, St. Jerome (original in the Brera); 72. Raphael, 
St. Luke painting the Madonna (studio-piece); 73. Copy of Titian, Tribute- 
money (original in Dresden); 77. Guercino, Cupid and Venus (fresco); 
78. Raphael, Boy as garland-bearer, being a relic of a fresco from the Vati- 
can, sawn out of the wall, and freely retouched; 79. Copy of Titian, 
Discovery of the guilt of Callisto (original in London); 81. Spagnoletto, 
St. Jerome disputing with the scholars. 

III. Saloon. On the wall to the right; 91. Sic. Poussin, Bacchic dance; 
103. Guido Cagnacci, Lucretia, an admirable work of this master, a painter 
of no great note belonging to the school of Guido Reni; 107. Paolo Vero- 
nese (?), Susanna; 108. Dom. Pellegrini, Hebe; 109. Palma Vecchio (?), Su- 
sanna. — Opposite the entrance, 116. Guido Reni, Bacchus and Ariadne. 
On the long wall to the left: 122. Albani, Madonna; 131. Sassoferrato, 
Madonna; 133. Guido Reni, Fortuna. 

The two small rooms adjoining Saloons II. and III. contain nothing 
of moment. 

To the N.W. of SS. Martina e Luca and the Academy lay the 
Foetjm op Cesar, or Forum Julium, the centre of which was oc- 
cupied by a Temple of Venus Oenetrix. Some remains of the mas- 
sive enclosing wall, of tufa and travertine, may be seen in the court 
of No. 18, Via delle Marmorelle. 

The Via Bonella, which intersects the busy Via Alessandrina 
(p. 230), leads to the ruins of the Forum of Augustus (PI. II, 20). 

Augustus had vowed a temple to Mars Ultor (Mars the Avenger) during 
the battle of Philippi, and afterwards resolved to combine with its erection 
the formation of an extensive forum, for the Forum Romanum and Forum 
Julium were no longer large enough for the greatly increased legal busi- 
ness of the city. The acquisition of the necessary area was costly; densely 
populated streets had to be pulled down ; and individual proprietors 
placed difficulties in the way of Augustus, who was unwilling to resort to 
forcible expropriation. His architect was therefore compelled to accom- 
modate his plans to an exceedingly irregular site, the difficulties presented 
by which were, however, most skilfully evaded chiefly by the construction 
of the large exedrae in the sides of the bounding-wall. During the middle 
ages the low-lying forum was reduced to a swamp (whence the name of 
the district '.Paratano'); Pius V. and Gregory XIII. caused the level of the 
ground to be much raised for their new streets. The small church of 
S. Basilio (destroyed at the beginning of the present century) and the nun- 
nery of the <SW. Annunziata were built in and near the temple. The col- 
umns of the latter were exhumed in 1842, and the great Exedra on the 
S. wall laid bare in 1888-89. 

The back of the Temple of Maes Ultok, dedicated on the 12th 
May, 2 A.D., adjoined the E. enclosing wall of the forum. The 



230 111. Southern Quarters. ROME. c. Fora of the Emperors; 

three beautiful Corinthian columns with the entablature belonged 
to the colonnade on the right side. The temple was richly adorned 
with works of art, and contained the Roman banners captured from 
Crassus by the Parthians at the battle of Carrhae and restored to 
Augustus in B. C. 20. Victorious generals deposited here the insignia 
of their triumphs ; and the imperial treasure (aerarium militare) was 
preserved in the cellars of the lofty substructure. To protect the 
temple and its valuable contents from Are and other dangers, the 
forum was enclosed by a massive wall of peperino blocks, which is 
still in good preservation on the side next the Esquiline. The large 
Exedra or circular recess in the S. bounding-wall has several rows 
of smaller niches, the lowest of which were occupied by bronze 
statues of generals who had enjoyed triumphs, while inscriptions 
(elogia), placed by the emperor's decree, announced their deeds. 
The costly pavement of the forum lies 20 ft. below the present 
level of the ground. 

The Arco dei Pantani, an ancient gateway, beside the three col- 
umns of the temple, leads to the Via di Tor de' Conti, so named 
from a fortified tower erected to the S.E. of the Arco dei Pantani 
by Marchionne of Arezzo in the pontificate of Innocent III., who 
was a member of the Roman family of Conti, The greater part of 
the tower was carried away at the beginning of the 17th century. 
We proceed to the right beyond the gateway along the outside of a 
massive wall and then turn to the right into the Via della Ceoce 
Bianca, which crosses the site of the Forum of Nerva, sometimes 
called the Forum Transitorium from having been intersected by an 
important street. Here stood a temple of Minerva, the marble of 
which was used by Paul V. for the decoration of the Acqua Paola 
(p. 321), and a small temple of Janus. Remains of the external walls 
exist in the so-called *Colonnacce, two half- buried Corinthian col- 
umns, with entablature enriched with reliefs (representing the 
practice of the arts, weaving, etc. , which were specially protected 
by the goddess ; casts of them in the Acadtfrnie Franchise p. 136) ; 
above them is an attic with a Minerva. This fragment, situated at 
the intersection of the Via Alessandrina and Via della Croce Bianca, 
is well calculated to afford an idea of the former grandeur of the 
structure. 

The Via Alessandrina leads hence, crossing the Via Bonella 
and the site of the Forum of Augustus (see p. 229), to the Piazza 
del Foeo Tkajano (PI. II, 20). 

The *Forum of Trajan was an aggregate of magnificent edifices, 
and is said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus (111- 
114). By means of a huge cutting between the Capitol and the 
Quirinal, Trajan effected a convenient communication between the 
Fora of the ancient city and the Campus Martius (pp. 213, xxix). 
His forum measured about 220 yds. in width , and was of still 



Forum of Trajan. ROME. III. Southern Quarters. 231 

greater length ; and it was considered the finest of the many magnifi- 
cent constructions in Rome. 

Ammianus (16, 10) thus describes it on the occasion of the visit of 
the Bmp. Constantius in 356: — 'But when he reached the Forum of 
Trajan, a work which, we suppose, is entirely unique and which even 
the gods cannot help admiring, he stood still as if thunderstruck, permit- 
ting his eyes to wander over the gigantic edifices, the description of which 
transcends the powers of speech and the like of which can never again 
be attempted by mortals.' According to a legend of the 7th cent., Gregory 
the Great, while admiring the ancient splendour of the forum one day, 
and saddened by the thought that so just and benignant a monarch as 
its founder should be condemned to everlasting perdition, succeeded by 
his prayers in obtaining the release of Trajan's soul from purgatory. In 
the 10th cent, this forum lay in ruins , and the church of S. Nicola had 
been erected by the column. This was succeeded by other churches. 
In 1587 Sixtus V. crowned the column with a bronze statue of St. Peter. 
At length, in 1812-14, the French government partly brought to light